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Tunnel Performance Prediction using Construction Data and AI Assignment Sample

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Construction Techniques and Machine Learning Factors for Tunnel Performance Prediction

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Multi Art pavilion is the place for experiencing digital art. It is situated in Speers Point, NSW. The Pavilion is mainly designed to serve the purpose of providing contemporary space for different types of art exhibition and also space for performances. The structure to be designed in such a way that it is not very expensive and the long term maintenance cost of the building should be minimal. The soil type found near Speer point is coarse grained soil. This is composed mainly of sand and gravel. According to the condition of the site and characteristics of the buildings, the foundation type that is most suitable is raft foundation. Raft foundations have higher load carrying capacity and it is also suitable for soil that has lower bearing capacity. This can reduce differential settlement of the soil. The raft foundation is economical and easy to maintain. Epoxy flooring system is used as the maintenance cost is lower and is affordable.

Site or Building characteristics

A feasibility study is required prior to the construction work. Some financial risks are always involved with the construction projects. So, performing a feasibility study will provide enough information about the benefits and investment values. The type of soil found near the coastal area are sandy and gravel soil which are coarse grained soil (Enshassi, Saleh & Mohamed, 2021). The coarse grained soil is composed of mainly sand and gravel. This type of soil is most suitable for foundation type when they are well confined and well drained. The bearing value of these types of soils are higher. The foundation selected for the structure depends on the type of soil present in the particular location. The foundations are selected on the basis of the bearing capacity of the soil, compaction, permeability and lateral strength present in that area. The types of foundation suitable for the particular area and based upon the load conditions and soil condition are strip foundation and raft foundation. The main purpose of the building is art exhibition and live performances. So, the building is meant for public purposes. Type of load present in the building structure is the dead load of the building and live load (Brumana et al. 2018). However, it is difficult to find out the accurate cost of any building project, as it depends mostly on the condition of the site and the specification of the project. The cost of the project also depends on the extent of excavation. In sites where the load requirement of the structure is complex, raft foundation is preferred mostly as the cost of the construction of such type foundation is lesser in such load conditions in comparison to other types of foundations. However, based on other factors depending upon the characteristics of their structure like superstructure weight and vertical elements arrangements and on the property of the soil, raft foundation is used for the proposed building plan.

Building foundation

The two types of foundation are selected based on the loading conditions and the soil conditions are strip foundation and raft foundation. The condition of the soil present in the Speers point is the coarse type of soil which mainly consists of gravel and sand. The building structure is used for public purposes so the load imposed on the structure is higher (Marbelia et al. 2020). So, foundations that can carry higher load can be used in the location. Raft foundations have higher loading capacity and can also be used in soil whose bearing capacity is lower.

Strip foundation

Strip foundation that is used for supporting the walls that are load bearing. Strip footing is the type of shallow foundation where the level of foundation is not more than 3 m from the surface of the ground. The strip formation is linear in nature and spreads the load of the entire structure throughout the area of soil (Shao et al. 2020). This type of foundation is suitable only for the soil type that has enough bearing capacity. Continuous support is provided by the strip footing structure. This type of foundations can be stepped or level in order to support the linear structures like the walls that are load bearing.


Raft foundation

Raft foundations are also called mat foundations. This type of foundation generally spreads the building load over a huge area in comparison to other types of foundations, which ultimately lowers the ground pressure. These types of foundations are spread over the entire building area in order to support the structural loads from the walls and the columns. Mat foundation types are used generally for wall foundation and column foundation where the structural loads on the walls and columns are higher (de Schipper et al. 2021). Thus helps in preventing the differential settlement of the differential type of settlement. This is designed as an individual mat or combined type of footings. It is suitable for the soil type where the bearing capacity of the soil is lesser. These types of foundations can be economical when the structure’s half area is provided with individual footings.


Advantage & Disadvantage of methods using evidences

The raft foundations provide several benefits. This type of foundation can be used in soils which have lesser bearing capacity. But in the case of strip foundation which is used in soil which has enough bearing capacity. Strip footings are used mostly for buildings that carry lighter load like that of residential buildings. For the purpose of the construction of the Multi Art pavilion, raft foundations are preferred mostly as they can carry a higher load and are also suitable for soil that has lower bearing capacity (Rojat et al. 2020). The raft foundation has a higher load carrying capacity as it spreads the entire load of the structure in a huge area thus the pressure on the ground is reduced. Raft foundation can also be constructed in shallow depth hence requirement of excavation is lesser. This also reduces the differential settlement of the soil. However, there are some disadvantages of the method in case larger reinforcement can increase the project’s cost. This may also lead to edge erosion in case of poor maintenance. Skilled workers are required for the same. However, in case of strip foundation there are some disadvantages associated like that it is hazardous for loose types of soil and requires longer time for the construction work. In this case the structure is built near a lake so moisture content of the soil is higher and lesser bearing capacity and also the load on the structure is higher (Dörfler et al. 2019). So, raft foundation is preferred most for the construction of the structure as the long term maintenance cost is lesser and cost of construction of the foundation structure is quite economical.

Appropriate Technologies

The raft foundations also known as mat foundations consist of concrete slabs that are of reinforced type whose thickness is uniform that is between 150 - 300mm which covers the entire building area. The machine that is being used for raft foundation is Gunite machine. The Gunite machines that are basically rotor types are used generally (Innella, Arashpour & Bai, 2019). The machine is used for wet mix and dry mix shotcrete. It provides some advantages like advanced technology, stable performance, perfect structure, long service life of the building and convenient operation. The main purpose of the Gunite machine is the soil excavation.

Flooring system

The flooring system that is selected for the Multi Art pavilion is the marble flooring and epoxy flooring. The flooring system is chosen based on the feasibility options. It is easily affordable and provides benefits for long term maintenance (Barroso, Oliveira & Ramos, 2018). The flooring system is chosen based on the spacer availability, style etc. The coating of epoxy flooring which contains resins that hardens to form harder plastic coating.

Epoxy flooring

Epoxy flooring is used as these are friendly to the environment and the maintenance cost of this type of flooring is generally lesser. This basically will adhere to the concrete materials and lasts longer than 10- 20 years or more years by maintaining it properly. This material is a durable type which can withstand spills, scuffs and accidents. This is the best option as it is long lasting and affordable flooring solutions (Bhatti, Zaman & Naz, 2020). The seamless types of flooring system that doesn’t provide seams, joints or ridges. This provides no crevices or spots for the collection of bacteria and dirt. This type of flooring also resists stains, which allows the floor to always appear as new. This flooring is easier in maintenance and the coating of the floor system will be good for several years. This doesn't allow the dust or particles of cement to leak out.


Marble floors

Using marble floors for the building provides many benefits. It is decorative, easier to clean, and provides full surface bonds to the floor. It also provides resistance to chemicals and abrasion. It maintains higher traffic durability. The maintenance cost of marble type flooring systems is quite low. It provides huge varieties of color ranges and patterns available in the market. This helps in achieving UV resistance. This is also suitable to be applied in the existing coatings after testing appropriately and pre- treatment of the substrate materials. However, it provides a better appearance to the floor (Fayek, 2020). But there are some disadvantages like difficulty in replacement, porous in nature, susceptible to occurrence of damages. However the cost of marbles are higher. The process of installation of the DIY marbles is not easy. In contrast to the epoxy flooring, the maintenance cost of marble is higher. In the system of marble flooring, proper sealants are used as it is highly porous in nature and staining can occur.


Advantage & Disadvantage of methods using evidences

The epoxy type of flooring system can be used for any type of building structures due to its suitable properties. It is used widely due to easier maintenance and is affordable. This flooring system is also known as resinous flooring. The coating of the epoxy flooring system is sustainable, highly durable and can be decorated amazingly and thus suitable for any type of surface. This flooring system can also resist tear and wear at a higher level, which makes the flooring system long lasting. The epoxy floors that provide no crevices or spots for the bacteria or dirt collections (Wang et al. 2020). This also resists stain hence makes it easy to clean such flooring systems. However various disadvantages are associated with the marble flooring system. It provides difficulty in replacement, highly porous, it can get damaged easily, slippery in nature hence is not suitable for public areas. The cost of marble is expensive so the installation process of DIY marble is not easy. The cost of maintenance of the marble is higher. So, keeping the feasibility conditions in mind epoxy flooring is used for the purpose of the buildings.

Appropriate Technologies

With the advancement of the technologies, the building design generally becomes more creative. The epoxy flooring is a resin type of floor system that is synthetic in nature. These types of flooring systems are laid on the upper portion of the concrete substrate for the purpose of decoration and protection. The system mainly consists of many layers of the thermosetting resins which are poured, coated and ultimately applied on the concrete substrate (Ayhan, Dikmen & Birgonul, 2021). With the technological advancement that have introduced Durall paints which contain a new ingredient that helps in the maintenance of the flexibility of the epoxy materials.

Key findings

  • Raft foundation is most suitable for the construction of the building structure due to its suitable properties. This foundation type has a higher load carrying capacity in comparison to strip foundation. It distributes the load on a huge area thus decreasing the pressure on the ground.
  • Raft foundations are also suitable for soil conditions that have lower bearing capacity. However, strip foundation can be used only for higher bearing capacity soil type. Raft foundations are economical (Mneymneh, Abbas & Khoury, 2018).
  • The Epoxy flooring system is used due to its affordability and ease of maintenance. The epoxy floor does not provide any spots or crevices for the dirt collection.
  • The installation process of DIY marble is quite complex. It is slippery, highly porous and susceptible to damage. The cost of marble is expensive. So, an Epoxy flooring system is used for the construction process.


There are various scopes for the advancement of the technologies in the construction sector. This is required to make the construction process easier. However, the building is designed keeping the sustainability in mind so that it can provide long service life of the building structure and the cost of maintenance should be kept lower. This ensures that the process of construction to be completed timely and innovatively, provides high output quality of the building structure.

  • Drones are the construction technology used nowadays. This technology helps in conducting suite surveys that are quicker and more accurate and are cheaper as well. The data collected and cameras of higher resolution are used for the creation of the topographical models and maps (Omotayo, Bankole, & Olubunmi Olanipekun, 2020).
  • Techniques of ground improvements are implemented for improving the properties of subsoil like permeability, stiffness and shear strength that will reduce the foundation structure settlement.
  • Grouting and injections techniques are used and the application of the admixtures for the construction process. Method of grouting is the most suitable method where stabilizing agents are inserted into the mass of the soil under pressure.


From the study it can be concluded the construction technique of the Multi Art pavilion. The purpose of the building is an exhibition. The building is situated in Speers point. The condition of the soil in the area is coarse type that consists of sand and gravel soils. Raft foundation is the most suitable option for the building construction. Raft foundations have higher load bearing capacity and are suitable for low bearing capacity soil. In contrast to strip foundation which cannot bear higher load and is only suitable for soil that has enough bearing capacity. Raft foundation is economical in which the load is distributed over a large area and thus the pressure on the ground is reduced. Epoxy flooring materials are used for the construction purpose. There are various disadvantages of using marble. This includes complexity in installation of DIY marble which is highly porous, susceptible to damages, slippery and expensive. The replacement of marble is not easier and the maintenance cost is higher. However, there are various benefits of using epoxy materials. It is long lasting, it resists strains and also prevents the collection of dirt or bacteria in the spots or crevices. Technological advancement is required to make the process of building construction easier and safer. Proper designing of the structure is required as per the codes to provide long service life of the building and to maintain lower cost of the building.


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