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Introduction: Indigenous Education and Perspectives
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Indigenous peoples had to suffer a lot due to colonisation they have to suffer a lot of injustice. With the arrival of the British in 1788 indigenous were massacred by various regional people including Europeans. In the current situation, the life of the indigenous people is in a much lower position as compared to the Australian general people. Indigenous people are suffering from poorer health, illness, poverty and unemployment. They had to sacrifice for their survival and many of the aborigines lost their lives as they were suffering from poverty and lines.
Part A: Historical Event
The current population of aborigines is over 700000, which accounts for 3% of the Australian population they are the descendant’s peoples of Australia and is living for 50000 years. During the time of colonisation, it was examined that 320000 indigenous people were living in Australia. Major of the ingenious suffered from illness and few of them flee to the Murray River valley and the southeast part. At the time of colonisation, many aborigines have to suffer many diseases, which cause loss of life, and many of the people lost their occupation and their land. The research found that 80000 people survived during 1930 and major of the indigenous lost their lives of flee away to different regions
Effect of colonial on Aboriginal cultural
The health of indigenous people has suffered a lot during the colonisation. The aborigine children were forced to be removed from their families. The aborigines used to live in small groups in Australia with a huge expansion. “These small family groups had rules and kinship systems for socializing” (Aihw.gov.au, 2022). They had a responsibility related to well being of the aborigines and various other responsibilities including resource management, education, spiritual development and education. They were well-developed and strong people in Australia with effective traditions, customs, languages and ceremonies.
On the arrival of the European colonisation, the aborigines have to face a lot of injustice and were evicted from traditional territories. They were relocated to different areas, which include missions and reserves. They were also subjected to mass killing and those who were not killed were not provided with customs rights as well as they were also prohibited from their traditional rights. Colonisation was termed as the violence, loss of diseases and massacre. They had suffered a lot from the violence and diseases colonisation has stolen aborigines' generation by snatching their children from their families (Evolves.com.au, 2022). The destruction of the cultural rights of the indigenous people had a huge effect on people, which lasted for a long term. This resulted in the loss of mental as well as physical health. Despite the torture, their tradition has remained and been followed for a long period.
The present population of aborigines is 881600 and it is estimated to be 1.1 million by the end of 2023. The population of the indigenous people has increased to a huge extent and expanded to major cities where 38% of aborigines are present in major cities. 44% of the population has been noticed in the inner and outer regions of their region's areas (Aihw.gov.au, 2022). They were also noticed in regional and remote areas. The government of Australia has been providing effective support to the aborigine community by providing equality in every sector. The government is supporting the aborigines with proper alignment of the people in decision making in regional and local sectors. The government of Australia is working in a specific sector to empower the aborigines. The government has introduced a huge number of programs and provided effective funding to the aborigines for effective and well-maintained life. The government is empowering the candidates and providing effective support to take part in decision-making and form government in the central position. The areas that set an example of community empowerment include cape York, Inner Sydney, East Kimberley, Central Coast, NSW, Goulburn Murray, West Kimberley, East Kimberley, “Ngarrindjeri, South Australia and Ngaanyatjarra Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands” (Niaa.gov.au, 2022). The government of Australia has provided support of $5 million for the empowerment of the community and completed a detailed design of the model.
The government of Australia has provided huge support to the community by funding an amount of $31 million in recent six years until June 20 in the year 2022. The government is providing proper support to the aborigine's leaders to promote the facilities of the aborigines. The government of Australia is proving joint ventures for the different leaders of aborigines for identifying the basic needs of the community. The government of Australia is also identifying the priorities of the aborigines and providing support accordingly. It has targeted a few major aspects of the development areas, which include social, cultural and economic.
Impact of colonisation on Agricultural, diseases and violence
The European culture had cleared the land, occupied their land, and preconceived cold-climate ideas for landscape by occupying the ownership of land. The community use different farming methods for the production of food, which include fire stick farming and ensuring the sustainability which food production. The colonial aspects have destroyed their land and formed a negative impact on resource management. The indigenous people also faced huge deaths due to violence it was noticed that around 20000 aborigines were killed due to violence. Around 1500 to 3000 aborigines were killed in frontier conflicts it was also expected that many of the aborigines were hunted and killed on many occasions. They were also mass killed during the shooting in the crowd. Aborigines also have to face many infectious diseases, which include epidemic diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox. The aborigines were also the victim of sexual harassment of women and women. This caused widespread venereal diseases in the community and many of the women and girls.
Now the aborigines are facilitated with effective high-quality health and provide primary health care to the Aborigines. “Most of our funding for Indigenous primary health care is provided to over 140 ACCHSs through the IAHP” (Health.gov.au, 2022). These facilities are provided to bring the aborigines to the mainstream of health care services. The government of Australia has taken a few steps for improving the land facility of the aborigines by providing a 50% of Australia's land mass to the Aborigines (Niaa.gov.au, 2022). The government is allowing effective land opportunities to the aborigines by providing reconciliation.
Part B: Teaching and learning with Indigenous perspectives
It is concluded in this study; drawing on recent research conducted by organisations related to an indigenous community, models for early childhood education are positioned. Mainstream educational policies are effectively required for informing prospective development (Townsend-Cross, 2004). This study examined the nature of embedding Indigenous histories and cultures (IHCs) being taught across a detailed range of schools in Western Australia. A personal account of life experiences concerning the concept of early childhood by indigenous Australian women and non-indigenous communities is required. Talking about their culture Aboriginal or "Torres Strait Islander Communities" were not able to be receptive to activities and needs appropriate material for delivering specific curriculum activities (Education.vic.gov.au, 2022). In this way, it can be considered while taking help of learning practices traditional culture and expression considered and rights must be respected. The implications of this study are important as the cultural majority is unaware of the perspective of this specific type of cultural diversity people. There are different negative stereotypes included around specific people who belong to this diversity persist as unchallenged at the stages of early childhood education (Booth, 2019). It is also important to respond to creativities in a variety of individual ways and consider active learning in primary education with such perspectives. Both teachers and students need to be concerned about a flexible communication style at the same time working with "koorie communities" is also necessary to prefer the education model followed by other communities in Australia. In Victoria, it is a complex thing for a teacher to consult with community members due to not being aware of their diverse style and the linguistic issue is another important problem that is faced by their side. Additionally, the teacher should also advise community members regarding sensitive issues faced by these specific groups of children. For example, including indigenous art in the community by delivering information related to age, and likely questions specific learning approaches are considered. Introductory protocols are another specific area where the learner needs to spend their time and understanding these in a detailed way, residents and people are involved and this way opinions should be acknowledged and valued. Immediate and extended families have different values with a variety of indigenous people consulting different family obligations on previous allegations made at the school desired result can evaluate.
Australian teachers know well that prosperous knowledge does not happen when the transmission is delivered to students in an isolation period. In this way, a cross-curriculum priority is important in primary education for contributing across and indigenous knowledge across all aspects of Australian culture through various ages of Australian history. "Aboriginal music and visual arts practises with pre-service teachers and develop their knowledge of and exposure to Aboriginal creative literacies". It is also essential for Australian students to get a genuine opportunity to get aware of Torres Strait people and Aboriginal Islander peoples across learning areas and all levels. This culture and history are meaningful for them embedded in relevant content. To do so, this event could be taught in primary school through a balanced national story. It cannot be effectively delivered by getting detailed information about science or Math, a complete story with the help of music, arts and cultural dance is an important reliable source of teaching those students about a specific culture. The department of Education and Teaching plays an important role in it, as particular history did not learn in primary school and that can make people racist towards every term that is evaluated in history.
The aborigines were facing a huge loss regarding the injustice during colonisation. They faced huge violence illness and loss of basic needs for fulfilling their requirement of the aborigines. They faced a huge loss of tradition as well as land during the time of European colonisation. The present situation has changed a lot the aborigines are provided with proper empowerment and decision-making in local and regional areas. They are also provided with proper health care facilities and primary care for weal aborigine people.
- Booth, S. (2019). Teaching and learning indigenous histories and cultures: at the intersection of school culture and curriculum. https://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/2192
- Townsend-Cross, M. (2004). Indigenous Australian perspectives in early childhood education. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 29(4), 1-6. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/183693910402900402
- Aihw.gov.au,2022. 1 Introduction (The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal ... Available at:https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/a5aa4dee-ee6d-4328-ad23-e05df01918b5/18175-chapter1.pdf.aspx#:~:text=Colonisation%20severely%20disrupted%20Aboriginal%20society,their%20ability%20to%20support%20themselves. [Accessed on 20/12/2022]
- Aihw.gov.au,2022. Profile of Indigenous Australians. Available at:https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-welfare/profile-of-indigenous-australians [Accessed on 20/12/2022]
- Education.vic.gov.au, 2022. Retrieve on [20/12/2022] from: https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/teachingresources/multicultural/Pages/koorieculture.aspx
- Evolves.com.au, 2022. Impact of Colonisation on Indigenous Australians. Available at:https://www.evolves.com.au/impact-colonisation-indigenous-australians/ [Accessed on 20/12/2022]
- Health.gov.au, 2022. Primary care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Available at: https://www.health.gov.au/topics/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-health/primary-care [Accessed on 20/12/2022]
- Humanrights.gov.au, 2022. The Australian Human Rights Commission Retrieve on [20/12/2022] from: https://humanrights.gov.au/about
- Niaa.gov.au, 2022. Empowered Communities | National Indigenous Australians ...Available at: https://www.niaa.gov.au/indigenous-affairs/empowered-communities [Accessed on 20/12/2022]
- Niaa.gov.au, 2022. Land and Housing | National Indigenous Australians Agency Available at: https://www.niaa.gov.au/indigenous-affairs/land-and-housing [Accessed on 20/12/2022]