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Introduction - Literature Review
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The purpose of this assessment is to answer the research question ‘What are the strengths and weaknesses of recruitment and selection procedures?'. Recruitment and selection principles are important for organizations working in all sectors. These help in providing appropriate job descriptions that meet business requirements (Waugh and et.al., 2014). Recruitment and selection principles ensure that organizations sources people in a lawful manner. Moreover, these principles increase the credibility of procedures for recruiting and selecting applicants. When human resource planning is to be conducted, the nurse managers are at the forefront of operations. Literature reviews are important because these aim to provide up – to – date understanding of subject matter as well as its significance to a particular practice. It assists in comparing previous literatures on a topic thereby leading to identification of gaps.
Based on the chosen research question, a search of articles was conducted ion databases like Google Scholar. The search was guided by relevant inclusion and exclusion criteria. For searching the articles, key words were used that comprise of recruitment, selection, procedures, processes, methods, strengths, weaknesses. From the results that were retrieved after using key search terms, only those articles were selected that met the inclusion criteria. This lead to selection of four articles. Devaro (2016) conducted a study comparing the internal hiring and external recruitment. The study is based on secondary research whereby the author has compared the views of different researchers. Muscalu (2015) conducted a study on various sources through which human resources are recruited in organizations. The author used secondary research for achieving the aim of the study. Rodgers and et.al. (2013) carried out study on recruitment, selection and retention of nursing and midwifery students in Scottish universities. Semi-structured face- to- face and telephonic interviews were used by the author. Madera (2012) studied the effectiveness of social media sites as selection tool by using questionnaire method.
Internal and external recruitment
According to Devaro (2016), hiring is one of the most important decisions of a firm. Filling the vacancy through promotion or lateral transfer requires an employers to forgo the opportunity of appointing a new hire externally. Though organizations use both external and internal hiring methods, the firm may have a bias for favouring insiders. It can be analysed that nurse managers have critical leadership and managerial roles which require them to determine the requirement of human resources and recruit and select suitable personnel. As per the views of Muscalu (2015) recruitment is a key element of human resource management and is carried out with the objective of selecting those candidates who are capable of value addition to the organization. It also leads to increase in effectiveness and efficiency of the employees on short as well as long term. This is related to the research question and answer the strengths of recruitment processes. It can be analysed that external recruitment provides the organization with a wider pool of applicants. This provides a better opportunity to find a suitable match for the job position. However, it can be critically evaluated that external recruitment methods such as hiring a recruitment agency provides to be highly costly affair (Beardwell and Thompson, 2014). It requires the organization to divert its pool of finances towards the recruitment agency to fund suitable candidates for the job.
However, Devora (2016) argued that external hiring also has various advantages. With it, an organization is able to gain fresh ideas and innovations. Moreover, through external methods, the candidates that are selected are not aware about the official politics. As such, they would be less susceptible to influence of peers and subordinates which may otherwise make them less productive. The potential of external hire could be high which would make external hiring appear as worth taking the risk.
Critique of the articles assisted in determining some common themes. Two themes could be formulated on the basis if the critical analysis. The first theme was internal and external recruitment. This themes comprises of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of external as well as internal recruitment and comparing the two. This consisted of throwing light on various method of internal and external recruitment and their implications for the employer. The costs and benefits associated with both internal and external recruitment methods could also be analysed. The other theme was hiring.
Comparison of chosen articles
According to the Devaro (2016), internal recruitment carries lower risks as compared to external recruitment because the uncertainty about productivity is low. However, the potential of internal recruitment is low. Internal hiring works to create ber incentives for the employees as there is a smaller pool of competitors. Moreover, with internal recruitment, there is development of specialized knowledge and skills because the workers have anticipation regarding longer careers within the organization. However, according to Muscalu (2015), with internal recruitment, the managers are enabled to evaluate the potential of employees by observing them for certain period of time. They are also able to view the performance of the employees in the office. The author studied various methods of internal recruitment. The announcement of continued vacancy provides the employees with an opportunity to obtain a better job as well as the motivation that is required for performing the job with efficiency. In this way, the employees are able to fulfil their duties and responsibilities. Internal recruitment through promotion and transfer is also a method that is adopted by organization (Boxall and Purcell, 2011). Promotions serve to be a cost effective method. However, it can be critically analysed that promotion, as a method of internal recruitment, can lead to internal conflicts if peers do not consider the promotion of the selected individual appropriate. Job rotations are also a type of internal recruitment method with the help of which employees are able to gain knowledge about the various functional aspects of the organization.
As per the views of Devaro (2016) the strength of internal recruitment procedure is that it assists the organization in positive reallocation of its workforce across the various job levels. Similarly, Muscalu (2015) asserted that References made by employees act as a cheap and reliable source of recruitment. In contrast to this, Madera (2012) explored that the organizations that used social media sites as recruitment method have lower applicants than those organizations that do not use social media sites. It was found that the applicants did not perceive these organizations as fair. From this, it can be analysed that social media sites are not considered to be an effective means of recruitment and selection by applicants. However, it can be critically evaluated that social media is being increasingly used by employers as it has evolved faster as compared to the traditional methods of recruitment and selection.
Social media acts as a strategic tool with the help of which organizations are able to reach candidates who normally might not apply. These are the candidates who contain niche skills sets. But, as per the views of Straughair, (2012), while using social media as recruitment and selection strategy, it is important to consider legal issues that may arise. Reviewing an applicant's online profile may be regarded by courts as being aware of the protected characteristics of the applicant such as race, religion, gender, age etc. Madera (2012) found that if social media is used as a recruitment and selection process, it prevents the organization from following a standard procedure. This may leave room for discrimination or special treatment which may discourage the applicants to apply. The author also had views that by using social media for recruitment and selection, organization may obtain information that may otherwise would not be available. This is the information that may have no link with the ability of the respective candidate however, may influence hiring decision.
An evaluation of the conclusions and recommendations presented in the articles
Rodgers (2013) asserted that interviews are a widely used selection method in UK. The author also highlighted the need for interviews as a prime requirement in UK. Hurrell and Scholarios, (2011)also stressed upon the usefulness of interviews as a method of selection. These help the selection panel to analyse whether or not the applicant possesses the required social and communicative skills that the job position needs. Further, with the help of interview, the employers are able to obtain supplementary information and assess the job knowledge of applicant. It can be analysed that when selection is to be done among applicants of equal qualifications, interview is an effective method as it can be modified as per the needs and suitable information can be obtained from the applicant. However, Caers and Castelyns, (2011) argued that interviews are based on subjective evaluation which may suffer from bias. Interview makes the employer give more weight to the negative information rather than the positive aspects. Moreover, face – to – face interviews are time consuming process. Thus it requires the employers to narrow down their applicant pool. But according to CHUANG and Liao, (2010), interview assists the organization in collecting a lot of information about the applicant. With the help of it, the interviewer can conduct an in- depth analysis of the candidate which helps in deciding his suitability to the job position.
A different aspect was highlighted by the Rodgers (2013) which was related to the need for evaluation of recruitment and selection initiatives. It can be analysed that effectiveness of recruitment and selection methods can be determined by their proper evaluation. In contrast to this, Devaro (2016) asserted that it is necessary for the employers to consider the industry's nature and characteristics during both internal and external recruitment. It was stressed by the author that as compared to external hiring, internal hiring should be preferred.
Relevance of this review to context of nursing
The review is highly relevant to the context of nursing. A nurse manager is required to play both clinical and managerial roles. Moreover, they are considered to be responsible and accountable for the staff that could provide healthcare services of high quality. Recruitment selection is an important step towards creation of the correct healthcare culture (Waugh and et.al., 2014). Selection of a candidate that is appropriate for the job position not only facilitates employee interaction between patients and families but also sets the baseline for the behaviour of employees. Nurse Managers have to take care that they select the right person for a particular position so that long term retention issue could be prevented.
Decisions related to recruitment and selection cannot be made at the spot. These require adequate analysis and evaluation of the various factors such as the job position, organizational requirements, workforce planning, internal conditions etc. This highlights the needs for adopting suitable recruitment and selection methods on the basis of the associated factors (Guest, 2011). However, this requires analysing the strengths and weaknesses of various recruitment and selection method. This evaluation assists the nurse managers to employ the most suitable recruitment and selection method using with apposite candidate can be hired. Furthermore, healthcare organizations require treating patient cases by working in teams and groups. Therefore, there is a need of hiring people who can work with motivation, ability and commitment to the service users.
In this regard, it can be analysed that both internal and external recruitment methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. While internal recruitment would provide the nurse managers with an experienced person who is already aware of the organization culture, it would also lead to internal conflicts. In contrast to this, external recruitment would assist the nurse managers in bring fresh and innovative pool of ideas, it would otherwise add to the costs of the organization (Hendry, 2012). Similarly, interview is an effective method of selection which would assist the nurse managers to gain in- depth information and analysis about the applicant. However, it will be a tie consuming process.
The research question was important as it assisted in gaining information about the various methods of recruitment and selection and their respective strengths and weaknesses. Based on this information, suitable candidate could be selected by the nurse managers to fill a vacant position on a healthcare organization.
Journals and Books
- Beardwell, J. and Thompson, A., 2014.Human resource management: a contemporary approach. Pearson Education.
- Boxall, P. and Purcell, J., 2011.Strategy and human resource management. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Caers, R. and Castelyns, V., 2011. LinkedIn and Facebook in Belgium: The influences and biases of social network sites in recruitment and selection procedures.Social Science Computer Review.29(4). pp.437-448.
- CHUANG, C. H. and Liao, H. U. I., 2010. Strategic human resource management in service context: Taking care of business by taking care of employees and customers.Personnel psychology.63(1). pp.153-196.
- DeVaro, J., 2016. Internal hiring or external recruitment?. IZA World of Labor. 237.
- Guest, D. E., 2011. Human resource management and performance: still searching for some answers.Human resource management journal.21(1). pp.3-13.
- Hendry, C., 2012.Human resource management. Routledge.
- Hurrell, S.A. and Scholarios, D., 2011.Recruitment and selection practices, person-brand fit and soft skills gaps in service organizations: The benefits of institutionalized informality(pp. 108-127). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
- Madera, J. M., 2012. Using social networking websites as a selection tool: The role of selection process fairness and job pursuit intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 31(4). pp.1276- 1282.
- Muscalu, E., 2015. Sources of human resources recruitment organization. Management and Economics. 3(79).
- Rodgers, S. and et.al., 2013. Recruitment, selection and retention of nursing and midwifery students in Scottish Universities. Nurse Education Today. 33(11). pp.1301- 1310.
- Straughair, C., 2012. Exploring compassion: implications for contemporary nursing. Part 2.British Journal of Nursing.21(4).
- Waugh, A. and et.al., 2014. Towards a values-based person specification for recruitment of compassionate nursing and midwifery candidates: a study of registered and student nurses' and midwives' perceptions of prerequisite attributes and key skills.Nurse education today.34(9). pp.1190-1195.