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Artificial Intelligence in Biotechnology Assignment Sample

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Leveraging AI and Machine Learning in Biotech for Safer Drug Development

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PART A

Introduction

Artificial Intelligence and machine learning in the biotech industry, are widely used in fields including clinical data management, automated illness prediction and prevention, and biomarker identification. A new generation of medical and biotech solutions that can outperform the analytical abilities of the brightest human minds are emerging thanks to AI. Currently, the biotechnology sector primarily relies on data sharing, filtering, analysis, and storage. Worldwide, biotechnology firms and several health organizations keep enormous datasets. Drug production, compound chemical analysis, RNA and DNA sequencing, enzyme research, and other comparable biological activities all rely heavily on computerized tools and software to speed up and eliminate human error. Businesses may better plan their operations for increased productivity and a faster rate of work with the support of increased and improved predictability for both structured and unstructured data (Kulkov, 2021).

Analyzation of the unique value proposition with implied Artificial Intelligence innovation

American biotechnology corporation Gilead Sciences conducts medication research, development, and commercialization. Instron's AI technology is being used by businesses to find and create non-alcoholic steatohepatitis remedies (NASH). Studies have also demonstrated that the partnership represented the business's dedication to researching and creating therapies for NASH patients, particularly those with severe fibrosis who have the largest unmet need. The research analysis also revealed that with this partnership, the firm would make use of deep learning to investigate the biological and clinical foundations of NASH, to speed the creation of extremely effective treatment alternatives for those suffering from this condition. Additional research has demonstrated that the AI-based platform is built to promote therapeutic discovery and development by utilizing functional genomics, human genetics, and machine learning to create and improve distinctive in vitro models. The platform will also recommend possible targets, forecast patient reactions to various treatment measures, and provide insights into the development of the disease. The Special Value Accelerated research and development, homogeneous database analysis, efficient decision-making, and cost-effectiveness are the main benefits that AI has provided to Gilead Science. AI is also assisting in speeding up the planning stage of radiation therapy, which saves time and enhances patient care which is again considered the unique value proposition of the company(Böttcher et al., 2022).

Benefits received by the company through the implication of Artificial Intelligence

Increasing the rate at which innovations reach the market

AI in Gilead Science is essential for fostering innovation across a drug's or chemical's whole lifespan. AI-based tools and apps of Gilead Science assist in creating the structure of molecules based on the target market. Without having to carry out the tests in the lab manually, machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, assists in computing permutations and combinations of different compounds to determine the ideal combination. Artificial Intelligence is being used in biotechnology to create technologies that can aid in predictive analysis to foretell market demand for a certain medicine or chemical. Through the use of cloud computing, AI in Gilead Science may also assist in managing the efficient distribution of the raw materials needed by the biotechnology sector (Spring et al., 2022).

AI Platforms with Open Source for Quicker Data Analysis

For quicker and more precise findings, critical informatics tasks like gene editing, enzyme compositions, chemical investigations, and similar tasks are methodically investigated in Gilead Science. Lab helpers in the company are no longer required to do tedious jobs like data entry and analysis because of open-source AI applications like CRISPR libraries and H2O.ai. With the application of artificial intelligence in biotechnology, healthcare professionals and scientists will be able to better concentrate their attention on innovation-driven procedures by doing away with manual tasks(Artico et al., 2022).

The Shortening of the Timeline for Drug and Vaccine Discovery

Newer illnesses have a quick way to span continents in a globalized environment. To be able to contain such illnesses, the biotechnology sector of Gilead Science is in a race against time to produce improved medications and vaccinations. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are essential for accelerating the process of finding the appropriate compounds, assisting in their laboratory synthesis, analyzing data for efficacy, and supplying them to the market. With the use of Artificial Intelligence operations that once took 6–10 years have been sped up to 2.5 years in biotechnology (Kandampully et al., 2022).

Gilead Science Sharing Global Biotechnology Developments to promote global connectivity

AI systems in Gilead Science are clever in providing access to imperial data on novel medications and other industrial advancements to scientists throughout the world. Numerous machine learning techniques let scientists decode data, comprehend patterns of a certain disease in a distant location, and use this information to construct analytical models for their geography. Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) was introduced to the biotech industry, scientific models' accuracy has multiplied (Muñoz-Ecija et al., 2022).

The Distinction and the discussion of the innovation type

A popular technology for future economic growth is Artificial Intelligence (AI). However, via growing disparity between smaller and larger firms, it has tangible effects on the introduction of radical breakthroughs and the related socioeconomic implications. The productivity of businesses and the expansion of the economy have both been shown to benefit from technological innovation. Innovation is the result of a cumulative process where existing knowledge is blended in novel ways. combining previously known information in novel ways to create new artifacts is known as recombinant innovation. Thus in a practical sense, both the radical and incremental ways are related to the application of AI in biotechnology. Where the application is considered a radical process and the modified and new end products are considered incremental innovation which becomes beneficial for the consumers as well as the consumers(Artico et al., 2022).

AI innovation offers unique value over indirect or direct competitive offerings

AI-driven supply chain optimization software strengthens critical judgments by utilizing cognitive forecasts and suggestions for the best course of action. Overall supply chain performance may be improved by doing this. In terms of time, expense, and income, it also aids producers in analyzing the effects of various situations. Additionally, when relative conditions change, these recommendations are continually improved by the system due to its ongoing learning process. Manufacturers must easily have comprehensive visibility of the whole supplier value chain given the intricate web of supply networks that exists today. A single virtualized data layer provided by a cognitive AI-driven automated platform may be used to identify chances for improvement, remove bottleneck procedures, and uncover cause-and-effect relationships. All of these rely on current information rather than duplicate past information(Artico et al., 2022).

The threats of substitution

The inability of AI to acquire unconventional thinking is a significant drawback. AI can learn over time using pre-fed data and prior experiences, but it is not capable of taking novel approaches. These reports just provide information that was already given to the bot. Without distinctive original ideas, the business may fall behind in the ever-evolving market. Regular or local quality of ideas can therefore pave the way for other competing juggernauts to develop and replace the final goods while portraying themselves as a beneficiary by outdoing the incumbent enterprise(Wilson, 2022).

Competitive advantage

The term "competitive advantage" refers to a company like Gilead Science’s ability to manufacture goods or provide services more effectively than its rivals. It enables a business to produce value for the business and its shareholders while achieving greater margins. A distinctive feature of a corporation or business that cannot be easily imitated is known as a competitive advantage. The internally generated value is what distinguishes the company from rivals in the market. Competitive advantages can take many different forms. They include but are not limited to, having access to natural resources that are unavailable to rivals, highly trained labor, a well-known brand, access to cutting-edge technology, and the lowest prices(Wilson, 2022).

PART B

Gilead Science gaining knowledge for Artificial Intelligence Integration

BiotePredictive modeling, drug target identification, drug screening, and image screening are all examples of AI uses in Gilead Science, the biotech industry. Additionally, clinical trial data management and literature searches using AI are also in use. AI can manage various clinical trial datasets, provide virtual screening, and evaluate enormous volumes of data by using machine learning. AI can gather previously unattainable insights and feed them back into the medication development process, which will also lower the expenses associated with clinical trials. Many businesses are developing AI technology to benefit the biotech sector. As outdated techniques like manual picture scanning and conventional statistical analysis reach their practical limits, their services are quickly becoming indispensable. The research stage of drug R&D of Gilead Science aims to produce as many high-caliber drug candidates as rapidly as possible with the best chance of making it to the clinical development stage. Given the quantity of compounds originally screened, the discovery method has traditionally been a convergent, stepwise, pass-fail funnel process with attrition at every phase. In a perfect world, this method would only encourage the testing of substances that are pertinent to the development of medications for human use.

At every stage of the value chain, AI can assist in identifying the most promising chemicals and targets, resulting in fewer, more effective tests being run in the lab to generate the same number of leads. Although there are many possibilities to develop skills that boost productivity and increase the likelihood of success, biopharma research in medication R&D is still costly and time-consuming despite recent developments(Muñoz-Ecija et al., 2022).

Capability of Gilead Sciences towards innovative activity:

The main three elements of a company’s innovations are:

Transformational leadership: Transformational leaders encourage and motivate others to innovate and create a remarkable change. They can increase employees' willingness to perform beyond expectations, and help them accept the challenge to innovative approaches of their work. A leader should be able to make their employees create a vision.

Resources:Gilead sciences sell their products globally to make excellent revenue. They cooperate with various business partners. Gilead has acquired 16 companies which have given them complementary capabilities.

Human Resource Management:Good recruitment is very essential to make an innovation. A company should develop their employees in every aspect. They can train them to upgrade their capabilities. A company should keep a track of its employee’s performance. Creating a new feedback and evaluation standards to develop employees' performance and also let them learn from their innovation efforts.

Outline and Business model of Gilead Sciences:

The business model of Gilead Sciences contains the production of new drugs into the market to capture the benefits of the patents that prevents other companies from completing. The main factor that is used for the success of the company is investing larger amounts in R & D investments to ensure the company’s sustainability for the long term. The company consists it production of biopharmaceutical products for the following therapeutic segments:

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Program
  • Liver diseases
  • Cardiovascular
  • Hematology / Oncology
  • Inflammation / Respiratory

Apart from this a method is utilized by Gilead to connect with direct and indirect channels both to influence the doctors to prescribe the new medicines. Also they connect with many wholesalers and retailers, hospitals, government agencies and HMOs. On the other hand, they also work with different regional business partners and generic licensing partners, other stakeholders so that they can sell products internationally.

Innovation Management Principles in their Organizational Process and System:

Innovation Management Principles refers to the development of effective management towards the transformable innovative activities(Breuer, H. and Lüdeke-Freund, ., 2017).

There are some fundamentals which implement Innovation Management Principles are

Realising the value of Innovation: Innovation is developing new ideas to change the old structures which are used for long years. Apart from this realising the values of innovation will increase the capability of a person towards his work.

Future focused leadership: It is clarified that the main thing to encourage innovation is having guidance to think about an improved future. Leaders should be driven by curiosity and courage to create innovation management principles.

Strategic Direction: The direction towards innovation is based on structured alignment and relevant ambition level. For this a company should have the necessary people and resources.

Culture: Being compatible and supporting openness to change is the key of innovations. Experimentation comes along with having the willingness to take risks and accepting failure and learning something new. With the help of creative culture, exploration innovation can be created.

System approach: Innovation Management Principles are based on a system approach which can be implemented to evaluate and improve the system of a company. System enables the flow of knowledge and organisational learning.

Adaptability: Adaptability is the backbone of innovation. Adapting new things, working over things to be more innovative and learning from the mistakes makes the company strong for the drastic change.

In the case of Gilead Sciences they use all these aspects to include the Innovation Management Principles in their organisational Process. As discussed earlier Gilead Sciences seek to develop medicines in an innovative way. Instead of the old structured medicine they discovered and commercialised the innovative medicines in regions which are unmet medical necessity. With every new discovery and investigational medicines they cured the patients who are living with life- threatening diseases all over the world. On the other hand it has its own future focused leaders who guide others to take a step forward to innovation. They have a clear vision to create a healthier world for people globally. In 30 years they achieved their mission, therapeutics for patients with life-threatening diseases. Their core values are integrity, inclusion, teamwork, accountability and excellence. Employees at Gilead challenge each other to develop their work even more.Gil;ead has more than 13,600 employees worldwide. Gilead uses a proper strategic direction to make financial sustainability. The total revenue of gilead is $24,689 million and their amount of profit is $123 million. They use their stockholder equity as their major resources which cost $18,202 million. Also they try to sell their products globally by contacting various wholesalers and retailers, hospitals, doctors to prescribe their drugs, government agencies and HMOs. They have many regional business partners and stakeholders to supply products internationally. Gilead came across 16 companies which gave them strength for the market strategy. Over 30 years, Gilead Science’s employees built a different culture of excellence through their dedication regarding their mission. The commitment and hard work about improving lives created a passionate culture in their workplace. Gilead attracted the sharpest minds to thrive in this culture. Together they deliver transformative therapies to cure the disease. With the commitment employees became a part of the role of changing the world and helping millions of lives. Gilead uses a systematic approach to increase disease awareness and for that they can engage partners and deliver medicines efficiently. Every successful access initiative begins with a conversation. Over 15 years they worked for resource limited countries. They provide discounts on branded medicines based on the country's economic condition. Their main goal is to strengthen the health system in a very different way. They always conduct and support innovative therapies to make a healthier world. Apart from this in 2006, Gilead sciences became the pioneer of voluntary generic licence (Mitsumori, Y., 2019). And they work with government and non governmentalorganisations to amplify their impact. Gilead Sciences oftenly assess their access initiatives and make all the needed adjustments. In response to learn something from the initiatives this company always takes from their stakeholders and include them in their process. Gilead Sciences programs are manufactured to focus on geographic and therapeutic areas where the company can make a huge difference.

Reference

  • Artico, F., Edge III, A.L. and Langham, K., 2022. The future of Artificial Intelligence for the BioTech Big Data landscape. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 76, p.102714.
  • Böttcher, T.P., Weber, M., Weking, J., Hein, A. and Krcmar, H., 2022. Value Drivers of Artificial Intelligence.
  • Breuer, H. and Lüdeke-Freund, F., 2017. Values-based innovation management: Innovating by what we care about. Bloomsbury Publishing.
  • Kandampully, J., Bilgihan, A., Van Riel, A.C. and Sharma, A., 2022. Toward Holistic Experience-Oriented Service Innovation: Co-Creating Sustainable Value With Customers and Society. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, p.19389655221108334.
  • Kulkov, I., 2021. Next-generation business models for artificial intelligence start-ups in the healthcare industry. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research.
  • Mitsumori, Y., 2019, August. Analysis of the Socioeconomic Impact of a Voluntary License Granted by a Brand Name Manufacturer to Generic Manufacturers in India. In 2019 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET) (pp. 1-7). IEEE.
  • Muñoz-Ecija, T., Vargas-Quesada, B. and Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z., 2022. Unveiling cognitive structure and comparative advantages of countries in knowledge domains. Journal of Information Science, p.01655515221084607.
  • Spring, M., Faulconbridge, J. and Sarwar, A., 2022. How information technology automates and augments processes: Insights from Artificial?Intelligence?based systems in professional service operations. Journal of Operations Management, 68(6-7), pp.592-618.
  • Wilson, G.A. and York, J.M., 2022. Reducing risk and increasing performance in the biotechnology industry. Journal of the International Council for Small Business, pp.1-12.
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