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The modular construction is mainly a process to construct a building by using offsite plant conditions and transported the design materials to the final location. Then assemble the whole process on that destination. The construction of the offsite allows the use in the techniques of the lean manufacturing to build the modules of the prefabricated. Modular units of construction can be placed at the end and make changes by using the configuration. The modular construction can be completed on onsite. The inter-modular structure can be connected through using the all design units. The modular building is mainly a parameter, like the homes of the prefabricated that are built to maintain the standards and that also is the equal or the higher than the site of the traditional to properties. It’s built the high levels to ensuring of the control of quality.
Back in 1600s, American fishermen create a report to regenerate a modular home for the first time. The fisherman recently moved from England. He also wanted to build a home to follow the British construction methods. Therefore, he found a solution and decided to disassembled and shipped home by boat across the ocean of the Atlantic. After this period in the 1800s, united States develop westward; the modular construction start making an outstanding appearance. In the period of the Gold Rush of California, mining towns were boomed and also flourished through a quick solution to make house as per need. (Innella et al. 2019). 500 homes were preassembled and were built in the New York factory. After making the whole process it is shipped to California though other country. But it is not the end of the history of the modular construction process, in 2019 that the popularity for the modular home has also started trending in upwards. In the 1897, Mr. E.F. Hodgson starts a manufacturing plant in Dover, Massachusetts, that creates profit from growing rapidly on the population of America. The E.F Hodgson also developed a modular homes catalog on the basis of the catalog they sold homes in the market over the country. Montgomery Ward, Roebuck and Sears soon followed in footsteps of that company and the hundreds of the modular homes sold over the few decades. After the assembly line development by Henry Ford in the 1913, it became very simple and easier to manufacture the homes. That was comes at a low price in that time and those houses were affordable to many consumer. After the Second World War, US face some crisis to give a shelter to the return soldier. After that, they started the families, offered in quick of the modular construction, in the low cost options of the housing to start an American new generation. From the starting, the modular building, always give an affordable and innovative solution. (Meehleis, 2020). In the few years later, the industry of modular housing was expanded in the homes and also the commercial project.
1.2 Research aim and objective
The main aims of the overall project are Modular construction which is one of the processes through which the overall cost of the construction will be reduced and also it is cost-effective and sustainable. Basically, these constructions support the financial statements of the users and are eco-friendly. So in order to make more sustainable construction and cost-effectiveness, analysis and understanding of the importance of Modular construction have been discussed.
To understand the process of modular construction and how it can be used in the present infrastructure.
To analyze how modular construction helps to reduce the overall cost of the construction sites.
To analyze the impact of modular construction and its effect over sustainable construction and how it helps to reduce the overall cost of the construction.
Demonstrate how the modular construction helps to reduce the overall pollution which takes place from the demonstration, demolitions and construction sites at the time of renewable or relocate the buildings as per the client demand.
1.3 Research question
Here in this section define and find some research questions related to the modular building construction process to better understand the process of it and the need for the people of it. That is simulated in below section-
What is the understanding of the modular construction process and how it can be used in the recent infrastructure (Abdolmaleki and Slamanig, 2021)?
How to analyze the modular construction impact and its effect over the sustainable construction and how it helps to reduce the construction overall cost?
How does the modular construction process save money compared to the other construction method?
How modular construction helps to reduce the overall population which takes the palace from the construction site, demolitions, and demonstrates at the renewable time or relocates the building as per the customer demand?
1.4 Research rationale
In this section here discussed about the recent issue of it and why this issue is coming and their impact also discussed in this section. In this section here discussion about the issue firstly come the main issue of it that is the very common issue of the modeling building process and that is the transportation issue (Chai et al. 2018). The transportation issue is not the recent issue of this process but it is a very popular problem to adopting ties precedes almost it faced by every adopted person. The transportation process starts after finished modular sections of this building. It also needs a large space to move it and carrying it from one place to another place. Second one is the manufacturing issue and the transportation restriction issue. That can also be the limited to the size per unit of the modular that can have an impact in the sizes of the room. The recent issue is the manufactured in primarily size in the one site and the created module item. It is also carry out the another place and it is an easy process to dissembled it. But the transportation to a long place is the main issue of it. The main reason is to adopting conceptual structure. Many customers want to build design of the room size and the structure size as they want. Also, it has a flexibility issue. The overall design of it comes under the quality of aesthetic. The design structure does not fully exist in the history and also has some problem in the performance structure (Lee et al. 2019). And these issues create an impact on the overall design and transportation cases.
1.5 Research problem
In the case of the problem of the research that is also can be found in the journal. To solve the recent case the researcher also finding the main problem of this research that is also simulated here. The main problem in this research of modular construction is the mass production or the very limited modular variety (Collins, 2018). Modular construction has various types of problems. One is construction approval problem during building the design part. Another, it can be the risk in between the suppliers. The cost of the transportation is a very high amount compared to the modular structure.
2.0 Literature review
According to Almeida 2020, in the existing building restoration energy on a large scale signifies an opportunity to archive the contribution. The key area is mainly to achieve the cost effectiveness that is related to the house affordability. As per the modular solutions that can identify a pathway to know about the gaps (Jovanovikj et al. 2019). After finding the gaps one can check the environmental performance and the cost-effectiveness. It can be considered under social housing and attain an energy simulation to create a cost-optimal methodology. On the basis of the life-cycle analysis the knowledge gap depends on the energy emissions. According to the general approach it can embody the energy as well as materials that remain identical. Therefore, to check the sustainability each renovation comes under sustainability calculation. Cities, that can hold the energy and resources that can respectively be consumable. On the basis of that one can totally accommodate anywhere in the city. To maintain sustainability a new concept has been created named Zero-energy buildings. That holds a high end energy performance. As per the potential large-scale energy it can overcome few barriers. Those barriers are an intervention to link the affordability of buying the house. Nowadays, cities are generally crowded and face some generic issues to buy an affordable house as per their convenient price range. There are methods that depend on the cost-optimal and life-cycle assessment. Some people follow thermal regulations that can have an effect on the performance calculations and also create an effect on the energy performance.
According to Deng et al. 2019, the modular construction, author says that is use for the higher building that is the mid-to-high attribute into a high speed construction. To improve the structure quality and try to create in low pollution in the environment. The repetitive and the individual room-sized units of the module, that is usually fully complete in the inner factory. Then installed on-site to the construction that is integrated. Therefore, to build a modular construction mainly required various kinds of materials to using it, like the concrete materials, the materials of steel or the wood, and also add the windows, sewage pipes and the water, supplies of the power, also the telecommunications, the conditioning of the air and so on. In the beginning of a modular construction many additional features can be installed before taken to the site. It is also save time to complete the whole process (Niu et al. 2019). This project management contract (PMC) also has the structure that is designed to remain in one location. Once the building start making it also comes under some regulations and creates many stories. On the cost assessment all types of materials establish an approach that is related to the regulatory methods. It is included with the future cost and the packages that determine the factors to describe the value related costs. Also in the life-cycle assessment part the cost-optimal methods are also applied on various types of indicators. The fundamental analysis has two sides to check the energy-related approach. After identifying gaps, environmental performance and cost effectiveness can be examined (Hsu, 2019). This can be considered in the context of social housing and obtain energy simulations to create an optimal methodology.
Figure 1: Site layout
(Source: Deng et al. 2019)
According to Tamayo et al. 2018, modular construction has a demand in modern era. Also has very high rate in the market. During the adoption it can be cost effective, and the components production is efficient compared to other construction processes. These are all requirements that have led to offsite emergencies in the manufacturing to this construction process based on the life cycle analysis. The knowledge gap depends on energy emissions. According to the general approach, energy and matter can be realized that remain identical. Therefore, to verify sustainability, each restructuring is part of the sustainability calculation. Cities, that can contain energy and resources that can be consumed respectively. Based on this it can be accommodated completely anywhere in the city. To maintain sustainability, a new concept called Zero energy building was created. That has high-end energy performance. According to the author the modular construction benefit became clear and it was very fast, customizable and infinitely cost-effective and more the easier to plant and assemble it. The modular construction in the old times that is recognizable instantly by the long, the narrow shape and cropping of began up the along the Coast of East, and particularly in the New Jersey (LIU et al. 2021). The renewable energy mainly benefited the cumulative non-renewable energy. There are elementary stages and physical boundary stages to check all types of renovation scenarios. On the basis of that carbon emissions are also calculated to differentiate the demand as embodied primary energy as well as embodied carbon emissions. All these things are associated with the database that is developed as per countries' context. These types of energies are carried out towards the building renovations.
According to Meehleis, 2020, the author said that the manufacturing of the modular construction method delivery time is specific. During the delivery time the company can face various types of challenges (Deng et al. 2017). Challenges are present under the process of the delivery parts. It also included with the design of the modular and as well as in the fabrication. In the time of the pre-construction, assemble and shaping all the part onsite. Challenges of these things are often reluctant to create a delivery method for the module. To overcome the challenges is the main thing to build a successful project on time. To gather qualitative data several modular builders interviews also taken from the internet. Also check their experience and challenges that they face during every project. This is conduct to gain a better understanding and the main motive is to understand how to grow and overcome all these obstacles, so that they can gowns and run smoothly also able to build a successful project (Nurdiani et al. 2021). Like a fabricator, the module does not push down the line of production and also gives incentives to workers. The builders are also providing training if needed. Also think as the contractor to observe the project and try to finish the within the given time and handed over to the customer successfully.
According to Deng et al. 2017, the modular construction is a prefabricated and a promising structure type in the construction industry. That type of the structure is alternative of excellent to the on-site of conventional in the building with the shorted advantage time. This type of construction mainly improves their quality and help to reduce the pollution of environment. The challenges that are newly coming continue to arise within the project. In delivery time the similar types of challenges are coming and the builder has to overcome those challenges. According to authors the customer adoption is also become the successful option. In the sections it is also be addressed how the modular construction face their challenges and also overcome the situation. The authors in their recent era discussing other issues of that can arise in these types of construction process. These problems are the standard, just as an example the authors give is the company who are successfully in the school of the commercial modular (Zhang, 2017). The modular construction is the process that is not a standard for the owner and it also often. It did not use the cross radar while considering the methods of the delivery for the specific project. After, conducting extensive research difficulties of the modular construction are common. Most familiar in the sector of the modular construction it also can help in the all delivering aspect. The process of the design is mainly use to solve the problem. It is to make the set of the site in the particular drawing makes the process of the pre-construction to make it smoother. In the case of the familiar understanding that the material also the customer will need and so they are make it to save the time (Yin and Lafortune, 2017). According to the authors the most time saving piece of the modular construction is the adoption. It is also much batter in the some special case when they need to adoption a house. Therefore, in the design will be simplicity and they are finding the in similar arc place to making the other places that is the most popularity time in their sectional of this adopting time.
According to Wong Chong and Zhang 2019, the modular construction process also has proven to be maximize the time-efficiency through the building design to stick-built the construction. If there is an automation lack in the adopting technology it shows some opportunities that are missed while building construction. In that sector the efficiency of process to build a modular construction that can be the improved in their further movement, along with the safety and the quality (Baroroh et al. 2020). To understand and adore seeing this problem, it can be proposed by the authors. A BIM technology is a method that is the new simulation of the modular construction. This technology also helps to make game, robotics, also help to analyze and the automation to promote of the modular construction in the structural frame that is made by the wood in an indoor environment to control that. In the stage, it is actually started to present an interactive simulation.
Figure 2: The methodology of the system identification
(Source: Raphael et al. 2019)
According to Harichandran et al. 2019, the construction process is created automated interactions in the complexity in between the humans and the machines. All possibilities in the scenarios that also involving equipment and construction that are evaluated in carefully, it also may lead to the structure failure or may be the cause of the severe. Hence the automated monitoring in the process of the construction that is the very sensors and important, that will be deployed for the information that is obtained about the equipment and the structure's actual state (Yarushev et al. 2018). However, the data is interpreting from the sensors and change in a various ways. According to the authors in this area of research, that is a methodology that has been developed for the automated construction that is the purpose of monitoring the activity of the process in this type of construction. The methodology in the overall section involves a traditional combination of the system in the model base that is the identification and the techniques of the machine learning. According to the authors the paper or this research scope is limited to the learning module of the machine. This approach efficiency that is evaluated and tested. It is use to involve the experiments of the steel structure construction frame and that's happens in one by one.
Figure 3: Structural frame front view
(Source: Harichandran et al. 2019)
Figure 4: Structural frame plan with the sensors location
(Source: Harichandran et al. 2019)
According to Hyun et al. 2021, the authors said that modular construction has the benefits of the offset such as the high quality, short duration and the low cost owing to productivity of the high range of the repetitive production. To achieve the productivity in a maximum level, the modular construction also involves the schedule of the repetitive mode. The method that is the scheduling exhibits that has a limitation to apply the work on site (Robinson, 2017). These all methods are the adjusting through the atomized the rate of the production of the work activities. The production bounds rates of the modular construction work on site that is also limited due to the workspace. There are various amounts of the units of the work in between the activities. This result is also time taken and scheduling methods are also idle. Thus, in that paper in the research the method of the parallel station that was employed to ensure a production flexible rate. An event is the discrete the simulation the model. That was the developed to the number of the estimate of the work and the duration.
Figure 5: Method of the parallel station for the modular construction
(Source: Hyun et al. 2021)
Figure 6: Crew allocation method of the parallel station
(Source: Hyun et al. 2021)
According to Hsu et al. 2017, the sector in the construction is undergoing process and currently a form of shift. That is the stick-built technique of the construction of the modular building. If the supply chain of the construction is to support this transformation, they also need to be strengthened and modified using a system of adapted logistics (Liew et al. 2018). The main aim in this study or this research is to establish a mathematical model of the modular construction logistics that is the covering the tiers. The three common things are the construction, storage and the manufacturing. The studies that are indicated the previous construction of that site. It also delay in constitute the course of the largest of the deviation of schedule. Using the outline of the model in this research paper that also seeks to determine also how the factory manages handle the inventory management. Manufacture process also will be adapted to the variation on demand of site of the construction. The worker also proposes a model of the linear programming in the mixed integer on that construction. That is the capturer in the scenarios with the demand for the products of the modular that are either the time of foreseeable or the disrupted of the abruptly.
Figure 7: Scenarios of the foreseeable disrupted
(Source: Hsu et al. 2017)
3.1 Research design
In this paper here chosen the deductive approach has been discussed. That approach concern that is mainly deducts the positions and that also conclude in the strategy of the research. It also generate a link between the circumstance that is general (Goh, and Goh, 2019). This approach also has some advantages and that also can offer in the process of few relevant things. First of all it mainly defined the relationship in some of them in between the details concepts and the variable points. Secondly it is also used to be measure the concept of the quantitative techniques. The third one is it also get the terms of the generic in the findings of this research. It is used in mainly to avoid the risks, and it can be the complete in very small time. The first is theory, then check hypotheses, after that takes an observation test and last is to find out if it is confirmed or get a rejection.
In this research philosophy part positivity in the research has been discussed. Positivism is mainly a data collection that can be limited to interpret. All these studies are mainly focused on quantifying and observing all the research findings. As per the rule it mainly assumes the deductive approach to associate with the inductive research approach. After that, it depends on the phenomenology philosophical approach. Therefore, through the research some viewpoints. And also concentrate on the facts that attract human interest. Positivism mainly has five principles. Those are: first, the research aim has to be predicted and totally explained. Second, is to observe the empirical studies to develop statements. Third is to use commonsense to allow them to find out whether research is biased or not (Lee and Lee, 2021). Fourth is all these things have to be value-free. Fifth is there will be no contrast in the logical enquiry format.
Research methodology part mainly assesses research designs based on the modular construction. It mainly focuses on the process, logistics and methods to develop a good construction project. All these processes are problem solving and give an effective decision-making tool to get a successful plan. Research methods mainly have four types of data. Those are derived, experimental, simulation and observation. The sources to get secondary data are publications, journals, annual reports regarding the modular construction. After collecting all the data they analyze some quantitative and qualitative data to get a statistical model from the selected data. All these research things also give the reliable and the accurate all the data for create approach of a methodological in the research study.
3.2 Data collection method
Here to achieve the legitimate information there has required the examination information and that also optional. After that legitimate surveys then they need a subjective informational index and last and that is changing over to full information investigation. Principally optional information has been taken. The sources to get optional information are distributions, diaries, yearly reports with respect to the particular development (Qin and Yao, 2020). As per the rule it mainly assumes the deductive approach to associate with the inductive research approach. This load of things gives dependable and precise information to make a systemic methodology in the time of reviewing. Since that, optional information basically assembles some data to have an elective point of view of the review. On the basis of that one can find all these from the internet or gather some previous data. Secondary research mainly occurred in external and internal data. In the internal data they get from the organization and the external data they get the data information that is collected by some in modular construction companies.
3.3 Data analysis method
Through the data analysis one can gather some data. Then organize those data and get a clean data according to the research. Quantitative and subjective information are primarily utilized in this segment. To get appropriate information one can pick a subjective examination strategy. In this cycle it can be order that variable information to gauge. From that point forward, from the accumulated information recognized some extraordinary levels that can be properties of measurable rates. Then to check the hypotheses correlation and regression analysis has been discussed (Salama et al. 2019). Under qualitative techniques deductive and inductive approaches are there. This methodology basically concerns and deducts the places that finish up the exploration system. It basically produces a connection between the overall conditions. This methodology enjoys a few benefits that can be presented in a couple of cycles. The first is theory, is to check hypotheses, after that takes an observation test and last is to find out if it is confirmed or get a rejection. After that one can formulate some hypothesis between two different types of variables.
Figure 8: Research methodology
(Source: Deng et al. 2019)
4.0 Gantt Chart