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MIT111 A2 - Ethics Research Report on Cyber Threat Risk Analysis Assignment Sample

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Introduction: MIT111 A2 - Ethics Research Report on Cyber Threat Risk Analysis

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It can be said that if adequate safety measures are not in place, sending personal health data over the Internet could be risky. Hence, there is a requirement for the implementation of measures of security. Personal health information can be accessed, accessed, and potentially misused for malevolent reasons without the right security precautions, such as encryption and secure transfer methods. There can be a presentation of a large percentage of actions and these actions are incorporated for making effective actions against activities of fraud. Therefore, it is crucial to implement strong security measures, including encoding of information within transit and secure spread protocols like via HTTPS. There can be incorporation of measures and appropriate protocols can become involved after application of features of security.

1) Performance of risk analysis

Consequences associated with incorporation of risks

Likelihood

Insignificant problems

Minor issues

Moderate problems

Major problems

Catastrophic measures of problems

Almost certain causes

Lack of advancement with regard to technologies

Use of sensors which is highly sensitive

Transformation of technologies

Motor prone to issues

The lower amount of investment

Likely kinds of issues

Implementation of safety modes of technologies

Safety technology

Existence of a huge amount of competition

Meeting several kinds of procedures associated with the expenditures of patients

Fluctuation in processes of automation

Possible

Strategies incorporated in cases of management of resources

Processes involved in cases associated with authoring

Lower supply of medicines

Processes associated with designing

Automatic mode of design

Unlikely

Cutting of total number of staff

Comfort

Economy

Handling patients

Incorporation of digital dashboards

Rare

The interface associated with machinery

Fitting of all types of products

Relations involved with members

Low interface

Performance

Table 1: Implementation of risk analysis

(Source: Self-created)

Explanations

These safety guidelines offer a framework for putting best practices and security measures in place to safeguard sensitive health information. They assist to lower the risk of breaches of information, unauthorized mode of access, and other safety hazards by ensuring that healthcare organizations follow industry best practices and regulatory requirements (Bampidis et al. 2019). Hence, these are contemplated as one of the most significant approaches for the implementation of security methods.

ID of risk

Description of risks

Affected fields

Level of impact (“1 to 5”)

Level involved in probability (“1 to 5”

Level of priority

R1

Issues in remote monitoring of health

Operational

3

3

9

R2

Implementation of sensitive devices

Financial

3

4

12

R3

Huge amount of competition

Marketing

4

4

16

R4

Pressure in resources of hospital

Financial

4

3

12

R5

Reduction of measures of security in treating patients

Marketing

5

4

20

Table 2: Description of specific types of issues

(Source: Self-developed)

Healthcare organizations can improve the safety, reliability, and accessibility of their health data by applying these safety standards, which will also increase patient trust and confidence in the medical field.

2) Description of procedures of security

The “HIPAA Security Rule” establishes a federal standard for safeguarding digitally stored health information (ePHI) by mandating covered organizations and suppliers to put in place specific administrative, physical, and technical safeguards. There can be an assurance of security and implementation of procedures can become involved in this specified approach. This is an internationally accepted standard that offers a methodical approach to handling sensitive data and assuring its security (Sharma et al. 2019). It provides a detailed framework for security management that takes into account individuals, procedures, and equipment. Safeguarding requirements can become implicated after the application of this procedure. There can be involvement of technological risks and these are depicted as pertinent measures in this context. A risk-based approach to cybersecurity is provided by the “National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST”, in its Cyber Framework, which aids organizations in controlling and reducing risks related to cybersecurity. When data passes over the web, hackers may try to intercept it to access sensitive data like medical conditions, therapies, and medications (Lenzen et al. 2020). Identity theft, insurance fraud, and various other criminal actions can all be performed with this data. Hence, there can be incorporated measures of safety for getting effective standards involved in the security of health centers.

For companies that accept credit card payments, the “Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS)” is a security standard created to safeguard cardholder data. It may be pertinent for healthcare organizations that take payments for services even though it is not explicitly intended for healthcare. Health data should only be communicated via secure channels that have been certified by industry-recognized safety protocols, and it should be secured with the highest level of safety possible. Moreover, sending personal health information over the web can be securely provided the right security measures are put in place and closely watched to ensure that the data is secure at all times over the transfer (Iversen et al. 2020). These are addressed as methods of safety and these are implicated after the derivation of effective types of measures in this regard.

Finally, there are worries that omnipresent computing can be utilized for evil activities like cyberattacks or the dissemination of misinformation. They are more susceptible to hackers and other types of criminality as a greater number of gadgets and systems are connected. It can be depicted as a process and these are crucial for developers, lawmakers, and other users to think about the potential hazards and advantages of omnipresent computing and to devise techniques for minimizing such risks so as to address these ethical concerns (Bielicki et al. 2020). Implementation of techniques can become implicated and ensuring ethical procedures can become involved in this approach. This may entail creating new laws and regulations to safeguard personal information and ensure its fair and ethical use, and also funding initiatives to eliminate the digital divide and guarantee that all individuals have access to the resources and amenities they need (Nittari et al. 2020). Hence, these procedures are involved and these are depicted as measures after implementation of this approach.

Justification for adaptation of measures of health

There can be availability of confidentiality and these are implicated as one of the most significant approaches after implementation of measures of security. Moreover, the integrity of data can be maintained after effective modes of application of this specified measure of health. Hence, these are selected and derived as one of the most significant measures identified in this regard. Moreover, there can be the implementation of processes of scalability and these are implicated in the derivation of effective modes of approaches in the context of implementation. These are justifications for this kind of measure after the application of effective measures of health.

3) Ethical standards concerning the health data including Australian government guidelines or International Ethics

a) Appropriate ethical standards and frameworks

As WinMore Hospital's technology manager, it is critical to ensure that the health data gathered by the remote health monitoring system is handled with integrity and care. To ensure the privacy, security, and confidentiality of patient data, the utilization of highly sensitive sensor devices for patient monitoring necessitates a strict adherence to ethical standards and frameworks. For healthcare providers to practice ethically in Australia, the government has established a number of guidelines and regulations.

The “Australian Privacy Principles (APPs)”, which manage the complete handling of personal info by Australian entities, are one such guideline. In order to guarantee that the data are only used for the intended purpose and with the individual's consent, the APPs provide guidance on the collection, use, disclosure, and storage of personal information, including health data. Moreover, the “Wellbeing Record framework” gives a safe stage to the capacity and dividing of well-being data among medical care suppliers and patients (Reddy et al. 2020). The “Declaration of Helsinki” of the “World Medical Association”, which lays out the ethical guides for medical investigation involving subjects related to humans, is another ethical standard that healthcare providers are required to adhere to. Among other principles, the declaration emphasizes the significance of informed consent, confidentiality, and the protection of vulnerable groups.

Another set of guidelines for conducting human research in an ethical manner is the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. It frames the critical moral standards, like regard for human respect, helpfulness, non-perniciousness, and equity. When developing and implementing new technologies, such as the remote health monitoring system, it is also essential to adhere to ethical guidelines (Navalta et al. 2019). The IEEE Worldwide Drive on Morals of Independent and Wise Frameworks gives a structure to the moral plan, improvement, and sending of such innovations. Similar to how marketers may target us with adverts or thieves could figure out when there is a home using the information collected by smart home gadgets. The possibility for ubiquitous computing to worsen already-existing inequities is another ethical problem. Those who do not have access to or are unable to use computers and the internet will fall behind as a growing number of services and resources become reliant on these technological advances. This might make social and economic gaps worse. Hence, it can be depicted as an appropriate form of procedure for escalation of the total amount of reliability. The reliability and precision of the data gathered by ubiquitous computing gadgets and sensors are significant issues. Moreover, there can be involvement of specific kinds of issues and these are depicted as effective measures in the enhancement of reliability of systems. Sometimes, information may be gathered without our knowledge or agreement, which raises concerns about the validity of the data and how it will be used.

b) Conflicting standards across countries and challenges

As WinMore Hospital's technology manager, it is critical to ensure that the health data gathered by the remote health monitoring system is handled with integrity and care. To ensure the privacy, security, and confidentiality of patient data, the utilization of highly sensitive sensor devices for patient monitoring necessitates a strict adherence to ethical standards and frameworks. For healthcare providers to practice ethically in Australia, the government has established a number of guidelines and regulations (Grote and Berens, 2020). The “Australian Privacy Principles (APPs)”, the handle of personal data by Australian entities, are one such guideline. In order to guarantee that the data are only used for the intended purpose and with the individual's consent, the APPs provide guidance on the collection, use, disclosure, and storage of personal information, including health data. Moreover, the “Wellbeing Record framework” gives a safe stage to the capacity and dividing of well-being data among medical care suppliers and patients. The “Declaration of Helsinki” of the “World Medical Association”, which lays out the “ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects”, is another ethical standard that healthcare providers are required to adhere to (Wiggins and Wilbanks, 2019). Among other principles, the declaration emphasizes the significance of informed consent, confidentiality, and the protection of vulnerable groups. Another set of guidelines for conducting human research in an ethical manner is the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. It frames the critical moral standards, like regard for human respect, helpfulness, non-perniciousness, and equity (Harriss et al. 2019). When developing and implementing new technologies, such as the remote health monitoring system, it is also essential to adhere to ethical guidelines. The IEEE Worldwide Drive on Morals of Independent and Wise Frameworks gives a structure to the moral plan, improvement, and sending of such innovations.

4) Consider and recommend future technologies

a) Secure the smart sensors

Future Technologies for Remote Health Monitoring As technology develops, a few key areas have the potential to enhance the remote health monitoring system and enhance patient care.

AI (Artificial Intelligence): Artificial intelligence can be used to investigate the information gathered from the distant well-being checking framework to identify any peculiarities or patterns (Gerke et al. 2020). Artificial intelligence can be prepared to recognize designs in the information and ready medical care experts for any likely issues before they become extreme.

Block chain: The remote health monitoring system's data transmission can be protected using block chain technology. Block chain is a secure, decentralized platform for sharing data that can safeguard patient privacy and prevent data breaches.

AR: augmented reality with the help of augmented reality (AR) technology, patients can gain a better understanding of their medical conditions and treatment plans. For instance, AR can be used to demonstrate to patients how to properly exercise or administer medications.

VR: Virtual Reality VR innovation can be utilized to furnish patients with vivid encounters that can assist them with adapting to agony or nervousness. VR can be used for mental health therapy or as a method of distraction during medical procedures.

Technology for Wearables: Wearable technology advancements may make it possible to carry out more in-depth health monitoring on patients. Wearable gadgets can gather information on crucial signs, rest examples, and action levels, which can give medical services experts a more complete image of the patient's well-being.

Getting Brilliant Sensors from Being Seized

Brilliant sensors are a basic part of the far-off well-being observing framework, and their security should be guaranteed to keep them from being commandeered into botnets (Schwalbe and Wahl, 2020). A botnet is an organization of gadgets that have been undermined by malware and can be controlled from a distance by an aggressor.

The following measures can be taken to protect smart sensors:

Encryption: Encryption of the sensor data should be used to prevent attackers from intercepting it. Data can only be accessed by authorized parties thanks to encryption.

Authentication: To ensure that they are communicating with authorized devices, sensors should be authenticated. Using passwords and unique identifiers can accomplish this.

Periodic Updates: In order to stop attackers from taking advantage of vulnerabilities, sensors should be updated on a regular basis with the most recent security patches (Schwalbe and Wahl, 2020).

Firewalls: To prevent unauthorized access to the sensors, firewalls can be utilized. It is possible to set up a firewall to only allow traffic from networks and devices that are authorized.

Actual Security: To prevent unauthorized access to the sensors, physical security measures should be implemented. Sensors should be in safe places, and only authorized personnel should be able to access them.

b) Ethical concerns in the age of ubiquitous computing

There are a number of ethical concerns raised by the widespread use of remote health monitoring systems and other computing technologies.

Security and privacy: The health information collected by these systems about patients’ needs to be kept private and safe. The information should be scrambled during transmission and put away safely to forestall unapproved access. Discrimination and bias: The utilization of computer-based intelligence calculations in medical care raises worries about predisposition and separation (Roberts et al. 2021). Healthcare disparities can be perpetuated and exacerbated by AI algorithms trained on biased data.

Informed Assent: The data that is collected, how it is used, and who has access to it all need to be fully explained to patients. Patients should be offered the chance to quit in the event that they are awkward with the utilization of their information.

Autonomy: Patients should hold their independence and have the option to come to conclusions about their medical services. Patients' autonomy and agency must not be compromised by remote health monitoring systems.

Transparency: Medical services suppliers and innovation organizations should be straightforward about the working of far-off wellbeing observing frameworks and other omnipresent figuring advancements. Patients ought to be able to comprehend how the system functions and uses their data. Being open about the algorithms used to analyze the data, how decisions are made, and how the system affects patient care are all examples of this.

Ownership of Data: Even if health data is collected and stored by remote health monitoring systems, patients must retain ownership (Amann et al. 2020). Patients ought to have the right to access, control, and even delete their data. Patients' rights to data ownership must be respected by healthcare providers and technology companies, and patients must have adequate control over their data. Hence, these are implicated as one of the most significant approaches after the derivation of this strategy.

Qualitative Data: The nature of well-being information gathered by far-off wellbeing observing frameworks is basic for precise finding and treatment. Data collected by healthcare providers and technology companies must be trustworthy, accurate, and clinically relevant. This incorporates guaranteeing that the sensors utilized in far-off wellbeing observing frameworks are exact and aligned accurately.

Interpretation of Data: The process of interpreting health data gathered by remote health monitoring systems is intricate and necessitates medical expertise. To interpret the data and make informed decisions regarding patient care, healthcare providers must be trained. In order to guarantee that patients receive the best possible care, the application of AI algorithms to analyze health data must be complemented by human expertise.

Access that is fair: Healthcare disparities must not be made worse by the use of remote health monitoring systems and other ubiquitous computing technologies. These systems must be accessible to all patients, regardless of their socioeconomic status or location, by healthcare providers and technology companies.

Patient Help: To use a remote health monitoring system effectively, patients may require additional assistance and direction. To ensure that patients can use the system safely and effectively, healthcare providers and technology companies must provide adequate support and training.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that numerous ethical questions are raised by the emergence of omnipresent computing or the proliferation of interconnected computing devices and sensors integrated into our daily lives. In this context, the term "ubiquitous computing" refers to the concept that computers and sensors would be present in all areas of our lives, including our cars, homes, offices, and public places. There can be an incorporation of adaptable modes of technologies and surroundings can become more involved in this framework. Making our surroundings more adaptable and suited to our needs, has the potential to significantly enhance our quality of life, but it also raises certain ethical issues. The potential for privacy to be violated by ubiquitous computing is one of the key ethical worries. There is a chance that this data could be misused or abused by others as more and more information about us is collected with our devices and sensors.

References

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