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Plant Equipment Design Report of Steam Condenser Assignment Sample

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Plant Equipment Design Report of Steam Condenser Assignment Sample

The condenser and separator is a device that is included in the Process flow diagram (PFD) is used to transfer the heat content from the Styrene mixture vapor into the coolant. Hence the vapor state is converted from the vapor state to the liquid state with the help of a condenser. The separator is finally used to separate the water and liquid crude styrene as the liquid state in the system. More than one option of chemical engineering design must exist in the first chapter. The first chapter will discuss the three contents based on the flow diagram process. Flow diagram process is a type of framework that elaborates the relationship between two factors: major components and industrial plants.

Flow diagram processes are often used for chemical purposes to improve a model are noted for professional looking diagrams with expandable detail. On the other hand, pipeline and instrument diagrams are more mechanical and to communicate with diagrams that speak several roles. Process of flow charts is based on the study of process improvement, to develop processes, planning projects etc. Basic design specification has been implemented through the report. So the first chapter will discuss the introduction of a process flow diagram with specific content, and how to be equipped in the design process.

1.2 Aims and objectives

The support with the case study of the steam condenser plant equipment design report has been implemented through the report file. Workingperformance, components of steam condenser has been presented clearly.

The case study analyzed here is to meet some specific aims and objectives from the detailed analysis -

  1. To carry out the design and model of the condenser that is used to convert Styrene mixture vapor into the coolant.
  2. To evaluate the performance of the designed condenser.
  3. To also carry out the design of the auxiliary equipment that is the condenser.
  4. To find out the required performance of the separator in the whole plant.
  5. To estimate the total power of the system.

1.3 Design Basis/specification

Here the design is to be carried out on the vapor condenser that will be used to convert Styrene mixture vapor into the coolant as in a liquid state. The auxiliary equipment that is the separator will also be designed that will be used to separate the water and liquid crude styrene state of the system. The vapor condenser is a device that is used to condensate the vapor state of the system into a liquid state by lowering its temperature. The case study and analysis will be used to evaluate the performance of the process flow system and also to calculate its required power (Baniya et al 2021). The cost of estimation is also required to be evaluated after the final analysis of the system. This study evaluates the performance characteristics of plant equipment of steam condensers. Through this design process, achieving the low pressure at the outlet of the turbine of steam, it supplies pure feed water to the hot well.

Specification of steam condenser plant is considered:

The basic design of Steam Condensing plant

Figure 1: The basic design of Steam Condensing plant


Vapor condenser

The vapor condenser is a heat transfer device that is used to transfer the thermodynamic heat from the vapor state of the system to the final liquid state. The vapor condenser is used to extract the latent heat of vaporization from the vapor and hence converts it to the liquid state. Here the vapor received by the condenser may be in the superheated or saturated form (Tontu et al 2018). The mixture here used is the Styrene mixture vapor whose temperature is high and then the condenser is used to extract the latent heat of vaporization from the vapor and then lowers its temperature to convert it into the liquid form.


The separators are used to separate gas or vapor from the liquid and also from one liquid to another liquid. These separators are used to extract the liquid from the system in the pure form so that no other liquid traces will remain in the outlet of the condenser (Zamuruyev et al 2018). Here the separator is used to separate the crude from the water. The separator generally uses gravity force to separate the liquid from the system. The density of the water is always higher than the liquid styrene form so it can easily be separated from the system.

Converting the “CRUDE STYRENE VAPOUR” into a liquid state”

Styrene is a found naturally liquid substance that is utilised to manufacture a range of considerably strong, bendable, and light weight items. The styrene monomers, also known have“ethynylbenzene”, “vinylbenzene”, and “phenylethane” is the precursor to polyurethane and other renowned copolymers. The manufacture of styrene and its various uses is a major aspect of the world economy, and it contribute to the improvement of life by producing more order to harness, cost-, and achievement goods.

This significant substance is largely utilised in the manufacture of polystyrene, a well-known thermoplastic polymer with a high formability. It also is believed that polystyrene accounts for more than half of all styrene manufactured. About 20% of the remaining amount is used to make elastomers, curing agent resins, and polymer microemulsion, 15% has been used to make polyamide styrene (ABS) but also styrene-acrylonitrileacrylonitrile (SAN) nanocomposites, 10% is used to make expanded styrene (EPS), or the remaining amount is used to make diverse polyols and specialty contouring.

Styrene and styrene-based goods can be found in a variety of everyday products. Some of the most typical applications of polystyrene by-products are illustrated here.

 1.4 PFD of Equipment Being Designed

The process flow diagram of the vapor condenser is designed to show all of its vapor condensers, flow rate and all the vapor condensers with separators in connection. The two types of analysis are used to carry out the detailed analysis of the vapor condensers. These analyses are the primary and secondary analysis that are discussed in detail. On the process flow diagram, there are several pieces of information that must be included in the design process. Symbols of the process technology should be accomplished by chemical engineering. Various symbols such as drum or vertical vessel, horizontalvessel, tubularreactor, three phase decanter, opentank, tubular reactor or coil etc are introduced in the designed process of PFD equipment steam condenser. It is known as the symbol of process technology.

The Various symbols for reactors, vessels and tanks

Figure 2: The Various symbols for reactors, vessels and tanks.


Symbols of heat exchanger equipment such as heat exchanger basic symbol, electricheater, coolingtower, finned tube exchanger etc are accomplished the utility streams that enters and exit heat exchanger, and also pressure temperature(Boretti et al 2021).Below the flow diagram are showing the symbol of heat exchanger equipment that is also PFD of equipment being designed.

PFD diagram of condenser with separator
Figure 3: PFD diagram of condenser with separator


The symbols of fluid handling are quipped between steam and other processes. Here, Process flop diagrams are equipped when the condensers are being designed. Process flow diagrams are in addition the symbols of fluid handling equipment.

So, the process flow diagram is an essential function for a steam condenser. It conveys the process and the different components-therefore it is essential to design very well manners. Steamcondenser such as surface condenser is not be completely done without process for symbols (Bubelis et al 2019). More details are increasing the information about the topology, equipment information etc.

The design of the Chemical Engineering

2.1 Main Equipment selection process

The selection process is the very major process of the overall project paper. Nature of design is a general discussion in this chapter. The subject of the chapter chemical engineering design selection of main equipment is equal to other branches of engineering, the activity of creative designand taken the appropriate activities by an engineer. Selection arte set the outer boundary of possible design, and showing below figure. 

Design Constraints

Figure 4: Design Constraints


The condenser used here is the vapor condenser that is used to condense and lower the temperature of the crude styrene vapor into the coolant that is separated by the separator which extracts the crude liquid styrene and separates the water. The data needed to be taken here is a condensed mixture of the fluid properties as a function of temperature, viscosity, latent heat and specific heat type of properties. The pressure is also one of the most important data that is used as a reference property for analyzing the crude styrene flow through the condenser. The other data needed to analyze the flow of crude styrene vapour from the condenser are the inlet temperature of the styrene and also the temperature of the coolant. The data that will be calculated based on this is the outlet temperature and pressure of the coolant that is flowing from the outlet of the condenser.

The design base is shown as another major factor in this chapter, because accurate settings of the design basis are showing the final result at a specific time. With information on constraints that will influence the structural framework such as: The systemic units to be used, local company design, various codes must be followed that are indicating the various requirements of the design, and last one is detailed of raw materials that are available.

The overall selection process design

Figure 5: The overall selection process design


Dehumidification condensers lower the amount of water that must be pumped and the amount of chemical treatment required by cooling towers. When compared to a wind condenser, an evaporate condenser demands less coil area and circulation to refuse the same energy, or better operational inefficiencies can be attained by working at a lower saturated steam.

In the case of engine conversion various high pressure generate in the system. In the internal portions of engine combustion is takes place. Water treatment is an important part of the process. Working fluid converts its power in force, different types of motions as well as mechanical energy. Generally working fluid is also called coolant. In the case of liquid power, the functioning liquid is fundamentally a gas or fluid that moves power, movement, or mechanical energy. In hydrodynamics, water or water powered liquid exchanges power between pressure driven parts, for example, pressure driven engines incorporated into pressure driven siphons, water driven chambers, water driven machines, water powered drive frameworks, etc. At pneumatics, pressure driven liquid is air or one more gas that moves power between pneumatic parts, for example, blowers, vacuum siphons, pneumatic chambers, and pneumatic engines. Pneumatic frameworks additionally store energy on the grounds that the functioning gas is compressible. Gas warms when packed and cools when extended. This irregular hotness siphon is seldom utilized. Some gases gather into a fluid when packed and bubble when tension is diminished.
The water powered liquid of a hotness motor or hotness siphon is a gas or fluid generally alluded to as a refrigerant, coolant, or working gas, which changes over nuclear power temperature change into mechanical energy or the other way around essentially through stage changes or the hotness of pressure and extension. Instances of stage changes are water steam in steam motors and chlorofluorocarbons in most steam pressure refrigeration and cooling frameworks. Instances of stage free models are hot air motor air or gas like Sterling motors, thermoplastic cooling air or gas, for example, gas cycle heat siphons, and nickel titanium in model hotness motors.

Selection of main equipment is done by the process flow (Hamilton et al 2020). It defines the stages of production process, quality of raw material. Design of pipeline is the quantity of equipment and materials flow through the process. It included the determination of the sizes of the design and the quantity of materials.

The information of process design at sources

A selection of process design methods are listed below stages. Typical timing of materials, engineering man hours and construction are based on the selection of main equipment. Has much information about chemical information processes that introduce the physical property. Rate of application of engineering man hours is also introducing the graphical diagram.

The Rate of application of engineering man hours by the specific function that are introducing the project engineering and design engineering

Figure 6: The Rate of application of engineering man hours by the specific function that are introducing the project engineering and design engineering.


Selected Main equipment are listed below:

Heat exchanger

Condenser is also a type of heat exchanger that is used to condense the vapor state of the crude styrene into the liquid styrene as a coolant. Take true consideration is the generic form which is the process stream in both shell side and tube side. In these factors heat is exchanged from one end to another end. The chemical engineering site, the cooling water inlet by the hot temperature is ranging from too high.

Mainly it is described systematic factors one stages to another stages. Two processes will be considered in this chapter: cooling and heating process (Lee et al 2021). So in this exchanger they introduce both processes. Fluid particles are changes at separated way and mixing or direct contact. Huge amount of using used in natural gas processing, “airconditioning”, “chemicalplants”, “power stations” etc.It is derived at three factores and due on the flow arrangement: Exchanger of parallel flow,exchanger of heat at counter flow and cross flow heat exchanger. First is parallel flow heat exchanger, this is introduced the flow of the fluid as parallel to one another to other side. Incounter flow heat exchanger are described the fluid fluids enter the exchanger form opposite ends. The last one is cross flow heat exchanger. In these stages the fluid travels roughly perpendicular to one another through due to the exchanger.


A pump device is that moves the fluids such as gases, liquids by robe mechanical actions. Actually the pump works as it converts electrical energy into hydraulic energy. Classified into three major groups based on their methods they used to move the fluids(Lombardi et al 2019). Operate by some mechanism and calculate energy to perform the mechanical form or mechanical work moving the fluids. It serves a range of applications such as pumping water from wells etc.Positive displacement pumps and negative displacement pumps introduced the chemical engineering process. In positive pumps move the trapping fluid by volume into the discharge pipes.


The filtration of the pump is an important features for gained maximized and minimized maintenance expenses.Refers the components joints arte elaborate the systemiclife of the remove solids undesirablethe terms of the “filter” are more applied on the components in the discharge side.

The system of Pipeline Design

3.1 The diameter of Optimum pipe

The condensed tube diameter is chosen with also confirming the tube assembly replacement process. The diameter, as well as the heat transmission surfaces, is excessively large. Over dimensional factors and increasing construction costs are also driving this trend. Because of the ideal nozzle is too small and the pressure inside the fluid, the water runs quicker through the pipes tubes, causing the pipes to burst.

In this point, taking economic optimization into care is more appealing. These methods have been tested to the simplest and most effective ways in terms of results. Minimizing the generation of waste rate per unit surface area are of a rectifier tube and limiting the creation of entropy while having a high unit are some of the easiest techniques. Some models of mathematical expression using balance and heat flow are rectified to the pipe diameter (Riyanto et al 2021). A detailed description of the condenser model and changes of pipe diameter in the inner section and also it is followed by a change of their thickness.

For the study of the condenser characteristics are simplified but the optimum diameter are useful to analyzing the pipeline system design.   

3.2 Material construction of pipe

The materials construction of pipe selection of the turbine and the technology are considered in this paper. Based on the important components it is performed and it checks the related materials properties. The basic materials for manufacturing of the steam condenser pipe components are considered as the steel due to their strength and sustaining loads in high temperature and pressure. Difference between components subjected to pressure of steam and high temperature. External loading and parts of different objects are influenced by the chemical. Most of the cases steel is used to manufacture pipes. 

Steel pipes seamless

The mechanical properties and relevant temperature of the steel are induced within the condenser component. The yield strength of the steel is 250 MPa for placing into the steam condenser designing and some other pressure of the tube for operating at high temperature.

There are three quality factors of the pipes that have been concluded to the area of the applications.

I - For the change in temperature under the pressure of the pipes. This pressure rises up to 32 bars respectively and the temperature will reach upto 400 degrees C evaluated 

II - For changes and transfer fluid from one end to another end within the pressure of 32-80 bar and this pressure is based on the temperature around 400-450 degrees C.

III - Transferring the fluid under the pressure is increased upto 80 bar. This above pressure is developed through the temperature at 450 degrees C. 

Here, the design of working conditions,pressure and temperature fall into two main categories. This category also consists of two quality sections.Quality of steel which are manufactured for seamless pipes, and its operating temperature and pressure will be defined by standard of “EN 10216-2:2014”  (P235GH,P245GH etc.).Experimental investigation are recommended additional required for certain categorized of the steel quality.  During the acceptance of pipe diameter, depending on the type and checking the quality of the surface could be done in these stages.Materials construction is verified based on the tension strength in the terms of temperature, and Yield stress variation in terms of temperature. 

(a) in terms of variation of strength tensile with temperature (b) Stress of Yield in terms of temperature

Figure 7: (a) in terms of variation of strength tensile with temperature (b) Stress of Yield in terms of temperature

(Sources: file:///E:/1-s2.0-S1877705816311675-main.pdf)

Selections of thickness at the wall, weld ability of base materials, energy abilities of the procedure of welding are the structure of economic justifications. Numerical analysis of the most responsible at the tube changes the cross sectional area. So the materials construction of the pipe is concluded very well.

3.3 Standard pipe sizes

Standard pipe sizes are the crucial aspect of steam system design. Condensers of steam are detailed on the standard schedule, materialscost, diameter (internal and external), and various factors.

Here first derived the international piping standard of steam condenser.Stand of the pipe sizes are existing around the all stages, but due to the global factors at American institute are categorized in perfect scheduled number. Scheduled numbers of pipes are linked with pressure rating. There are eleven schedules ranging from 10 to 160. For the normal size piping at a steam condenser 150 mm, It is called standard weight. The importance of pipeline sizing is the most attractive part in this stage. Objective of fluid distributions is to supply the fluid at accurate pressure to the point of use.

Bernoulli's equation is used in the pipeline sizing for liquid factors that is given by -

P1 + (1/2) ?v1^2 + ?gh1 = P2 + (1/2) ?v2^2 + ?gh2

Here P1, P2 = Pressure at inlet and outlet of the pipe

v1, v2 = Velocities at inlet and outlet of the pipe

h1, h2 = Height of the pipe from the ground at the inlet and out.

Here inlet parameters are defined as abbreviation 1 and outlet parameters is defined as abbreviation 2.

Pipeline sizing for liquid factors is discussed through Bernoulli’s theorem stated above (Murmanskii et al 2020).The flow of the fluid is affected by the friction resistance in the pipe. Below pictures are derived the more energy at point one then point two.

Pipe in friction due to the flow of the fluid

Figure 8: Pipe in friction due to the flow of the fluid


Total energy of a flowing fluid to energy changes are expressed as either the factors of heat loss. This heat loss is another name for specific energy loss. Without being able to consider the pressure losses is not very useful. Pressure losses will; occur in particular factors at different surroundings. So the total mechanical energy due to friction at the standard pipe sizes carries a steady flow of fluid.

3.4 Valve and Pipe fitting

Valve and pipe fitting are the general guidance and are the most important factors. Low pressure at 15 psig and high pressure steam above 15 psig are considered at general purpose. Valve and pipe fitting for low pressure steam and condensate returns will be based on the various tables. Fitting pipe and pressure reducing valve will not be higher than the ranges. This higher at minimum ranges are not delivered for necessary flow.

It is fitting with velocity and this velocity does not exceed 8000 to 12000 fpm. Next is steamer any condensate pipe system that is not being used properly. Older system scheduled for reconnection should be changed to two pipe systems. The final fitting will be considered at return piping shall be sized at dry return. Pressure reducing valve are serving the bypass mines. These bypass lines are not required in all cases. Pipe, their all sizes are considered at carbon steel, SCH40, ASTM A53 etc. Below the pipe materials tables are described.

Piping Material Table

Figure 9: Piping Material Table


3.5 Isometric drawing of pipeline

Isometric views of the main stream pipeline are prompt closure of stop valves in front of the turbine. Isometric drawings are the basic overview of the steam system. This typical modern package is powered by the accurate burner which sends heat into the tubes of the boiler. Here discussing the view of hot gases the burner passes in backward direction and forward up to three times that are the very important features in the chapter. Through a series of tubes are to gain the transferring heat at maximum level. When water reaches the saturation temperature, then the bubbles are produced and increase the surface of water.

Isometric views are drawn in various parts such as feed water; blow down, level of control, etc. Blow down of chemical dosing will lead to the presence of the solids in the boiler.

Isometric projection in “Auto CAD” selects the plane of isometric view, and presses the F5 key. Isoclines are available for the selection and the top of the isoclines. These isoplanes are adjusted with right and left positioning. So the flat representation of 3d isometric view is the flat representation and method to allow easy drawing.

3.6 Pressure drop

Pressure drops of the pipeline system design are known as the pressure drop. Simple pressure drops are the difference between two points. In these two points are classified fluid carry network. Actual the dropping pressure are major features for safety purposes. Operate safely and efficiently designed to undersized specific application. This application accommodates the pressure drop. In this situation, applying are the several equations. These equations are the calculating pressure drop in the process piping. Below the formula is the calculating pressure drop of the tube.

P (end) =P (start)- F - h + H

P (end) = pressure end of pipe,

P (starts) = pressure starts of the pipe,

h = Elevation (starts end), the difference between elevation at start of pipe and elevation at end of pipe.

H = Head of the pump

Pup head, it is showing the zero at the pump present.

3.7 Property of Data correlations

Improved property data correlations of absorption fluids are major factors of the property of data. Based on measurements are conducted both in external equipment and in working heat pump systems. Although fluid transportation through overfilled pipes is unique in many industries (e.g., sewage, mining, and nuclear), many features remain undeveloped, notably for multiphase and pro flows.  In this research, a simple framework for accurately predicting the bulk flow patterns or settling properties of slurries in uncovered conduits is created and empirically confirmed. The tests involve measuring flow rate, flow depth, and the settling condition for two distinct solid concentrations of two different types of non-colloidal dispersion over a wide range of channel grades, “Reynolds numbers”, and Nussle numbers. A technique is described for making a priori estimations of critical erosion velocities, as may be used to advise future network designs and operating to reduce environmental and economic impacts. Advance data of the organization as well as reaction equations should be written as proper way in the manuscript at the places in which they belong. Supporting information is present following the statement and including the additional reference for further information (?íhová et al 2019). So the property of data correlations is to provide additional References to primary literature for further information. 

3.8 Design of Main equipment

The major equipment of the turbo condenser shell is designed through all the steam inlet contacts that are connected to the end of the compression stroke. Because of the predetermined dome area, it is split as a longitudinal process. It condenses when attached to tubes. The fast modifications in a state kind are what this contemplating impact is all about. This stage transforms the gas into a liquid. Changing shape refers to obtaining precise results as well as a significant reduction in the volume that causes vacuum in the capacitor. It is preserved as long as possible and kept airtight. A vacuum leaking system is utilized to support the radiator and keep air from entering the system from entering. The tubes are kept cold by the circulation mechanism (Rosner et al 2020).

All steam is connected to a condenser, with exception of the concentration components in the air system. This factor is condensed as well. In chemical engineering processes, air plays a vital role. The recognize and manage in the air is due to piping leakage, valves around shaft seals, and so on. The steam that enters the condenser and is mixed with the design descriptions serves to enhance the design descriptions. The mixture cooled far below condensing system is described as air wet with water vapor passing through the cooling zone. Vacuum, such as steam or jet condenser, removes the saturated air from the condenser.

Air must be removed from the specific program and its order to obtain the correct vacuum maintains the desired vacuum, air must be removed from the specific system and its order. (Taylor et al 2018).

The design of main equipment is derived from the individual's description of parts, and how its work individually that is listed below:

Steam Inlet….

Exhaust connection for the turbine, here the connection is flanged or welded and may be rounded shapes that are rectangular or oval. There is one above exhaust connection linked to the turbine. Some connections can be located on the side of the condenser for axial exhaust turbines. 

Protection Impingement….

The plates of the tubes or any kind of solid rods are used for the protection in a particular way. This occurs at high entrance impingement velocity. Supplied as required by design are the main components of chemical engineering processes.

Condenser Shell…

In this condenser shell are required for the defined rectangular body which contains the vacuum space around the tubes.

Supported tube plates…

The supported tube plates are constrained to be provided as intermediate for the tubes between the tube sheets.


It's a storage area with volume sufficient to contain all the making condensate, and it's given the accurate time period (Zhang et al 2020). Basically the normal time period is also specified under the design operating condition. It may depend upon the volume and requirements.

Water inlet…

Connecting the bolting and refers to the water supply for cooling.

Water Outlet…

This connects for bolting to the cooling water return process. It consists of the returning process of the overall chemical engineering processes.

Relief pressure connection….

The relief of pressure connections is either to a sealed relief valve and it will prevent the condenser frame device that being over pressurized. This device is also sized accordingly with specific standards for steam surface latest condenser editions.

The joint shell expansion…

The shell joint expansion process occurred due to differential expansion. It is only for required expantial purpose when expansion crates an over stressed condition as defined by calculations.

3.8.1 Sizing of main equipment and Installation and Operations

Sizing of main equipment and installation are the process of protective covers for shipping damage. Check for any kind of internally and replace the protective covers are to refresh the unit that is going to be placed in storage If the unit are notified the carrier and also intermediate the installation process.

The clearance of the sufficient factors will be provided at one end of the condenser to permit the removal and changes through tubes at the other end. This other end permits the expanding process of tubes. Its units are typically supplied with the specific two support saddles, this is also elongated holes and refries movement based on the thermal expansion. Its unit should be secured with an accurate foundation by bolt attaching saddles. Installation levels require more square connections that can be made without being stressed.

3.8.2 Pressure drop

Understanding the calculating section is the specified pipeline recommended to properly systematic design. Here the pressure drop matters are more frequently asked when the done report paper.

In the mechanical components in piping system changes the elevation are effected on the pumps and creating pressure drop. Starting elevation process under the pipe is lower than its end elevations. For the specific systemic piping processes are calculated the overall pressure by applying the several applications. Sometimes increasing the friction level and pressure drop due to changes in fluid flow or directions.

 So when the designed process consists, minimizing the pressure drop, plant engineering should be followed.

3.8.3 Insulation Thickness

Pipe insulation thickness is the very major factor overall in the project paper. Avoiding fundamental calculations by using shortcut methods are important to many applications in the chemical industry. When it comes to designing itself, there are many questions that arise automatically. Two questions come in this thickness matter: Which material should be used and how much thickness is required for pipe insulation purpose. Actually in the chemical industry, three variables are required to find the most economical thickness of an insulation pipe: cost of energy of the pipe, inner diameter of the pipe, and cost of insulation materials. Overall variables are calculated not to be easy, but to determine the most complicated factors of insulation thickness for a pipeline. It is finding the accurate balance between two stages: insulation materials of least amount and energy loss of least amount. Energy loss decreases or increases depending on the thickness of the materials. Thickness of the insulation materials are decreasing. The energy loss will decrease. After increasing the thickness of the material, the energy loss will be increased. So the tedious numerical calculations will be evaluated such as inside and outside temperature, cost of energy, the sizes of the pipeline (inner diameter /outside diameter) etc.

The function of pipe insulation is to provide it with the thickness of insulation to reduce the heat transfer to the outside.

The significance of the transferring heat of energy thermal to and from the surface piping system is known as the conservation of heat. The thickness of insulation provided to the pipeline will help in reducing the wastage of energy to the outside environment in form of heat. 

The formation of the moisture and collection on the surface due to some condensation, its overall piping system is called cold insulation.

The thermal expansion in the outer pipe causes the cracks and ruptures in the inside piper surface.

Hot and Cold pipe Insulation

Figure 10: Hot and Cold pipe Insulation


Based on the insulation types are classified into three stages on various parameters like. The thickness of the piping insulation based on three classes

Hot insulation process

In the hot insulation process, high temperature is applied on the hot surfaces are of the piping system. The piping system is to exclude the energy flow from the fluid. It is the aim of the hot piping insulation process as beta conservation. It is usually used for hot insulating materials.

Cold Insulation process

This cold insulation process is used only for the cold surface on the piping system to avoid the heat received from the outside. 

The protection of personal Insulation process

The personal protection of the insulation process is to avoid the personal heat from internal and external sources. All piping system surfaces exceed 65 deg C and supplied the protection insulation process. Operating personnel can be left through the system, and operating personnel are exposed. 

The insulation types based on the insulation materials factors are derived below stages.

Insulation fibrous

This insulation consists of very small diameter fibers which are divided into the air spaces. Due to the surface, it may be perpendicular or parallel insulated and theory not be linked up together.  

Typical piping insulation for bends

Figure 11: Typical piping insulation for bends


Common fibers used in insulation of the thickness of the pipe are rock wool, silica, slag etc. Fibers are normally bonded with specific organic binders for the accurate framework integrity.

Cellular pipe Insulation

Cellular insulation pipes are divided into small stages from each other. Common cellular materials are used in the thickness of the pipe insulation process or foamed plastic such as cellular glass, robber etc.

So the different pipe insulation materials are followed by different temperatures with different density.

Different pipe insulation Materials tables

Figure 12: Different pipe insulation Materials tables


Low temperature or high temperature depends on the thickness of pipe insulation materials and density. Above tables are derived the complete details of a few commonly used in insulation materials.

3.8.4 The prediction at performance factors of exchanger at heat

The performance prediction of clean heat exchangers is the very major factors in the overall chemical engineering process. Performance prediction is the device that facilitates the process of heat exchange between two fluids with several temperatures. Heat exchanger processes are used in many applications. Into this chapter of points are presented the parameters that influence the performance of a heat exchanger and also discuss the approaches for the design. Many of the projects are discussing the performance of the heat exchanger at a particular region, but never discussed the energy efficiency of a heat exchanger there did not miss it efficiency.

The efficiency is the heat exchanger is the ratio of the output work to the energy input that is generally less than one and hence less than 100%. 

So there is a way to conclude the performance of any kind of heat exchanger. Now discussing the performance are of heat exchangers. It varies, so correlates the operating cost or saving energy. 

The terms of the heat engineer are very strictly linked with their equipment. The analytical model and also mass communication in a gas of fluid condensation are developed to predict accurate heat transfer from the flue gas to cooling water and condensate rate of water vapor. In the analytical model are computed the exit temperature, mole fraction, water vapor fraction etc. The main variables and controlling volume are found for the condenser and separator.  The cross flow heat with concurrency changes the smooth wall pipe. Heat and mass transfer for water condensation are accomplished with the specific control volume. Inlet and outlet temperature of the controlling volume are denoted by Tin and Tout.

The numerical scheme at the heat exchanger of the governor equation for the value problem at boundary stages was solved. It is one of the dimensional finite difference methods with defining forward. Including valuables are known the inlet fluid gas temperature inlet mole fraction, cooling water flow rate of water vapor. In this temperature inlet of the cooling are used to target the value and serve criteria convergence. So the temperature of the heat exchanger is initially assumed. 

3.8.5 Overall sizing of equipment

Overall sizing of the equipment is considered into two main categories and custom designed. The equipment is designed in the AutoCAD and the performance specification is to be analyzed after its proper design and specifications. Overall sizing of equipment is considered as process design, it's also used to calculate the size of moving parts such as pumps, drivers with also cooling towers, valves, filters etc. Overall sizing of the equipment are aspect many aspect of chemical reactors, most vessel, and others special equipment.

Only those factors are equipped to specify by process design that are significant from the point of view.Net pump suction head materials are constructed with process liquid, and some other items. So the sizing are the main reasonable factors for the overall process design, because based on the sizes final view should be required. Sometimes this sizing of the equipment is based on the economic balance. It's subjected to monetary consideration and balance between two factors: fixed and operating cost. Another view of the point, sometimes this sizing equipment is based on the safety factors. In all the factors are calculated this performance of equipment plant there are elements of suddenly and the possibility of the certain errors.

3.9 Specification of main equipment

Some specifications of the main equipment are covered in the complete process as the assembly of units. It is carried out the specific process operations in this following chapter. When the tube's alloy changes the standard materials cost and used as appropriate way. Cooling water temperature like inlet temperature and outlet temperature are consists in the specification at main equipment. Tube outside diameter and gauge are available for the six outside diameter. Tube length are the important factors overall of the condenser, because of its direct relationship to loss of friction and also steam distribution over the bundle.

The design of main Equipment

4.1 Various constructions of Materials

Right materials chosen are very important stages in steam condenser. Water cooled  shell and heat exchanger are installed to condense exhaust steam. The most common factors are chosen materials construction. Pitting is the most important factor to damage in a condensing tube. Structural steel is selected in the condenser because of its higher strength and the capability to retain failures in the condenser device. Selecting condenser replacement tubes are most important in these materials selections. Replacement tubes are more complicated than one might think. This is an operational process and variables of chemicals to contend with. Tube materials are held against the corrosion that are causing elements is no small task. Tubeperformance history recollect the failure due to steam side, because the air removal process into tubes are helpful to chosen materials selections. In this kind of situation copper-nickel in the air removal sections are more features to construction of materials. Solution provided to be effective and the materials continue to perform well. Sometimes the replacement of tube or pipe is consistent due to engineering design of mechanical (Aswad et al 2021). In this construction process, the analysis process of failure includes some pities containing sculpture.   

4.2 Vessel Details

Vessel condensation equipment or vessel details are continuously condensed with the vapor generated during the process back into water. In these details factors are measured based on the heat transfer performance, and it is made for film condensation of steam on the side of under. Here pressure vessel has been used in the condenser. These vessels are designed to hold the accurate gases or any kind of liquids that are substantially different from the surrounding pressure. In the manufacturing of the materials may be chosen to collect the application of pressure and also will be dampened on the size of the vessel. In this history section, its accidentally occurs of their development and operations. Regulated by some engineering processes. For this appropriate reason, this definition occurs as pressure vessels vary from country to country. Shape vessels should be theoretically processed but cylindrical and cones usually employed. A common design with the end of caps is known as the head of a vessel. Sometimes more complicated shapes are historically harder to analyze for any kind of safety operations(Awad et al 2020). This is far more difficult. Construction materials are made of steel. In addition, adequate mechanical strength will define the impacting resistance and use of steel. 

So very small vessels are used to make liquid butane cigarettes lighter and composed at two bar pressure. So including one or two internal struts which appear to be disclosed but which are also provided a perfect cone of cylinder

4.3 Opening and connecting pipes/Nozzles

Pressure vessel nozzle is an operating and connecting pipe through fluids entering and exiting a vessel. Project as pressure vessel surface are to end with means of joining and also be piping with equipment(Kowalczyk et al 2020).Parts of pressure vessel nozzle will be consists at three stages or three parts: 

Flange connections with the proper are way that is connected with a pipe. 

Neck of Nozzle part and 

Reinforcement (in case of required)

the element of Pressure vessel of Nozzle

Figure 13:the element of Pressure vessel of Nozzle


Turning the result with penetration is more attractive in these factors,because its cause is due to connecting the nozzle with the vessel very well. Factors of boundary creating as discontinuous factors are in the pressure vessel wall. In this article, they study the main types of the vessels (Laskowski et al 2021). In their allowable loads few nozzle design points are concluded to help to create opening and connecting pipe. 

Engineering Drawings of Main Equipment

Pipeline process of steam condenser

Figure 14: Pipeline process of steam condenser

(Sources: Self created in Auto cad)

Engineering drawing plates play a very crucial role in every mechanical engineering student's life. Engineering drawing, have to draw and also understand the appropriate way of trolls. Reducing the dimension with reducing the scale are to measure components of the pipeline process of the steam condenser.  Above the picture is showing the pipeline process of steam condenser in Auto CAD software. This software process accesses the flexible plans and helps to support the drawing. Drafting software applications are developed by Autodesk. The internal graphics controllers are showing the pipeline process of steam condenser. 

The right view of pipeline process of steam condenser

Figure 15: The right view of pipeline process of steam condenser

(Sources: Self created in Auto cad)

Above picture shows the right view of the pipeline process of the steam condenser. Working principle Such as inside the steam condenser is kept below the atmospheric pressure. It is the general process to use the back pressure in the steam condenser. So this above picture is the appropriate way to derive the 2d drawing of a cylindrical view. In this condenser system, increases heat transfer rate by eliminating other gases from the steam. Surfacecondenser is used to power stations. The circle of middle section are defined the entering steam, and below condensate at hot well.      


2D wireframe of the right view

Figure 16: 2D wireframe of the right view

(Sources: Self created in Auto cad)

2D wire frames of the auto view are derived based on the above picture. One end point are classified two types of flanges of cover plate. One end is to the injected vacuum system. Steamturbines driving an electrical generator are used as well manner in this pipe processing of steam condenser (surface condenser).  

2D wireframe of NW Isometric

Figure 17: 2D wireframe of NW Isometric

(Sources: Self created in Auto cad)

NW isometric view is the northwest isometric view. It displays the presence of a 3D view. Above the picture is showing the 2D wireframe of NW isometric view. In this Autodesk software represents the common options: top view,bottom view,right view,back view,and isometric view. Here I understood how the isometric work. Specify setting and then used the view cube are switch to a 3D object of isometric view.  

Overall conceptual View

Figure 18: Overall conceptual View

(Sources: Self created in Auto cad)

Overall design process, the conceptual design is crucial aspects in this design work. In this design software is helped to produce accurate design structure. When models are drawing through 2D frames, the custom model views are showing the parallel option of this wireframe. This is practically defined as how to change the view and conclude the conceptual view. Visualize the concept, view edit and create the CAD drawing to simplify the user to showing overall conceptual view. So, the 3D cad design helps to create new ideas as new methods. 

The Multiple View point of Pipeline process of steam condenser

Figure 19: The Multiple View point of Pipeline process of steam condenser

(Sources: Self created in Auto cad)

The multiple views of the model are defined in the methodology section including different aspects of the system. Finite system setting and study key are solving the problem due to very well basis.Multi view modeling is known as very complex systems within a single model. It is derived from the different views of the system that have to degrees overlap. It is also to formulate the other basis problems that are connected to multitiermodeling.  

Control of Main Equipment

6.1 Objective of Control

Control and Main equipment are the major features of condensing with exhaust steam. In this controlling system,convert the heat into mechanical power, and the difference between per unit mass at the inlet is more attractive. Heat controlling systems are more conversion of heat per pound or kilogram of steam to mechanical power. It is derived from the best efficiency which consists of below atmospheric pressure. The steam pressure drop between inlet and exhaust is defined as objective control (Li et al 2019).The objective of controlling systems are readers of the vacuum system. In this system are most commonly supplied internal vacuum and maintained by external steam.   

6.2 Control Scheme

The controlling scheme at water-cooled condensers is most commonly supplied by an internal vacuum. The controlling scheme has been presented with accurate power stations dynamics due to the middle line controlling process. It is provided with the link of schedule which is the shape of control and it is a typical part of the condenser. Modeling control systems include some safety factors and allow the loss of friction. Pressures available from the steam strap are only accomplished on the condensate that the output pipe from the coil or heat exchanger will be controlling the accurate scheme. It prevents the condensate from backing up and recognizes the main equipment.  

6.3 Instrumentation

The vapor condenser is known as the closed vessel type and lowers the temperature from one end at the inlet to another end at the outlet (Zhang et al 2021). This converting process is exhaust steam from the turbine to water. This instrumental process is held below the surrounding pressure. So, this lower and than back pressure of the exhaust at the turbine is more valuable in this chapter. 

Cost Estimation

7.1 Main and Auxiliary Equipment

Auxiliary equipment represents the study of the investigation of various factors from the steam turbine by means of cooling water. This equipment works by circulating the cooling water. During this condensation process changes the phases from vapor to liquid and rejects the latent heat as a certain amount. But the surface condenser area does not mix up cooling water. It is a type of limited quantity of fresh water. A sectional view of two pass surface condensers is recommended horizontal cylindrical vessels (Onn et al 2022). In this equipment, cost estimation is considered due down flow surface and central flow surface,evaporation and last one is regenerative surface condenser. Vacuum efficiency is based on cost estimation. It measures the degree of perfection and achieving the desired vacuum in the condenser. 

Actually the ideal condenser is derived from the amount of latent heat that is measured at future purpose and equal to condensate pressure. 

Maximum pressure of the outgoing process of cooling water is the temperature of condensate that is less than for partially. So the other stages of determining the cost estimation factors of overall steam condenser. Condenser of efficiency is defined as the rising of actual temperature of cooling water to the maximum rise of temperature. 

Condensate efficiency is defined by η = t2-t1/t3-t1.

Where t1= Cooling water at an inlet temperature 

t2= Cooling water at outlet temperature. 

t3= temperature changes corresponding to pressure. 

The cooling tower for cooling purposes is very expensive. It is a smaller area than the spray pond. 

According to the air circulation process steam turbine cost estimation are classified as three stages: Draught type of natural tower at cooling section, “Mechanical draught type” of “cooling tower”(including the forced type and induced type),the last one is draught of cooling tower as hyperbolic. 

These cost estimations of a natural draught type of cooling tower are considered the series of spray nozzles(Osintsev et al 2019). In this series nozzles are accomplished to increase the amount of wetted surface in the tower. 

Natural Draught cooling Tower

Figure 20: Natural Draught cooling Tower


This report derived the cost estimation of the various equipment types and defined the specific operating factors of temperature and pressure. So the cost estimation depends on somehow this temperature are and pressure difference factors. Accurate estimation will provide the accurate data and conclude the actual design. It is the level of accuracy that elaborates the large derivation in the design conditions. 

So the Improve the range of accuracy charts of the cost estimation are showing how prices are affected (Prabu et al 2018). Another activity that could be improved is the range of accuracy of the chart. Horizontal vessel is a known pressure vessel; it is specified in the code in the horizontal position. Cylindrical pressure includes a head single wall, nozzles and manholes. This is all about the types of edescriptional processes. 

The horizontal Vessel of cost capacity

Figure 22: The horizontal Vessel of cost capacity


7.2 Other Plant Items

Other plant surfaces are ocean thermal energy, replacing some kind of ejector system. In the others plan surfaces are considering the barometric condenser. This condenser is known as the direct condenser. This direct condenser is caused by cooling water. It is used for condensation and the soap fines are discharged together. Contact condensers are classified as water spraying nozzles (Sumara et al 2018). This water spraying nozzle is known as the plate design. 

Indirect cooling water systems are the alternative system, to elaborate the surface and types of barometric fissure. Below this picture shows the indirect condensation system. This is the economic system which always operates with a certain amount of cooling water that exceeds 30 degree C temperature.  

Indirect Condensation system

Figure 23: Indirect Condensation system


The indirect cooling system consists of the alternative system to describe the surface at barometric types. In this system circulate the fluid in a closed loop between two stages. These two stages are known as the barometric condenser and pass through the plates. Due to the high transfer heat is obtained with the plate heat exchanger. This is an economical system and also operates with cooling water that exceeds 30 degree C temperature (Tontu et al 2018).So the system avoids the contamination of the cooling tower that one uses of the surface and also offers major advantages: The lower investment value and differential, less cleaning at frequent stages.

Cost of the 1 kg of structural steel = 51 pounds

Total weight of condenser = 120 pounds

The total cost of condenser = 120 *  51 = 6120 pounds

Weight of separator = 100 pounds

The total cost of separator = 5100 pounds

Fixed maintenance cost = 100 pounds monthly

Variable cost = 56 pounds monthly

Cost of procurement = 20 pounds monthly

Cost of electrical energy = 20 pounds monthly

Cost of labours = 100 pounds monthly

The total cost of designing and maintaining the condenser and separator = The total cost of condenser + The total cost of separator + Fixed maintenance cost + Variable cost + Cost of procurement + Cost of electrical energy + Cost of labours

The total cost estimated =  6120 pounds + 5100 pounds + 100 pounds + 56 pounds + 20 pounds + 20 pounds + 100 pounds

The total cost estimated = 11,516 pounds

The above cost is the cost of the procurement of the condenser, separator and running that equipment in the industries one time. From the next time, the cost of procurement of condenser and separator will be deducted from the cost. Then the total estimated cost of running the condenser and separator will be = 11,516 pounds - 6120 pounds - 5100 pounds

The total monthly cost = 296 pounds.


The performance of a vaporrebuilder of a piezoelectric power station was investigated in this study. The impact of cooling water parameters on operating conditions and condenser functionality is described in this study. Increases in the cooling system's flow, the condenser's pressure levels drop as a result of the water. Typically, a 20 kg/s change in water flow is beneficial. The pressure drops by 1% as a result of the flow. The results of the linkages reveal that the growth in the cooling water's temperature allows for an increase in condenser pressure and heat generation. Coefficient of transfer the effect of compressor inlet on energetic and exegetic efficiency was investigated. Revealed that high pressures result are in a significant decrease. Pressures greater than 8.5 kPa are considered critical. The findings revealed that heat losses mostly in rebuilder result in an increase in energy efficiency. As a result, it's a good idea to use techniques to reduce the amount of heat that is lost to the environment. Furthermore, the acquired results appear to be able to attain energy destruction is reduced by running at extreme temps in the coolant. Generally speaking, theenergy productivity of the condenser increases by 12% when the temperature is raised by 1 degree Celsius. Excessive use, on the other hand, A rise in temperature can result in an incomplete transferring reaction. The evolution of the relationships carried out can result in a guide, allowing the operator to achieve optimal working circumstances in the workplace.

Since the flow and quality of the cooling system are different, the condenser is used.

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