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Introduction - Understanding And Leading Change

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P1 Ways in which change impacts an organisation’s strategy and operations.

  • Analysation of the term ‘Change’ in a business context

As per the secondary research, organizational change is considered as the movement of an organisation from a stage of events or incidents to another. It might include a change in the structure of the industry, policies, procedures, strategy, culture or technology. The change in an organisation might be planned and trying to develop from years in progress or might be enforced on an organisation as there is a shift in the environment (Investopedia, 2021). The change, vary, alter or modification of the organisational structure is the mode of becoming different. As analysed by different articles, the change implicitly creating either a crucial dissimilarity frequently adds up to a loss of the native identification or a replacement of one thing for another. This has a huge impact on the organizational structure as a whole where there is a majority shift to company goals, operations, personnel along service offerings would be considered as the formation of an organisational change (, 2021). It has also been identified that quick change can compel the businesses to restructure along by making quality changes to employ their competitive advantage.

  • Types of organisational change:(structural, strategic, people, processes, planned and emergent change)

Structural change- As per the research articles, structural change determines the considerable shift in the method in industry, country or the markets functions generally brought on by the crucial financial developments (Investopedia, 2021). The key to the impact of the structural change is the energy or passion which is instinctive in that system. The structural change also highlights the significance of the qualitative transformation along with the development or advancement of the financial systems generally marked by the technological progression along with the organisational change (, 2021).

Strategic change- Strategic change is considered as the movement of a company which is known as its current state towards some preferred future state to enhance and enlarge its competitive advantage. It is mainly an approach or technique that helps to bring about conformity among the strategy of the organisational structure along with the systems human resources as well as the larger environment (, 2021). The factors which are influencing the change in the business might be internal or external to the organisational business.

People: The individual in the organization can always be affected by the organizational change which is at the core of what we do as a change leader (Investopedia, 2021). Helping each of these individuals in order to adopt the change is simply the appropriate way to treat the individuals. This change happens one person at a time. Gradually the personnel changes involve firing and hiring of an individual along with the organizational changes, promotions and voluntary quits or acquisition.

Processes: this brings an outcome of the lifecycle which is considered as the ongoing procedure improvement wherein the changes in the procedure are day to day evaluated, modified and monitored (, 2021). When there is a requirement for the enhancement which is discovered, the procedure chase starts to begin by demonstrating the initialisation along with the end as well as setting objectives and goals for the change.

Planned change- It is a procedure of preparing the whole organization or a particular part of it for setting out new directions and goals. The directions can be referred to the internal structures, procedure, culture, rewards and metrics or any relevant aspects (, 2021).

Emergent change: The demonstration of emergent change is based on the supposition that change is a continual, unpredictable and open-ended procedure of alignment and development of an organisation to its changing environment. It is a policy of rapidly advancing along with shipping working characteristics and improvements (, 2021).

  • The impact of change in two organisations (TESCO and ASDA)




Their organization is a geographic-based eco-friendly culture. Also, their employee empowerment is higher as compared to others. It has a flexible working environment along with distributed values and beliefs (Investopedia, 2021).

It provides a positive impact on the culture and structure of the ASDA as it helps to deliver the boundaries of purpose along with the roles of the workers. This also helps to deliver the sensation of identification to the workers of this organisation. 


Tesco is trying out the newest ‘shop and go’ technology that permits the consumer to pay and scan for their goods on their mobile phones without walking down to the store. Gradually, the Co-op has previously established and adopted the pay-in-the aisle technology. With the help of technology, they improved the scanners, checking out the cameras along with better self-service were being utilised for the reduction of queues (, 2021).

It helps to deliver good services along with modern information technology (IT) which is acknowledged to be the outcome of a meeting among the interaction, communication and digital computation technologies. The significance of information technology (IT) is considered as the information system which comprises a cluster of interaction among the data, software, hardware, people social and their organisational environment.


They mostly advertise on sales promotions. Their marketing strategy makes an exclusive utilisation of media and print advertising effectively in order to deliver marketing interactive messages to the potential and existing consumer. Their aim is to gain the trust of the stakeholders towards their brand.

ASDA follows the price along with the pricing strategy. It trails the lower cost agenda in terms of offering lower prices to its consumers. It is devoted to providing the consumers with unique and excellent value for money around its whole range of general merchandise, clothing and foods (Investopedia, 2021).


The team of HR (Human Resources) at Tesco efficiently directs and instructs its workers towards the goals of the organisation. They generally concentrate on directing the goals of the Human Resources from transactional to strategic, having an assurance regarding the effectual path forward-thinking business ideas along with the innovations (, 2021). 

ASDA follows the Job Creation strategy along with its achievements where it recruits the individuals (colleagues) based on their personality and traits other than their skills and qualifications. They correspondingly train their successful individuals to establish and enhance their skills and abilities. The procedure of recruitment generally initiates while opening a new store prior to 20 weeks.


The production procedure of Tesco is very crucial as it helps to change the inputs and outputs of the organization to produce and sell goods that help to produce the requirements of the consumer. Production takes place with the resources known as the components or raw materials changed into products and goods.

In ASDA the operation management involves the undertakings which are included in the procedure of distribution and production of the goods and services.


P2 The influences that drivers of change have on organisational behaviour

  • Analysation of the meaning ‘drivers to change’.

According to the research, the change driver is defined as the internal or external compulsion that configure the change to an organisation. This involves change to the plans, designs, strategy, products and services along with operations. The following is considered as the common change drivers initiating with the internal drivers as well as progress the internal persuasion (Pop, 2021). Drivers to Change (DoC) is considered as an approach established by DFID to direct the lower number of linkages between the political framework of the country along with the functions of the development agencies. The approach concentrates on the coaction of finance, political and social factors that reinforce or hinder the reduction of poverty (, 2021).

  • The internal and external drivers of changes.

The change is considered as unavoidable and unpreventable along with one of the prime intensities behind enhancement, progression and strengths. For changes, nonprofits and special technology, there can be a game changer (Pop, 2021). According to the research, the change in the organisation helps to increase and grow the efficacy of the working procedures, that will help the organisation to make for uttermost satisfied consumers along with the workers. A newest delivery procedure can increase the frequency in which the consumer might receive the merchandise. There are two types of drivers of change: Internal and External.

Internal: These drivers are considered to be the hard part of recognition and articulation, whereas, if they do not take a part on, they might come up with unsuccessful projects. Advertising to both the internal along with the external drivers is referred to as the key to the succession (, 2021). There is way too much concentration on the individual who can conduct challenges. This includes the:

- Cultural peremptory

- Behaviour of the Leader and employee

- Mindset of the leader and workers

External: These are the drivers of change are the ones which the leaders are most awarded and familiar with as well as it will frequently think on first while demonstrating the fundamental cause of the change along with the proposition of the effect of the change (Cloud for Good, 2021). Correspondingly, the external drivers might require a change to fulfill the changing the requirements and the demands of the stakeholders or conceivable to align the internal systems for the reduction of the overhead costs that permits for a more internal flow of informative data. This includes the:

- Organizational environment

- Requirements of the marketplace for sucesion

- Business peremptory

- Organisational peremptory

  • Ways in which internal and external drivers of change affect leadership, team and individual behaviour within your chosen organisation.

The internal factors that generally require more concentration on Tesco are the change in organisational culture. The approach of execution of change is the prime key for Tesco. Organisational change is termed as the capability to adapt to the variation of organizational transformations which are agonised by the environment inside or outside through learning and development. It is a cluster of differences on the structure of sufferings and organisations that have an outcome in a new organisational trait (Small Business -, 2021). As per the research, it has been illustrated that TESCO has discovered a crucial and specific change in regards to establishing and executing a self-service look through system throughout its network. The execution of this newest payment system in the organisation TESCO is unpredictably a strategic plan change. It has been caused because of the self-checkout system considered as the newest system that varies from the normal to ethical or traditional payment terms in accordance to bringing out the transaction. Gradually, the cash payment necessitated the operations through a narrator but the look through system does not require any cashier (Small Business -, 2021). The system of self-service carries out a newest process or an approach to benefit the consumers.

The utilisation of the newest system serves the consumer in a greatest way as well as it delivers greater service without requiring to spend way too much time in the TESCO store. The self-checkout system was introduced into TESCO for the client in order to improve the shopping experience as well as it also benefits them for easier shopping. The administration of the TESCO has modified a democratic style of leadership which is also considered as the participant leadership according to what the voices of the workers are being heard during the decision making (Black Tulip, 2021). The impact of leadership of TESCO inspires and motivates the workers as well as due to this, TESCO continues to deliver the goods and services to their consumers. It somehow affects loss of increased turnover and loyalty in the organisation along with the growth of the time away from the work. It also helps in the changing of life caused by the restructuring of the organisation and their working structure. One of the particular changes in the retail market has been accomplished in the establishment of online shopping (Black Tulip, 2021). Correspondingly, the uttermost retailers like TESCO, have to transfer the new changes that have currently been influenced by the way the functions. TESCO has adopted a collect and click services in order to meet and accomplish this newest change in the organisation.

P3 Measures that can be taken to minimise negative impacts of change on organisational behaviour.

  • Change can be perceived both as positive and negative.

The personnel and philosophical change in an organisation might have a positive influence on the workers morale and attitudes. According to secondary research, a change in the human resources (HR) philosophy helps to permit for a more satisfied working environment considered as the casual dress code which was being acknowledged by the workers (Smart Business Magazine, 2021). A change in an organisation conducts to many positive and adequate factors that conducts to a commission a competitive verge as well as the remaining pertinent in the business area. The change generally inspires and motivates innovation, establishes and develops the skills and staff along with conducting to the better business opportunities as well as improving the employee morale. Gradually, the positive impacts are considered as enhancing the new business opportunities, inspiring and motivating the business innovation (Smart Business Magazine, 2021). It also helped in the increased business efficiency along with improving the workers morale and attitudes.

Some of the organisational changes necessitated major resulting and restructuring in extensive life changes for a variation of workers. Some of the typical changes are considered as the negative influence on a proportion of the workers are known as the loss of benefits, salary cuts, job losses, relegating in job position or the movement to another city, state or the country. Some of the negative impacts of the organisational change is considered as the cost-to-benefit ratio where the change is never free or independent as well as the internal resistance where the organisational change (, 2021). It gives rise to the lack of knowledge, communication and interaction among the members of the organisation regarding the coming changes occurring in the workplace environment along with the fear of the unknown. It also has a vast impact on the organisation such as wrong solutions.

  • The negative impacts of change can be minimized. Strategies/methods/ways would be recommended?

When the organization is facing the negative impact of organisational change, the individuals of the organisation's needs to focus on the specific things such as:

Brand- The brand can be enhanced by how the individuals can perceive it through the working performance along with the value that has been delivered by the company. It should be oriented by the measurable outcomes. The individual requires to identify the ways that helps to distribute the tiers of impact with the prime and significant decision-maker and influencer (, 2021). The possible action for the organization is to upgrade the company’s social media profile in order to reform the organisational environment so they can schedule the key decision-makers.

Relevance- Generally, with the quick stride of the business, it is essential and crucial to stay side by side of the new procedures, industry leaders and technologies. The organisation requires to understand where they are desiring to have an impact by aligning the goals with the role or industry. The possible action for the organization is to get a certification of sharing or distributing the works among each other at a conference, by taking an online course or joining the newest association or the group of industry relevant with the work (, 2021).

Sponsors- These are the individuals who help to appropriately present the organisation in a method that helps to enhance the possible opportunities in the workplace. The sponsors are considered to be more than mentors or advisors where they can grasp their social capital to benefit the organisation (investors in People, 2021). The possible action for the organization is to document the current works in order to recognise the possible areas of negative impact along with creating those opportunities to fulfil the possible sponsors in order to help and align the future opportunities of the organisation.

  • The advantages and disadvantages of each method identified.

Through the above-mentioned ways, it has been identified that the organizational change can benefit the company Tesco in different ways which involves better operational efficacy, increased products, along with the skills to recover them rapidly after unpredictable events (, 2021). Gradually, without the skills to change, the organisation will serve to the new procedure without the newest adaptations. Some of the negative impacts of the organisational change is considered as the cost-to-benefit ratio where the change is never free or independent as well as the internal resistance where the organisational change give rise to the lack of knowledge, communication and interaction among the members of the organisation regarding the coming changes occurring in the workplace environment

  • The use of systems theory and continuous improvement models to predict and proactively plan for change.

System theory: the system theory is considered as the approach or method to the organisations which helps to equate the firms to an organism with the interrelated parts, each of them with their own significant operations along with the interconnected responsibilities (, 2021). The prime goal or aim of the system theory are to modify the dynamics of the system along with the conditions and constraints as well as to interpret the principles (tools, methods, purpose and measures) that helps to discerned along with the application to the other systems at each tiers of nesting, with a broad range of fields for accomplishing the increased equifinality. The system theory is known as one of the controlling organizational theories in the procedure of management in today's generation (Investors in People, 2021).

Continuous improvement model: According to the secondary research, the continuous improvements is considered as a continual, longer term approach in order to enhance and develop the procedures, products and services. In regards to the change management, the continuous improvements happen generally and wish or desired to make smaller progressive change over the time. However, the continuous improvement model has four options for an organisation. The continuous improvement is considered as the ethos, by means of which the organizations attempt to always look for better ways to do things (Leadership Teamwork Change, 2021). Gradually, the evolutions of the services, products, workflows along with the better feature or outlook of the organisation so that might help the organisation to become more efficient and stronger over time. It is also essential to note that the continuous improvement projects can also be a part of the large change management advantage. Correspondingly, the continuous improvement always looks after to improve and to change the procedure of business in order to increase the reduction or the efficacy of the costs.

  • Utilisation of the Burke-Litwin model to make the change process more efficient and effective.

The performance and the change model Burke-Litwin were established in the year 1992 by the two organisational change advisors, is considered as a tool and technique utilised in the organization to understand the elementary parts of the organisation along with how they are relating themselves in a change of time. One of the common reasons for a change is to start with failing in all the areas of the organisation which got influenced by the unpredictable change which are not responsible for (Abbas, 2021). Henceforth, by utilizing the model might divulge regarding the areas of the business in the organisation which gets influenced and find out how they are interconnected with each other. The model of Burke-Litwin’s also highlights the hierarchical factors within the organisation and henceforth the flow of the effect from one factor to the next. It has an undeviating influence on the strategy and mission, organisational culture along with the leadership. Correspondingly, it has also been identified that the transactional change will influence the management practices, structure, process, system and the working environment (Leadership Teamwork Change, 2021). Considering both the transactional and transformational changes, there is an influence on the organisational performance along with motivational tiers of the individuals.


P4 Determination of how barriers to change influence leadership decision-making

  • Various types of barriers change

According to the research, the change is termed as one of the few confidences and conviction in the working lives of the individuals in Tesco. Nevertheless, Tesco, with its company size or their experience in the leadership team, where the organization or the leadership is confined to experience in different variations of transition (Expert Program Management, 2021). But, if an individual in Tesco is in a leadership role, generally considered as the extraordinary position to plan and to anticipate for the change in order to augment its advantages along with mitigating the disruption in Tesco. There are a few common barriers of change that are required to look through.

- Lack of interaction and communication

- Lack of strategic direction

- Lack of consistency

  • Identifying the factors in a vast way

Lack of interaction and communication: a successful organizational change is almost termed as a successful interactive exercise. As per Tesco, one of the biggest reasons for the organisational failure is when there is not an accurate implementation and the execution of frequent and transparent communication. The intentional and the proactive interaction helps to mitigate the individual change resistance (tutor2u, 2021). Tesco should set the transparent expectations, interact possible timelines along report organisational progression in order to plan the regular intervals.

Lack of strategic direction: the communication has always been the key to the leadership for Tesco but it will become unsuccessful when there is a lack of cohesive message or a lack of direction. From the moment they initiated to plan or execute any kinds of organizational change which will be initiated by the organisational objectives (tutor2u, 2021). Tesco should set the measurable and transparent objective that helps to accomplish the objectives. There should be a strategic communication system in the organisation.

Lack of consistency: during the organizational transition or change in Tesco, some of the coherent discordance is inevitable. The individual team will experience an incentive increase in their workload where they disgracefully identify several ways in which the newest way of accomplishing things in the organisation (considered as the newest business software platform).

  • The type of change and the impact

The leading change within the organisation (TESCO) can be a part of struggle generally if the workforce feels that the change has been obstructed with their own initialisation. The succession of the change initiated frequently on how their employees direct their physical and mental energy tiers which are trying to accomplish the organizational planned change (Success, 2021). The proactive change is highlighted that it has started by an organisation as it is satisfactory to do so. The reactive change is a change that helps to initiate in an organisation because it has been made compulsory by the outside forces (Expert Program Management, 2021). Focussing on the energy might help the organization to become successful. This change will help to identify the reflective traits in a purposive behaviour.

Instance difference have been identified in the below table:




Upsetting and impractical

Helps in positing the entire team to be empowered

Desirable in nature

Focus on transformation

Identifies the common business errors

Becomes necessary for outsourcing

Introduces notion to a new direction

Resorted the concept ‘Change or Die’

Anticipates issues, needs and possible outcomes

(Source: Self-Creation)

Identifying barriers through change management models

Kotter and Schlesinger, Lewin’s force field analysis and Schein’s organizational models:

Kotter and Schlesinger: The barriers are identified through the Kotter’s and Schlesinger as it delivers an empirical and examined way to think about where the individuals of the organisations fear that they will not be able to establish the newest abilities and behaviours (traits) that will be necessitated for them. It proposes that an essential deceive technique and procedure is to co-opt inventory (Cultivated Management, 2021). Co-option includes the condescended gesture in bringing up an individual into a change management for the cause of appearances other than their unessential contribution. 

Lewin’s force field analysis: It is a field of analysis where the barriers can be recognised which is utilised to differentiate which portion within a condition or organisational drive of an individual towards the satisfied state. Here, the identified barrier is that the groups or the individuals are affected by the prevent forces, or the hurdles that bench the positive and adequate that shove the direction that give rise to change in the organisation. 

Schein’s organizational model: It is a method that identifies barrier in demonstrating the conceptualisation of the culture along with a way it affects the organisations (Cultivated Management, 2021). It is considered as a dynamic model of learning as well as a group of dynamics. It is a pattern of adequate assumption which helps the organisation to cope up with the problems of the internal incorporation and external conversion.


P5 Application of a range of leadership approaches to a change initiative.

  • leadership approaches

The situational leadership help is considered as the flexible leadership style, it is a strategy that encourages all the leaders to look into a stock of their group members, contemplate many variations in the workplace as well as it helps to select the leadership styles that fits in to their circumstances and goals (, 2021). In today’s generation the leader can no longer conduct the exclusively varies on the positional power. There are various situations in the situational leadership approaches which is significantly accurate.

Different leadership approaches:

The term "leadership" has indeed been described in a variety of ways by numerous academics. Most leaders adopted one leadership approach, a mixture of theories, as well as their own leadership ideology in an attempt to be successful. The following are the key qualities of a good leader: (a) the opportunity to detect using the most valuable intelligence, (b) the way to reward as well as collaborate with everyone, (c) the opportunity to control chances and pursue along, (d) the capacity to deal on a variety of levels; and (e) the potential to behave like a process analyst who understands how uncertainty impacts their job (MacKie, 2017).

The capacity to inspire people and manage organisational behaviour are also important aspects of leadership. It goes without saying that it is highly reliant on good contact. When it comes to reducing employee frustration, leadership is crucial. Performance appraisal of power and influence is also a part of good management. There are four different paths to leadership in general. Leadership theories include traits theory, behavioural theory, contingency theory, as well as charismatic theory.

Trait approach:

The very first leadership principle has been the Trait Approach. It was solely based on the leader as well as the skills and attributes that are required to be a successful leader. Even though it is an earlier leadership philosophy, it is also important since this charismatic strategy, a more modern theory, stressed characteristics such as self-monitoring, interest in perception management, desire to acquire social influence, as well as determination to achieve personality in charismatic leaders (Foti and McCusker, 2017). The traitorous approach held that capacity for leadership is inherent, not created, or that such traits unique to leaders serve as identifying indicators between them and others. One such approach assumes that an entity does have a set of behaviours that are partly formed by his character and help to differentiate him from everyone else.

Figure 1: Trait of Charismatic leadership

(Source: Self-created)

Awareness, mental endurance, willpower, honesty, and physical and emotional resilience, according to the method. The approach assumes that such leadership characteristics are inherent in both leaders and organisations that have leadership. Furthermore, trait theories ignored the impact of influencing variables. The difficulty with the trait method is that quite so many characteristics were discovered as experiments were conducted (Walls, 2019). Through years of research, it has become clear when no such characteristics might be found. Despite the fact that certain characteristics were discovered in a large number of trials, the findings were mostly incomplete. For instance, McDonald's has been able to create a respectable reputation in the eyes of its customers thanks to the stringent and consistent policy as well as the charismatic leadership trait theory. This has been capable of retaining its branding strategy while increasing profits by actively listening to the evolving requirements of its consumers.

Situational Approach:

One of the most often used theories of corporate leadership preparation as well as learning is the Situational Approach. The dynamic theory emphasises leadership in circumstances, as its title implies. The leader would adjust his or her style of leadership to the degree of advancement of his or her superiors. According to the situational approach, leadership is indeed a feature of a social context wherein the chief as well as the superior communicate. Chow et al. (2017) opines that leadership is a concept which applies to interactions amongst two or more people, and that every community would be a series of interactions and that each individual is directed towards the achievement. Each explanation of his relationships with other participants falls under this role. As a result, leadership seems to be the relationship between a person's identity as well as the democratic structure (Chow, Salleh, and Ismail, 2017).

Figure 2: Situational approach to leadership

(Source: Raza and Sikandar, 2018)

Whenever an agency's leader or boss must change his personality to suit the growth rate of the adherents he is attempting to manipulate, this is referred to as situational leadership. It is also the leader's responsibility to modify his approach of leadership, not really the follower's, in situational leadership. As a whole, the situational approach proves to be a fantastic technique for businesses to use in their governance initiatives (Raza and Sikandar, 2018). The situational approach to leadership is used by the majority of Fortune 500 businesses. In the retail industry, for example, HandM seems to be the perfect example of situational leadership since it is very progressive that allows individuals to build and implement their own concepts. Its Open-Door Policy allows all workers to freely address any employment issues effectively with their leader throughout positions where open and fair dialogue amongst the peers is valued as well as appreciated.

Initiation of change:

In order to lead the virtual team, excellent skills of communication are essentials based on which the employees could rely much on the leaders. It is worth mentioning that in terms of virtual communication, the teammates interact with others without being in the same place. Without the benefits of the non-verbal cues, it turns out to be harder for interpreting the real intention of what is to be said to the staff to thinking in the right manner (Jones, 2020). On that note, the team managers need to ensure a clear approach of communication with which the team members become able to understand themselves as well as the tasks through communication. For example, in order to lead the virtual team, patience is a key factor that makes the team comfortable virtually.

Figure 3: Change initiation process

(Source: Maduka et al. 2018)

Here, communication is used to address the issue of cultural barriers and language barriers. Particularly in the early days of the virtual team, the communication enhances the patient muscle wherein the things take longer interpersonal irritations to stay positive along with focusing on the goals to be achieved (Maduka et al. 2018). On the other hand, it is seen that in relation to the leadership, the risks of the virtual team lose the human element of the workplace for which the leaders are required to be skills highly for creating and building better rapport with their subordinates. For example, A daily face-to-face gathering, whether regularly or annually, will greatly aid in the development of healthy team partnerships. Often, ensure the most of any face-to-face time the leaders have by focusing on team-building tasks rather than notifications and monitoring, which can be accomplished just as effectively from afar.

The Great Man Theory of leadership:

Previously, leadership was supposed to be a trait shared largely with men. Therefore, the impression was labelled the great man theory. However, as a result, the upsurge of several countless female politicians, the idea developed recognised as the inordinate individual theory. According to the great man theory of leadership, certain conditions are associated with the requisite characteristics that distinguish them from others (Wiyono, 2019).

Figure 4: The Great Man Theory

(Source: Wiyono, 2019)

Based on the approach of this theory, it can be analysed that in terms of communication, the approach of the concerned theory depicts that some individual leaders are born with the necessary attributes that help in establishing them from the responsible traits as for assuming the positioning in regard to the authority and power (Stough, 2019). Here, in order to lead the virtual team, the theory implies the power to be deserved in accordance with the particular endowment. Furthermore, according to the hypothesis, these characteristics are stable over time and across diverse groups. As a result, it seems that all successful thinkers have these characteristics, irrespective of who and when they lived or what part they played in culture.

Change management concepts:

In order to analyse the change process of an organization, Kurt Lewin’s 3 stage model will be followed. The reason behind considering this model is it will help to provide an intuitive as well as the fundamental understanding regarding the ways to which the changes could occur. In the context of social behaviour therefore will be observed at a collective and individual level within the group. It is worth mentioning that in relation to the change initiative, the Lewin’s 3 stage model will help to provide both opposing and supporting directions for Recycling Program in the concerned organisation.

Analysing Kurt Lewin’s 3-stage model 

Lewin’s model is considered as one of the popular approaches to change management. Kurt Lewin established one of the change models that involves three steps such as unfreezing, changing as well as refreezing. According to Lewin, the change process entails making the perception that a change is required, after that moving towards the new as well as desired behavioural level and then eventually the firm solidifies the new behaviour as part of the organizational notion (Ro?ca, 2020). 

Following are the three stages of change management described by Lewin:

  • Unfreeze 

Unfreezing is considered as the first transitional change and is considered as one of the most critical stages in this overall process of change management. It includes improving the readiness and willingness among employees in order to make changes through fostering a realisation to move from the existing comfort to the situation that is transformed. This stage includes making the people aware of the immediate need for change (Lawery, 2020). Taking into account this fact, it can be analysed that in this stage, the organisations will be able to improve their motivation to accept the new working ways. In relation to the recycling program, herein, the employees of the concerned organisation are expected to be motivated or encouraged to the fact that this new change will fetch better results for the organisation. 

  • Make changes

This stage is known as the transitional stage of the actual implementation of the change. It includes the acceptance of the new ways of performing the business operation. In this stage, people are unfrozen and then the actual change is implemented (Sanghavi, 2020). Therefore, in relation to the recycling program of the concerned firm, it can be stated that, at this stage, the firm has to perform careful planning, effective communication as well as encourage individual’s involvement in order to endorse that the change is necessary.

  • Refreeze

At the time of this stage, people are able to move from transition to a stage that is much more stable and this stage is considered as the equilibrium. This refreezing stage is also considered as the ultimate or final stage that people accept or internalise the working of a new way (Sanghavi, 2020).

 From the above analysis, it can be stated that in order to have the successful completion of their changing process of business entities will be able to sustain the changes enacted through the recycling program. Through involving the individuals in accordance with their new status quo, the forces such as processes, strategies, activities and the organisational norms are expected to transform as per the new state.

Change through strategic communication:

Adopting a collaborative approach: In order to establish the required changes, the leaders need to adopt the approach of Public-Private Partnerships for Service Delivery (PPPSD) for its skincare products. It is worth mentioning that the key objective of this program is to promote sustainable, self-supporting collaborations between the firm itself and the local governments with a commitment to promoting the establishment and implementation of modern enterprise-municipal collaboration in solid collection and recycling systems (Milios, Esmailzadeh Davani and Yu, 2018). The firms also need to provide recycling facilities that support all aspects of the required to preserve an effective recycling system that works optimally, the firm needs to utilize the collaborative approach. In their demands for resources and in their municipal ordinances for hauler and recovery service providers, the skincare products need to be specified with processing and marketing specifications.

Change and movement through leadership:

Situational leadership approach:

According to situational leadership theory, a leader's performance is determined by their actions instead of their individual characteristics. Analysing and assessing a leader's attitudes and reactions in response to a given circumstance is central to a behavioural leadership approach.

Figure 5: Factors related to Behavioural approach

(Source: Harrison, 2018)

The situational leadership hypothesis examines how leaders act and suggests that such traits will be replicated by other leaders. As an example, Coca-Cola employs this philosophy which insists on the formation of collaborations in order to make more concentrated as well as cooperative decisions instead of making the decisions individually. Person teams choose leaders based on traits such as loyalty, teamwork, engagement, and motivation-friendly actions.

Principles of change leadership:

Employee motivation

Employee motivation is highly critical from an organisational standpoint. As a result, finding an employer or leader who might keep staff engaged is a priceless advantage. They are beneficial because they keep the organisation on track to achieve its objectives. 

Employee motivation theory:

In contrast to situational leadership's revealing approach, transformational leadership philosophies follow the path of sale. The fundamental premise is that those who motivate them will join them. Working with transformative leadership could be a rewarding opportunity, and they have meaningful and motivational opportunities. It is one of the most effective theories for motivating employees. According to Rahbi et al. (2017), the situational leadership theory was developed and is applicable in most organisational contexts. Leaders are driven by purpose, ideals, as well as a greater intent, according to this principle.

It is remarkable how many can be accomplished with a little zeal and vigour. Situational leaders can be accessible and visible at all times. They set a precedent towards others and urge them to survey get-up. They make a rigorous effort to retain employees inspired (Rahbi, Khalid, and Khan, 2017). In order to get the most out of his or her employees, the modern organisation's leader must be extremely flexible. Flexibility in whether a job gets performed, in how administrators or executives assist individuals in meeting their needs, along with how success is recognised and rewarded. For example, Amazon leaders improve workplace success in order to raise employee motivation by using a transactional leadership approach. As such, training, growth potential, as well as a positive job atmosphere, are all used by Amazon to motivate their workers.

Managing diversity

The leader's role is critical in providing leadership and supervision to a community of people. At the period of strategy implementation, leadership will be demonstrated by providing direction and encouragement to employees. The position of leadership in terms of diversity would be to create a strategic strategy that embodies the corporation's diversity ideology.

Multi-cultural approach:

The multi-cultural approach is founded on the belief that individual differences are just a source of inspiration for businesses and that such variations must be accepted and nourished. The multi-cultural approach depicts an organisation structure wherein the strengths of diversity are highlighted, whereas cultural disparities are seen as a source of market power. Since different cultures have different behaviours, aspirations, as well as perspectives, multi-cultural leadership is essential. To be effective, leaders must learn to navigate this environment.

Examples of organisational context:

Example 1:

A resource management plan is part of an integrated strategy for materials management in which the concerned firm could make intentional decisions on how materials can move. After they have been absorbed, the strategy components then become practical techniques to deal with particular substances (Azimi, Dente and Hashimoto, 2020). Apart from that defining the approaches to contract the funding and services program needs to be incorporated through the single stream recycling, organic recycling and the commercial recycling. It is worth mentioning that resource management could be acted as a framework that attempts to identify the starting point, target and way to achieve the goal of recycling for the organisation Tesco PLC. The progress of a strategy in achieving its targets therefore, must be measured and taken forth as a major contribution in further planning. However, the purpose ought to be to assure that service availability and practices for handling all resources retrieved are enhanced in a sustainable manner. Strategic planning allows regional waste management activities as for enhancing the ability to make sustainable changes (Azimi, Dente and Hashimoto, 2020). as a result, the changes are expected to adapt to an ever growing dynamic for waste and recycled materials.

Example 2:

In connection with the Do-Good mission of the organization, that focuses on Philanthropy, Rodan + Fields has determined to make 75% of all plastics refillable, recycled or compostable by 2025 (Bukowski, 2018). The Rodan + Fields Recycling Program is intended to enhance Rodan + Fields Autonomous Practitioners and clients in their attempts. In order to reduce the amount of beauty items that destroy the environment in order to achieve this objective the change process herein is required to happen in a constant manner. On that note, as a part of the changing process, In partnership with the world recycling pioneer TerraCycle, Rodan + Fields,has announced the extension of the Rodan + Fields Recycling System, which is now available in the United States, Canada and Australia. Herein the change process refers to the organization is excited to extend the approach of collaboration with TerraCycle to inspire their consultants, consumers and workers globally to be part of a solution and to bring the conjecture out of sustainability (Lepoutre, Read and Margery, 2017). The goal of TerraCycle has always been to eliminate the concept of waste and being valuable to the environment.


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