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Introduction - A Study Of It Project Management And Its Applications
Information Technology (IT) become an important part of the Company, Organisation, Enterprises, Firms, etc. With time the utilisation of Information System (IS) within the Enterprise is continuously increasing (AITP, 2021). It is analysed that there are different challenges, problems, and issues that are associated within the Information System that needs to be properly managed.
It is analysed their deployment of the Information System (IS) solution is not a simple task and is linked with the domain of the project management. It is indicated that the complete product development life cycle, or the project management lifecycle needs to be conducted to fully integrate the information System at the Enterprise (Bates & Gawande, 2003). The research topic is linked with the project management life cycle and different projects are conducted at the academic or and professional industry in this topic. In the context of this research work we will be studying the IT Project Management and its application (PMI, 2008).
1. Significance of IT Projects
IT projects are conducted at the industry level and there is a high probability that there are different challenges that that IT industry has been facing. One of critical point or the challenge in IT industry is facing is the failure of the project and which are most of the projects such as Sony Betamax, Apple Lisa, IBM PCjr, (Front, 2018)
Most of the IT project are not completed on the time, cost and one of the major reasons is that wrong methodology selection. If the wrong methodology is selected there is a high possibility that all the parameters that also stated within the context of project management lifecycle would not be able to handle properly in the key results would not be obtained (SAPM, 2015).
2. Aim of Research Project and Scope
The research work aimed to shed the light on the context of the capstone project management. In this regard, the study further emphasizes the basics of IT projects and the implementation of various methodologies as well. IT projects are unique in nature and complex compared to other projects in the industry with a high risk of data inclusion. The introduction of project management has helped to boost numerous scope of IT projects’ success. Besides, the study considered the aspect of project management thereby highly significant to delivering opportunities for developing research and practical skills to others. The project outcomes also would provide a broad view of project risks and benefit that help the learner gets a better understanding of capstone project management.
3. Capstone Project Management
Capstone projects have become dynamic in nature with the changing technologies and increasing user’s flexibility. The incorporation of the project management aspect allows the capstone projects to achieve its IT objectives within the stipulated budget and time effectively. The process includes hardware installation, software development, up gradation, networking, business analytics and other data management incentives (Ciric et al. 2021). It can also add that with the support of project management, Capstone projects benefited from overseeing of design and its implementation that in turn outlines the project's success. Capstone projects include a typical life cycle of projects along with agile methodology. Apart from that in today's global economy, managing of projects requires skilled personnel and effective techniques that help to better manage the expectations and deliberates (Deepamala & Shobha, 2018). Capstone project management also encompasses a design-build test deploy strategy within the concerned methodologies for defining the requirements, identifying the gaps and managing the impact of multiple projects correspondingly.
a. Definition of Project Management
Various definitions are there that focus on simplifying the project management approach in both spectrum of business as well as the personal ground. As opined by Ma et al. (2018), project management can be termed as the use of specific skills, knowledge, techniques and tools to deliver value to people. The process involves project planning, documentation, tracking and communication for delivering the objectives successfully within a constructive time, budget and scope. Besides, project management is aimed at generating an end product that will instigate some beneficial changes in the project. It has been seen that projects are quite separate from the usual business activities and management of project occur only when organizations intensified delivering a solution within a time frame and budget to set requirements (Apm.org.uk, 2020). Additionally, project management is help to define the reason for the project, specific quality of deliverables.
b. Project Management Lifecycle
The project life cycle moves through iterations of execution, planning, and controlling until delivering a structured way of accomplishing IT projects including technical scope and success. An understanding of the project life cycle is pivotal for project completion as it facilitates the understanding of logical sequences of the project process from start to finish. Typical capstone projects consist of four distinct phases and each phase is marked by deliverables.
Figure: IT project lifecycle
(Source: Researchgate.net, 2021)
The above figure has represented a step-wise framework that is used to complete various IT projects. Starting with the seed of an idea the first phase includes sorting out of projects scope, resources and aims that are crucial for project success. In the initiation phase, henceforth, a proposal has been established for project stakeholder’s appraisal (Fan, 2018). The second cycle includes planning the project structure along with the identification of activities and their sequencing.
On the other hand, the execution phase witnesses some concentrated activities such as reviewing process, control of quality, managing changes and others that are essential for the proper execution of strategy. After incorporating changes via change request, the cycle focuses on concluding the project activities to achieve the project objectives. Completion of the project has been marked in this phase by installing the agreed deliverables for further follow-up and evaluation. A report on the project close-out has also been developed in this phase to retain consistency.
In a capstone project, the life cycle follows an S-shaped or J-shaped path of progress along with the maintenance and transfer of assets related to the project. Besides, the project management of capstone implies an iterative life cycle that includes the defining of the project on an early basis for adding more features in this path. Estimation of the budget and activity at a higher level has been done during the project process as well.
In the aspect of the present study, some themes have been designed by the researcher for the purpose of making the project delivery more effective for purposes. Themes have developed in such a way, so that answering of the project objectives becomes easier for the aspect of the present work. The study focuses on the existing project management concept that helps to carry out capstone projects. The research theme includes the recurring idea of the research subject such as the effectiveness of the project management to ensure the project success, and factors that accelerate the proper implementation of the project methodologies in the project management life cycle.
4. Basics and needs of IT projects
Project management is considered the use of core knowledge, skills, and tools along with reliable techniques in order to deliver valuable outcomes to the people. IT (Information Technology) is the suitable process of effective planning, organising as well as delineating responsibilities for completing the IT goals of a particular firm. As stated by Ellitan (2021), information technology is essential at present days as it helps to build and facilitate the business and commerce sectors adequately. It is also beneficial to help businesses to generate the maximum valuable outcomes. IT projects can be observed in different forms; however, projects related to software development are most observed here (Saura, Palos-Sanchez & Blanco-González, 2019). In some cases, hardware projects are also connected through this context. There is a strong need to identify the needs along with specifications of the IT projects in order to determine the specific results. The common IT projects that are observed frequently are network configuration, hardware installation, software development, web development along with mobile app development.
In order to manage IT projects, the "MSF (Microsoft Solution Framework) team model" and "MSF Process Model" are widely used. MSF offers the core guidance in order to ensure better organisation of people and projects for planning, building, and deploying successful IT solutions. As per the below figure, it has been identified that five specific phases are included under this model such as deploying, envisioning, planning, developing, and stabilizing. These stages are quite relevant to manage IT projects most suitably.
Figure 2: MSF team model
(Source: Cherednichenko et al. 2021)
Purpose of the IT projects
The main purpose of IT projects is associated with business growth mainly as these projects are beneficial to develop employee communication, automate the core business operations, and also enhance the required transparency of the project effectively (Einhorn, Marnewick & Meredith, 2019). These are essential to promote client and employee satisfaction as well as enhance the profit rate. Different benefits can also be gained through IT projects such as the development of decision making, process improvement, and more whereas the success rate of IT projects mainly depends on how well the development will be incorporated. As an example, focus can be provided on "Enterprise Resource Planning" as it needs to be implemented within an organisational context to gain the best possible outcomes (Hasan et al. 2019).
Management of the IT projects
In order to manage the IT projects, initially, there is a strong need to conduct effective planning and then, it is necessary to monitor the entire project actively along with the team members. Different types of project management software need to be taken under consideration as well to gain the best possible outcomes. Then, it is essential to appoint a skilled project manager and a skilled project team within the project as technical knowledge is essential to execute these projects successfully (Bril et al. 2021).
Changes need to be managed accordingly to facilitate project scopes and agile methodology can be considered also. Agile methodology is reliable enough to adjust the projects as per market needs to maximize the best possible outcomes. Several stakeholders are also associated with the IT projects such as the developer, project manager and sponsor, tester, and others among which the project manager is one of the key stakeholders to manage the entire project appropriately (Nguyen & Mohamed, 2018). It is essential to maintain the satisfaction level of each of the stakeholders to enhance the success rate of the project.
5. Research Methods and Analysis
During the conduction of the research work, the presence of a structured method is essential for the aspect of extracting the expected outcomes of the study. In the context of the present research work, a secondary qualitative method has been followed by the researcher. By utilizing such a method, the researcher has enabled of gathering relevant secondary data that is useful to structure the research outcomes as well. Additionally, the method is a cost and time-effective one that to some extent contributes to achieving the research objectives. Apart from that, all the secondary data that has been collected from reliable sources have been analyzed with the support of thematic analysis. Research themes mainly emphasize the alignment of the research questions while providing the core results. Furthermore, in the qualitative method, no sources with data breaches have been considered by the researcher.
Figure 4-3 Research Method (Gurav, 2014)
There are stages that are involved in the methodology indicated feedback and feedforward technique has also been applied and these techniques has been applied in case if the key results are not obtained and we could move back towards the previous stage. Specially, while developing the research method from the literature observation the key results if not obtained
and the research methodology contain the framework and based on that framework we could move back to previous stage.
a. Define Research Problem
This is considered an important stage, and, in this stage, we will be defining the research problem. The key research problem is associated within the context of the project management and is defined in the previous section. Based on this research problem the complete proposal has been developed.
b. Literature Analysis
In this stage the articles, conference paper, Journal, Dataset, and other components has been considered. So, that the literature analysis and the concepts about the project management could be developed. This provide the viewpoint that what research has been conducted in the past and how the key results and outcome could be obtained.
Framework model and hypothesis
The research framework has been developed in an adequate way through which it is possible to frame the entire research method and collect reliable information on IT project management and its applications. In the case of research hypotheses, two particular hypotheses have been developed here such as:
Null hypothesis (H0): IT project management is essential to automate the core business operations at present days to gain a high competitive edge.
Alternative hypothesis (H1): IT project management is not essential to automate the core business operations at present days to gain a high competitive edge.
The above-stated hypotheses need to be tested and verified properly to measure the possible outcomes of the IT project management.
c. Design Research
This is defined and considered as an important stage and in the context of this stage the research design has been provided. In this design research, we overall point the limitation and how the research work and the other component that is associated within the context of this process would be conducted.
Data collection method
In the data collection, collection of reliable information related to IT project management needs to be taken into consideration. In this research, the researcher has used secondary sources mainly in order to collect secondary information. Initially, 50 journals, news articles, and conference papers have been selected and after the final selection, only 20 journals have been finalized to gather the actual information. In the case of databases, “Google Scholar”, “ProQuest” and authentic websites have been taken under consideration here. In this context, inclusion and exclusion criteria have been maintained as well that are provided below:
? Journals and articles that are published within 5 years from now have been taken under consideration here.
? Journals that are related to the research topic have been considered here only.
? Articles that are in the English language have been selected by the researcher.
? Journals and articles that are not published within 5 years from now have not been taken under consideration.
? Journals that are related to other topics rather than the research area have not been taken into consideration.
? Articles that are published in other languages rather than English have not been selected by the researcher.
Table 1: Inclusion and Exclusion criteria
Data analysis method
In order to analyze the data, a research matrix has been developed in which the final selected articles are clearly illustrated [Refer to appendix]. Publication year, title, research methodology, main findings, research types, and others are included in the research matrix from which it is possible to get the core information related to the research topic effectively. The descriptive form has been maintained here mainly and based on the different contexts, the information has been analysed clearly. It is necessary enough to maintain the quality level of the research findings in order to facilitate the reliability of this research.
d. Interpret and Report
This is considered the final stage, and, in this stage, the final documentation and the para metres has been listed down so that the outcome that we're looking forward could be ensured.
6. Research Findings
The key problem that we will be sorting out in the context of this research work is to look forward towards the best methodology that could be integrated for managing the IT project and their related component. This is considered as critical section of the report and in the context of this report we have identified some of the main finding that has been extracted published
literature (Ahimbisibwe, Cavana, & Daellenbach, 2015; Balle, Oliveira, Curado, & Nodari, 2018; Ribeiro & Fernandes, 2010).
I believe that through the help of this finding we will be able to respond to the key research questions and the objective that has been set as the part of this research work (Piwowar-Sulej, 2021). The detail key finding, and the observation are mentioned and discussion in this section.
5.1 Management of changes
In the IT project, change is a common factor, and thus, due to the changes its making both negative as well as positive impacts on the entire project. As stated by Hoda, Salleh, & Grundy (2018), the main changes found are alternation in project courses, quality, budget, and time. Changes are counted to be inevitable in nature during the lifecycle of the project. Similar to it, there is a high possibility of the occurrence of changes as well as challenges in methodologies. In case the agile method is being primarily chosen for the development of IT projects, it is an advantageous fact as through it any kind of challenges can be handled in a tactful manner.
Figure 1: Comparison of managing changes in Agile and Waterfall Methodologies
(Source: Hoda, Salleh, & Grundy, 2018)
5.2 Selection of project methodology
The methodologies of project management are known as the practices as well as principles that assist in guiding the organization of projects in order to make sure about optimum performance. As mentioned by Tam et al. (2020), the main cause of the rise of different types of IT project methodologies is to address all concerns of the projects which are production methods, KPIs, and goals as well. The best project management methodology is chosen based on the different factors which are team size, budget, costs, flexibility, risk-taking ability, as well as the collaboration of the client. The waterfall is a type of approach to project management that is traditional as it consists of steps which are analysis, construction, requirements, testing, maintenance, construction, and deployment. Among all types of methods, the best one is the agile method as its concept is responsible for providing to specific areas of the project which are not done properly by using the other methods such as a waterfall.
Figure 2: Differences among Agile, and Waterfall Methodologies of IT projects
(Source: Tam et al. 2020)
5.3 IT project methodology
From the above discussion, it is clear that the agile method is only one of the most popular methods for IT projects due to its evolutional nature as well as flexibility. According to Islam & Storer (2020), the development of the agile method was done in recent times due to the development of software. Most of the organizations in the international platform are found to be using a mainly agile method, as it is their first choice as is noted to be an approach that is incremental and interactive in nature. The main assistance that is obtained from the agile method by the IT project team is keeping up with modern workplace demands. The concept based on which the concerned methodologies are developed are continuous improvement, quality, flexibility, and transparency.
5.4 Framework derived from the agile methodology
Irrespective of using the agile methodologies, IT organizations are found to be not successful as their project fails due to improper knowledge of the agile method. As per the view of Dima & Maassen (2018), in order to gain achievement in IT software development the most important area is having clarity of basic agile frameworks. There are two types of the fundamental framework of agile which are kanban and scrum. Scrum being a framework of the agile method is used in handling large-sized IT projects into small sections known as "Sprints". Another agile framework is the kanban framework which is seen to be making the aspect of identification of important tasks of the project a better manner working on it.
Figure 3: Advantages of Choosing Agile over Waterfall
(Source: Dima & Maassen, 2018)
5.5 Application of the methodology
In the case of agile method usability, the agile method is solely relied on by project managers as it consists of a huge amount of benefits which as having great control over the project. According to the viewpoint of Venkatesh et al. (2020), the facts based on which the uniqueness of the agile method lies is the valuation provided to customers as well as delivering high quality to customers. As testing is an important part of the phase of project execution therefore the quality is highly prioritized in project. In addition to this, there are other spats of choosing agile, irrespective of the presence of other methods which are highly able to satisfy the customers.
The projects can be managed properly through the application of the agile method in software development IT projects as the projects are divided into small sections. As argued by Perkusich et al. (2020), the involvement of continuous collaboration with stakeholders as well as constant improvement in all stages is found. As soon as the project starts, the different cycles that the project has to go through are executing, planning, and finally evaluating the project. There is a high necessity for constant collaboration with the stakeholders of the projects and team members which helps to develop a better project by the project team based on the perspectives of clients. A groundbreaking mindset is developed by the agile method of collaborating with clients altogether with delivering value.
One of the main values of the agile method is interactions over tools and processes that are done by individuals. Apart from this, there are other valuations of the agile method which are working software on comprehensive documentation, responding to changes, and collaborating with customers rather than contract negotiations. As mentioned by Gupta, George & Xia (2019), through the application of the agile method, it is possible to make improvements in the IT project throughout the lifecycle and the changes are responsible as well as done quickly. The benefits that are obtained by the software IT team by using the agile method are the enhancement of development speed, expansion of the collaboration, as well as fostering the capability of better responding to the target market. On the other hand, the scrum consists of disadvantageous factors as well among which one of them is product backlogs which are on the priority list. Another one is sprint backlog which is pervaded by the issues that are found in projects.
6 Lessons Learned from Capstone Project Management
Being a part of this project is a great experience for me and I believe that there are a lot of things that I have learned while being a part of the project management. I think that whatever I have learned would be helping me in future and career development,
- Understanding the Project Management Lifecycle
- Getting in-depth understanding that how the project management life cycle and its little component needs to be carried In different project I have applied the project management lifecycle and understood it concept.
- I believe there without the understanding and getting the knowledge of the project management life cycle I will not be able to obtain the results and how actually the project management tasks are carried out
- Analysing the Data
- Finding and investigating different types of ways through which the literature analysis could be developed and I have focused on data analysis so that the key results could be obtained, and the applied methodology could be well interlinked.
- There are different data has been investigated and collected and through the help of the This analysis has been conducted and I believe that my understanding about Microsoft Excel has been improved and how it could be utilised for that data.
- Developing the Research Matrix
- I have developed the research matrix so that the key results and the outcome of the finding could be
The key purpose of conducting this research work is to analyse agile methodology and how it can help in managing IT projects. There are different types of finding that have been provided in the context of this research work and through the analysis, it has been founded that most companies are utilizing agile methodology to gain productive outcomes.
There are many arguments that clearly identified that success of IT project is highly dependent upon how well they are planned and managed. This task could be achieved through the utilization of the methodology.
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