Combo Offer 35% Off + 10% Extra OFF on WhatsApp

Covid 19 Impacts On Tourism Industry Assignment Sample

  • Plagiarism & Error Free Assignments By Subject Experts
  • Affordable prices and discounts for students
  • On-time delivery before the expected deadline

No AI Generated Content

62000+ Projects Delivered

500+ Experts

Enjoy Upto 35% off
- +
1 Page
35% Off
AU$ 11.83
Estimated Cost
AU$ 7.69
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment At The Lowest Price Now!
X

Table of Contents

Introdction: Covid 19 Impacts On Tourism Industry

Struggling with your assignments? then this Free Sample written by PH.D certified subject expert academic writers can help you to improve your grades. For more detail information you can take free assignment related assistance from our assignment writing service providing team.

Covid 19 pandemic has become a huge trouble as international tourism had taken a long pause and most of the countries such as south Africa, India and China had to lose their economy. Number of flights; Qantas, JetStar, Rex and Virgin had to pause their flights and lose 91% of their operations due to international border closures. Li et al. use a gradient boosting decision tree to analyse the dynamic impact of COVID-19 on China's intercity tourism industry and find that during the outbreak, interstate travel in China was reduced by almost 50%. This information relates to the impact of COVID-19 on the airline industry in China. The average increase in the unemployment rate of unskilled labour during COVID 19 is 5.5%, with a wide range of 0% to 15%. About 30% of the cost of tourism services is accounted for by labour in both developed and developing nations.The descriptive methodology used in this study reflects the current situation. quantitative strategy sampling using pure chance and randomness. When survey information was gathered using WhatsApp transmissions to disseminate online questionnaires, 128 participants were reached (Google Form).

Personal interest

Since, start of pandemic situation of COVID19, "Morning Consult'' has conducted a regular survey of Americans to measure and gauge effects of this pandemic situation regarding public opinion and behaviours that includes a wide range of categories and components such as politics, social, economics, technology, and business regarding information. Monitoring and analysing reports of pandemic situations in the tourism industry helps to understand different transitions and business-related activities in each stage of the pandemic situation. Morning consultant informed that the business travel number in 2021 after the pandemic situation was 39% and increased by 202 nearly 42% (Morningconsult.com, 2022). The Pandemic tracker of "Morning Consult'' contributes to examining public feelings and opinions about COVID-19 considering its impacts on the economy, health, society and politics that also emphasises examining results of vaccination worldwide considering political and institutional corona virus management processes with economic impacts.

The imapct of Covid-19 hit tourism as well the lives of people who are depended on it about their daily earning. The idea behind this project is to analyze the interaction of our society , different economic sectors and our ecosystem and find the opportunities. Researching business problems from updated information of "Morning Consult’’. I have identified remarkable effects in the travel industry worldwide because this business empowerment of the travel industry is based on international communication and travel. Governments of different regions have made restrictions on international transportation that contribute to making substantial interruptions in the business process of the travel industry that is responsible for causing the challenging situation of tourism industries. Considering those consequences I am interested in researching impacts of COVID-19 pandemic situation on the tourism industry with economic and supply-related factors. I also want to investigate domestic tourism and aviation business considering impacts of COVID-19 pandemic situation that helps to analyse obstacles, management process, and implementation of policies that helps to find out an effective and empirical solution for recovering lost, organisational e effectiveness of tourism industry.

I got interested in researching the business problem from covid-19 to businesses and international travellers because worldwide, the coronavirus has influenced both lives and economies. To continue in business, companies have had to change their tactics, rules, and products. To coordinate teams remotely, managers had to change how they operated. Global supply and demand for goods have changed dramatically since the epidemic started in Wuhan, China. Many company leaders have had to struggle with substantial interruptions to their distribution networks and businesses, while consumers have had to cope with a low supply of home goods such as toilet paper. Covid 19 became a loss for every business such as international and domestic tourism.

During covid 19 international flights remained closed and many of the international travellers got stuck into different locations for more than 18 months. The travel and tourism sector has experienced some of the most noticeable setbacks as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. For example, cruise ships have now been identified as potential sources of the disease, airlines have cut staff, and theme parks like Walt Disney World have suffered significant losses and come under fire as they reopened in the midst of the outbreak. While the pandemic has been going on, polling has shown that people worldwide, including Americans, have been reluctant to travel. According to a Morning Consult tracking poll released on Monday, only 27% of U.S. adults currently feel comfortable taking a vacation and 12% feel comfortable travelling abroad.

Focus of the research

This research emphasises elaborating and analysing different impacts of COVID-19 pandemic situation on the tourism industry considering economical, social and political factors to develop and forecast steps for different governments and tourism industry to develop significant strategies to deal with these impacts globally. This research emphasises explaining affecting factors of tourism industry after COVID-19 pandemic situation to recover previous market position by developing a forecasting model and revenue gap management procedure for encouraging growth of tourism industry.

This research carries the deep analysis of covid 19 impacts on tourism in different countries and the impact this caused on people and economy. The research question has all the related areas explained that how covid 19 started and the spread in different countries made tourism to get on a long pause. This research focuses on all the steps that government took to protect their countries from the pandemic as a result no one was able to travel and most of the people lost jobs as pandemic put people to stay at home.According to the World Tourism and Travel Council's (WTTC) most recent study report, COVID-19 potentially put the jobs of up to 75 hundred employees at imminent jeopardy. The catastrophic loss of one million jobs per day in the travel and tourism industry is another shocking estimate made by WTTC due to the coronavirus pandemic's extensive effects. According to research, the GDP loss from travel and tourism have reached US$ 2.1 trillion in 2020.

Research question

  • RQ1: What are the significant factors of the COVID-19 pandemic situation that make obstacles in operational practice of Tourism industry?
  • RQ2: How does tourism industry try to overcome economic loss and impacts of COVID-19 pandemic situation in its operational practice?
  • RQ3: What strategic implementation practice is important for tourism industry for recovering losses and encouraging future growth? 

The pandemic has raised the question that when it will be normal as 2018 for tourism sectors and is it ever going to be the same as before?

The question also focuses on that how tourism and hospitality industry is taking its losses?

The tourism sector was putting one step further everyday from 1995 to 2018 but then a sharp decrease in its growth took place.

 Every sector had to face downfalls, such as: small businesses, students, government revenue, GDP and human lives. This research deeply focuses on the data available which identifies main losses in some of the sectors and the impacts on future growth as well.

Covid 19 is one of the strongest outbreaks that put all the countries to face economic and health losses. It is not easy to recover from it. Airlines pause and home quarantines automatically pushes all the growths to back. As most of the families lost one of their family members internationally or with them, these losses can never be recovered. So, this research focuses on that how much time it will take to feel covid 19 as normal as other pandemics so that everyone can live normal and be always prepared for the next wave. Meanwhile tourism industry is the most important for all the countries in these days as most of the business are spread globally and most of the people are living internationally, away from their families. But it was the airline industry which became the medium for covid 19 to be spread. So now the question is that, how tourism and hospitality industry can influence people to travel more and recover their losses. Now the tourism sector will need to develop new practices for their customer safety and satisfaction to travel on board.

Background information

COVID-19 pandemic situations play a significant role in changing social, political and economical factors of different countries that also affect business activities effectively such as the tourism industry. Due to infected cases growing throughout nation COVID-19 governments and WHO was concerned with implementing certain measures by developing several campaigns namely community lockdowns, social distancing, mandatory quarantine, work-from-home, stay-at-home, and curbs on crowding that made pressure on hotel and hospitality industry to created halting that impacts hospitality industry effectively. According to statistical research, the tourism industry contributed 103 to 10.4% of the global economy before the pandemic situation but from the pandemic situation, It becomes 5.3 to 6.1% (Statista.com, 2022). Morning Consult has provided an identical impact of COVID-19 pandemic situation for declining tourist pReferences for an international vacation that affects the economic condition of the tourism industry as well as the global economy. 

Employment loss of tourism industry is 100.08 Million worldwide due to COVID-19 pandemic which can be recognised as a significant factor in economic downfall (Jaipuria et al., 2021). Moreover, changes in operational; practice of tourism-related sectors such as hotel, hospitality and airline leads to increasing COVID-related expenditure is an important reason for the economic downfall of the tourism industry. This research is concerned to analyse these issues minutely and analyse its current progress report for facilitating economic growth and recovery in revenue gaps to accelerate growth as well as the success of the tourism industry.

COVID-19 pandemic was responsible for creating a challenging situation for "Indian aviation sector" in 2020 due to impact of job loss and laying off employees because of government’s restriction on international travel (Livemint.com, 2021). Net loss of "Indian aviation sector" are nearly ?2,884 crores and ?1,194 crores in 2020 and 2021 respectively. Moreover, Go First, IndiGo, Spicejet, Air India, Vistara, and AirAsia India are leading players in”Indian aviation sector" considering their market share. 

The worldwide economic, political, and sociocultural systems are profoundly impacted by COVID-19 (designated an epidemic by WHO on March 12, 2020). International vacation, tourism, and leisure have been put on hold due to health communication approaches and measures (such as social distance, travel and mobility prohibitions, lockdowns of communities, campaigns encouraging people to stay at home, self- or mandatory quarantines, and crowd control). Tourism is accustomed to and has developed resilience in recovering from a variety of crises and epidemics despite being a very susceptible business to several environmental, political, and socioeconomic threats (Novelli, Gussing Burgess, Jones, & Ritchie, 2018).

Just before to the coronavirus pandemic, the travel and tourist industry had been expanding relatively continuously for decades. International visitors have soared from 277 million in 1980 to approximately 1.5 billion in 2019. The graphs show how the COVID-19 pandemic was a major setback to the two biggest catastrophes of the previous couple of years, the SARS outbreak of 2003 and the global economic crisis of 2009. (World Economic Forum, 2022)According to the data from Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2021 Australia started to close its schools and close its borders to non-residents in the third quarter of 2020. The number of daily reported COVID-19 instances peaked at 464, and two-thirds of firms reported lower turnover. The underemployment rate reached a historic high of 13.8% after the PM promised childcare and business support programmes, and 1.8 million individuals were working less or no hours due to financial constraints. With a 35% decrease in payroll positions, the hospitality and food services sector was the most severely affected. From a record high of 2.3 million in January, foreign arrivals fell precipitously to barely 21,000 in April. The GDP decreased by a record 7% in the quarter ending in June 2020, marking the second consecutive quarter of declines 

Literature review

Impact of an epidemic outbreak of COVID-19 on global tourism industry

International tourism industry has been affected by COVID-19 pandemic situation due to different disruptive events such as tourist attacks that originated from China. Different health experts say that the corona virus was spread through air transport and increased the possibility of spreading infection among people quickly. For that, governments of many regions such as India, America, UK, Netherlands and other countries are making restrictions on international tourism for testing the spread of COVID-19 virus and mining in areas of this epidemic condition. According to a report on global tourism industry, it can be identified that 1 to 3% of international tourists have declined in 2019, compared to the forecasted growth rate of nearly 3 to 4% (Jaipuria et al., 2021). Global travel industry, involved with airlines, hotels and restaurants, has faced a great loss of approximately 50% in 2020 that refers to a significant decline in revenue and resources. According to the "International Air Transport Association" (IATA), International Airlines are faced with a great loss in this economic scale that is approximately $84 billion in 2020 This economic loss is related to the " Global Financial Crisis" that is three times more than the global airline economic scale (Jaipuria et al., 2021). These consequences contribute to encouraging forecasting models to reach and predict demand of tourism industry through modifying regulatory factors and business management processes to recover this huge loss caused during a pandemic situation.

Apart from that, it can be stated that COVID-19 pandemic situation is responsible for causing economic downfall of the tourism industry worldwide. As cited by Prayag (2020), operating costs of restaurants and airline companies are increased due to increasing hygiene, social distancing, and sanitation-related costs that impact on profitability and productivity of the tourism industry. Therefore, as observed by Aburumman (2020), development of substantial business models affecting sustainability of the tourism industry considers financial and cost-related issues to managing challenges and guidelines of COVID-19 crisis through encouraging challenging tasks in operational practice of tourism industry.

Role of tourism industries in encouraging global economy

 Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic situation harmed global economy as well as travel and tourism industry due to sudden shutdown of international airports and restaurants to minimise spread of virus restricted by governments of different regions. This pandemic situation has impacted global economy due to poor condition of tourism economy. As opined by Sharma and Nicolau (2020), tourism has evolved into one of the most noteworthy sectors for its remarkable contribution to a world economy that is 10 per cent of annual growth of global GDP. The international tourism industry has contributed to more than 320 million employments worldwide that can be recognised as a significant contribution of the tourism industry to accelerating economic factors worldwide. According to the tourism report 2019, a number of foreign tourists are 1.5 billion from 25 million that is too big a failure of proportions (Imf.org, 2022). Apart from that, it can be stated that the global pandemic situation is responsible for decreasing economic scale and contribution of tourism industry to the global economy that can be recovered by implementing the operational effectiveness of the tourism industry. 

The first of the tourism economic scale considering the new era of interconnectedness has contributed to nearly 100 million jobs during a pandemic and risky situation that represents approximately 54 per cent of the tourism workforce (Imf.org, 2022). This research regarding contribution of tourism inductees to global employment has been conducted by "United Nations World Tourism Organization '' for justifying the significant role of tourism industry in accelerating economic growth globally. As argued by Yang et al., (2021), "Tourism-dependent countries' ' might be affected by different environmental and social negative impacts that lead to an increasing economic crisis due to insufficient earnings and sudden shutdown. "Contact-intensive services" is recognised as a key factor of tourism and travel business that is responsible for making the situation of these countries challenging considering economic factors. Apart from that, it can be stated that disproportionately affected tourism sectors caused by pandemic situations and regulatory restrictions constructed by governments that emphasise improving policies to make people feel safe during travel to contribute to managing this mess again.

Forecasting models for managing revenue gaps

COVID-19 pandemic situation is responsible for making a challenging situation for the tourism industry that encourages a virtual standstill for recapping revenue gaps and recovering market size. Barbados had developed an effective revenue management strategy for implementation of the tourism industry overcoming a huge economic crisis through utilising good economic fundamentals that includes an "IMF-supported economic reform program". This "IMF-supported economic reform program” helps to build reserves, stabilise debt, and consolidate to achieve a fiscal position. "Extended Fund Facility program" conducted by IMF helps to recover nearly $90 million that is approximately 2 per cent of total GDP (Imf.org, 2022). Extended fund facility programme for tourism industry helps to manage finance considering “emerging fiscal deficit" that is associated with making contracts with different international airlines and hotels for encouraging international tourism facilities that contribute to resulting plummeting revenues.

Therefore, tourism-related activities developed by the IMF in Barbados contribute to dealing with a challenging situation of COVID-19. However, as opined by Chen et al., (2022), implementation of business processes with several guidelines and emerging technology might increase expenditure in operational practice to avoid increasing COVID-related expenditures. In other words, Seychelles country is a tourism-oriented country that is concerned to deal with crises without any support from other companies and emerging facilities. This country is concerned to strengthen its market position by overcoming challenges of COVID-19 on economic growth and revenue gaps. They have developed a medium-term strategic plan and management system in tourism industry for encouraging fiscal sustainability without considering significant support such as emerging markets. As researched by Ahmad et al., (2021), government had emphasised rebuilding "international reserves and consolidating" through utilising virtual booking technology with technology intervention for maintaining and achieving its market position with effective revenue return.

The island nation beside “Indian Ocean" faced a very hard time during pandemic situation because of a significant downfall in tourism revenues considering an increase in COVID-related expenditures. As stated by Yeh (2021), a crisis has represented issues regarding permanent labour and employees that lead to increasing unemployment and job loss which is responsible for economic downfall globally. Considering those factors, tourism industry is concerned to go forward with recapping revenue and increasing organisational profitability through developing different business management practices. The mission of “IMF" is associated with developing a recovery plan regarding large uncertainties that are surrounded by innovation in structural policies and increasing adaptation capability considering developed new norms. The mission of IMF would improve organisational effectiveness of tourism industry to recap economic downfall and accelerate revenue return. As understood by Rather (2021), implementation of virtual technology and digital technology can improve business management and booking process that contribute to gaining a market position with effective revenue growth through intervention of social media and other updated technology. Therefore, it can be stated that International monetary funds, emerging business technology and technology intervention play a crucial role in encouraging effectiveness in business processes for tourism industry minimising revenue gaps and forecasting economic growth. 

Covid 19 has been a major problem from more than 2 years for all the countries in terms of growth, revenue, and other developments. It was Wuhan, China, in December 2019 where the COVID-19 health catastrophe first surfaced and started to increase with every minute. The WHO announced the initial epidemic on January 20, 2020. The majority of the rest of the world appeared to believe that China will continue to be the centre of the problem as a result of the Chinese government's aggressive actions. Pandemics were identified as being highly improbable in the Global Risk Report (WEF, 2020). (Ramelli& Wagner, 2020). But the disease spread quickly over the world due to a lack of coordination in health efforts. The coronavirus spread to Europe after outbreaks in Hong Kong, Korea, and Japan. Approximately 200 countries had received reports of COVID-19 cases as of November 10th, 2020, amounting to over 50 million cases (ECDC, 2020). Health regulations were put in place to avoid overcrowding in hospitals. These rules had a significant and immediate influence on the travel and tourist industry, particularly in the hospitality and transportation sectors. International visitor arrivals decreased by 65% in the first half of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, with arrivals in June falling by 93%, according to the August-September issue of the World Tourism Barometer (UNWTO, 2020).

According to the report from UNCTAD, considering on how important tourism is to the economy, the decline in tourism during COVID 19 generates an average increase in unemployment of unskilled labour of 5.5%, with a wide range of 0% to 15%. Both in rich and emerging economies, labour makes up about 30% of the cost of tourism services. The pandemic's effects on tourism have been most severe in developing nations. They had the biggest drops in visitor numbers in 2020, which are predicted to range from 60% to 80%. North America, Western Europe, and the Caribbean are the least affected, followed by North and Southeast Asia, Oceania, North Africa, and South Asia. According to the analysis, which was jointly published with the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), a sharp decline in arrivals of foreign tourists had both direct and indirect effects that caused a loss of $2.4 trillion in international tourism and its closely related sectors in 2020.

The COVID-19 epidemic additionally has some effects on the financial and commercial marketplaces of the aviation sector. The COVID-19 epidemic has significantly decreased number of travellers, altered anticipations, and had a detrimental effect on aviation stock values. In terms of the diverse scales that significantly affect air travel, COVID-19 has a far greater impact on overseas than on domestic routes. The varied effects of COVID-19 on the demand for air travel are examined by Santos et al. using a two-step regression methodology. Based on the survey, short- and low-density routes are among those in the air transport industry that are most negatively impacted, with commercial routes being more adversely affected than leisure ones.

Pine and McKercher (2004) investigated the effects of the SARS pandemic in Guandong Province, China. The findings of their investigation show that the effect was adverse, considerable, and substantial. Including Mao (2010). Airline revenue declined by 60% in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, and it won't be until 2024 that air traffic and tourists are predicted to return to 2019 levels. The aviation industry faces a variety of difficulties worldwide. During covid 19, unlimited number of people lose their jobs. The businesses could not continue in their shops because after restrictions as a result they had to face loss in their revenue. There are so many businesses which started to do their jobs online from home. But there are still some jobs which could not go online such as laundry and domestic cleaning. Most of the small businesses took the advantage of this pandemic as they started to sell online, and they took less effort as they don't need to hire staff members. On the other hand, airline industry is all about physical engagement. The loss that they are facing today cannot be fulfilled tomorrow.

The tourist and industries have been notably impacted by the coronavirus infection's frightening spread (COVID-19). Millions of livelihoods and employment have been lost worldwide because of unforeseen travel restrictions and border closures. Due to protracted travel restrictions and Movement Control Orders (MCO) imposed by countries, 100 million jobs have already been lost in the tourist and hospitality sector alone, with a projected loss of 5.5 trillion in travel and tourism GDP in the current year. COVID-19 has had a detrimental effect on the financial, physical, and intellectual well-being of individuals all over the world. Travel and tourism are recognised as the main elements of international economics and the financial foundations. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, without it, the world economy will suffer tremendously in the coming years in regard to financial, social, and mental haphazardness (WTTC). In a report issued by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the World Tourism Organization (WTTC) said that international tourism had declined by 22% in the first quarter of 2020, and that the decline was likely to reach 60–80% by the end of the year (Oksana, 2022).

Since 1990, the sector of tourism and travel has grown in importance across the globe due to trends in growth that are driven by services. From 1995 to 2019, overall tourism and hospitality sector's direct contribution to the globe's GDP rose from 9.9% to 10.3%. The tourism and travel sector's substantial influence may also be seen in the employment figures. In 2019, a total of 10.4% was contributed to global workforce. The global and regional travel and tourism businesses were severely harmed by the SARS outbreak in 2003 as well as the economic crisis of 2008.

The number of flights that Jetstar, Qantas, Virgin, and Rex had to miss together increased to one out of every third in July 2021, the highest percentage since April 2020. Weekly passenger counts decreased by 91% in Victoria from mid-May to early June and by 97% in NSW from mid-June to the end of July. Due to the cancelled airplanes, Jetstar, Qantas, Virgin, and Rex were obliged to put temporary hold downs into place until flying could resume. The Maintaining National Airline Capability initiative, which offers qualified flights $750 per week for frontline staff who otherwise would not be able to obtain COVID-19 catastrophe payouts, was announced by the Australian government as fresh assistance. A number of airline and travel support programmes were also continued by the government through the end of the calendar year. (Commission, 2021)

Regarding the effect of COVID-19 on the airplane business in China, Li et al. employ a gradient boosting decision tree to examine the vibrant influence of COVID-19 on China's intercity tourist industry and discover that throughout the outbreak, interstate travel in China was cut by approximately 50%. The analyses' findings for air transportation capability, traffic volume, profitability, and global market demonstrate that COVID-19's effects on airlines vary. Airlines with less money suffer, whilst those that concentrate the national industry and economic category and receive more support have a minimal impact. The COVID-19 pandemic affects passenger and freight carriers somewhat differently. The rationale is that even though air freight is not as influenced by pandemic security mechanisms as passengers are.On international planes arriving from abroad, the danger of suspected cases is measured using the risk matrix. The findings demonstrate the consequences of the three forms of transportation, including greater rail, air, and protracted buses, on the spread of the pandemic, demonstrating a 50% decrease in imported cases after China implemented strict regulations on inbound flights, while Hong Kong, Taiwan, and perhaps other locations with frequent transatlantic passengers have such a higher chance of imported cases. The number of airlines and high-speed railway stations in cities was found to be significantly correlated with the pandemic's spread rate, but the link between the overall number of reported cases and this rate was quite high.

The breakthrough coronavirus pandemic has wreaked havoc on the tourism industry in South Africa, as it has throughout the rest of the world, in 2020. The effects on tourism became apparent as soon as a National State of Disaster was declared and the President announced on March 15, 2020, that the nation would be placed under a three-week tight lockdown, which was later extended until April 30, 2020. South Africa's lockdown regulations were severe, as emphasised by Rogan and Skinner (2020: 5) in a worldwide broader context, as "all residents were commanded not to leave their residences other than to obtain food, healthcare, and amounting, and only workers defined as "essential service" providers could transport."

The state sent more than 70 000 military soldiers in addition to the police force to impose these limitations. Additionally, one of the most notable features of the strict lockdown implemented in South Africa in the global perspective was the restrictions on alcohol sales, which was in place from 27 March to 1 June 2020. This section is divided into three parts: (1) an analysis of the initial governmental and industry reactions to the global epidemic; (2) a conversation of the national strategy, tourism implement policies, and tourism preparedness; and (3) evidence of newly apparent effects on the sector's tourism businesses (ROGERSON and ROGERSON, 2020).

According to (MercoPress, 2020) , In comparison to the same period in 2019, locations welcomed 900 million fewer foreign visitors between January and October, according to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). This equates into a loss of US$ 935 billion in export profits from foreign tourism, which is a loss that is more than ten times greater than the one experienced in 2009 as a result of the effects of the global economic crisis. The number of arrivals fell by 82% in the first ten months of 2020 in Asia and the Pacific, the first region to be affected by the pandemic and the one with the highest level of travel restrictions to date. Africa witnessed a 69% fall, while the Middle East saw a 73% decline. International arrivals decreased by 68% in both Europe and the Americas. In comparison to other globe regions, Europe experienced lesser declines in September and October of 72% and 76%. This was after a minor but fleeting recovery in the summer peak months of July and August. Some types of travel restrictions have been reinstated as a result of the virus's recurrence throughout the region to (MercoPress, 2020).

As seen in Figure 2, the Vietnam tourism sector has already been affected by a number of international crises. International visitors to Vietnam suffered a negative rise of 11% in 1998 as a result of the Asian financial crisis. Nevertheless, the industry immediately bounced back, with a surge in overseas arrivals of 17% and 20%, correspondingly, in 1999 and 2000. (GSO, 2020b). There weren't many domestic visitors at the time, and the majority oftravelers were from the United States and Europe.

The National Tourism Advisory Council (TAB), Private Sector Development (PSD) Committee, Grant Thornton Vietnam, and VnExpress—the country's biggest online newspaper—conducted a survey of COVID-19 on transportation to Vietnam between April 13 and May 19, 2020. This research study was the primary source of secondary quantitative data. 394 hotels, travel agencies, and tourism organizations made up the sample for this poll. To investigate the effects of the outbreak on these businesses, information pertaining to 145 Vietnam travel operators was extracted. These businesses are situated throughout the nation's many provinces.

the effects of COVID-19 on Vietnam's travel agencies and how they are handling the pandemic strategically. This study offers some helpful insights because the tourism business in underdeveloped nations is more susceptible to crises and is one of the most delicate economic sectors during periods of unrest (Gössling et al., 2020). The COVID-19 outbreak has created a fresh crisis for Vietnam's tour companies. In contrast hand, an epidemic might inspire a restructuring of the tourism industry and a shift in the worldwide value chain's orientation towards one that is more sustainable (Hall et al., 2020).

On March 31, 2020, Somaliland announced the very first two COVID-19 infections. As of December 2020, there have been 1311 cases, 1249 people were healed, and 43 people had also died as a result of the virus (Somaliland COVID-19, 2020). The government had originally established the COVID-19 investigation team ahead toward the confirmation of these occurrences, and as a result, border controls and social seclusion measures have been implemented (Rius& Diallo, 2020). Somaliland is a Sub-Saharan nation in the Horn of Africa. Its northern, eastern, southern, and western borders are all with other countries: the Gulf of Aden, Somalia, the Federal Republic of Ethiopia, and Djibouti. Despite not being officially recognised by the rest of the world, Somaliland unilaterally declared itself independent from Somalia in 1991, and has since maintained its independence (Herring et al., 2020).

The effects of the prior SARS pandemic on resorts in Hong Kong were significant, requiring staff members to take annual absences, terminating probationary and contract workers, and appealing to bankers for loan repayment deferments in order to pay for employee compensation (Pine and McKercher, 2004). Similar to how Chen et al. (2007) found that Taiwanese hotel stocks' achievement was severely influenced during the same pandemic, which led to investor fear, confirmed the enormous vulnerability of the hotel industry to diseases, and hinted at the dire repercussions of upcoming outbreaks. Measures aimed at boosting investor confidence and reduced anxiety and ambiguity were among the ones suggested in the report (Chen et al., 2007). The earlier SARS outbreak in China, according to Dombey (2004), brought about several changes. This entailed improving dining hygiene, encouraging physical activity, reducing spitting to maintain a clean environment, regularizing high temperature environment in schools, and enhancing hospital health care (Dombey, 2004). Malhotra and Venkatesh (2009) compared Thailand's and Hong Kong's reaction to the SARS outbreak, finding Hong Kong's to be superior at preventing the disease's negative consequences.

They also emphasised the structure put forth by the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) to deal with the unforeseen circumstances. The plan was divided into four sections: reduction (early warning indicators identification), preparation (associated preparing), actions (operations during eventualities), and recovery (student attempts to get back to normalcy) (Malhotra and Venkatesh, 2009). The issue that small hotel businesses encountered throughout the ongoing crisis was more recently explored by Alonso et al. (2020), who also provided basic concepts through inductive analysis. Nine conceptual dimensions emerged from the exploratory work, revealing the behaviours and responses of hospitality players when faced with a crisis.

Through the use of a questionnaires to 203 individuals in various Algeria locations, data was gathered using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The necessities of Algerian tourists were characterized by a strong desire for leisure to help alleviate psychological stress brought on by COVID-19. Around 75.86% of respondents requested that tourist destinations be made cleaner, and 69.95% suggested improving safety due to the number of destinations in Algeria and the need for social isolation measures. In accordance with the survey's findings, 53.69% of respondents said they would prefer to take a vacation in the month of August, followed by 29.06% who would prefer the month of September, and 17.25% who would choose the months of October, November, and December if they anticipated a decline in the COVID-19 pandemic's risks. 

In accordance with the survey's findings, 53.69% of respondents said they would prefer to take a vacation in the month of August, followed by 29.06% who would prefer the period of September, and 17.25% who would choose the months of Oct, November, and December if they anticipated a decline in the COVID-19 pandemic's risks. Summary of findings: The COVID-19 epidemic has had an impact on Algeria's tourism requirements as the people has grown more aware of the pandemic's effects on their health and the nation's economy. (Madani et al., 2020)

According to an article by world economic forum, Numerous industries, including new tech, manufacturing, consumer products, pharmaceutical, and others have issued sales warnings because of the travel bans and quarantines that have affected hundreds of millions of people. Chinese factories are now running low on labour and sections, disrupting just-in-time supply chains. Chinese consumption has decreased significantly because of mobility and workplace disruptions, which has put pressure on multinational corporations in a number of industries, including aviation, international education, infrastructure, tourism, recreation, hospitality, telecommunications equipment, consumer products, and luxury brands.

Ajay Singh, chairman and managing director of SpiceJet(flight industry), stated at the HT Tourism Conclave that losses are still being experienced by Indian carriers as a result of the disruptions to the airline company brought on by the Covid-19 outbreak and the Russia-Ukraine situation. According to the data from World Bank, n.d. Global poverty and inequality were significantly impacted by the crisis. For the first time in a generation, poverty grew on a global scale, and the disparate loss of income suffered by marginalised groups resulted in a sharp increase in inequality both within and across nations. Data from the poll show that in 2020, people with only an elementary education were more likely to experience temporary unemployment in 70% of all nations. Additionally, those with less formal education, such as young people, women, self-employed individuals, and casual employees, had greater income losses. Because they were more likely to work in industries that were more impacted by lockdown and social distancing measures, women were especially affected by income and employment losses.

As reported in a report of Larkins and Marshman, n.d., Intake of domestic students increased by 27% from 2010 to 2019 while enrolment of international students increased by 56%. Nearly A$37 billion was earned from ongoing activities overall in 2018, a 65% increase. Universities Australia declared in February 2021 that academic institutions had lost $1.8 billion in revenue in 2020 and would suffer a $2 billion loss the following year due to international border closures. Federal Education Minister Alan Tudge reported in August 2021 that compared to record levels in 2019, enrolments of overseas students had dropped by only 5% in 2020 and 12% by mid-year 2021. The entire revenue for 2020 decreased by 5%, or $1.82 billion, to $36 billion. Revenue from fees and penalties, which primarily consisted of international student fees, decreased by 10% or $1.2 billion. Similar drop in revenue from investments ($1.3 billion) was experienced in 2020. These losses have been partially mitigated by increased government grants and other income (Larkins and Marshman, n.d.). similarly, according to the Commonwealth's Provider Registration and International Student Management System (PRISMS) database as of September 2021, the number of international students enrolled in programmes has decreased by 24% relative to 2020 and by 41% in comparison to 2019 for all programmes. The total number of full-time equivalent (FTE) positions at the institution before the outbreak was 137,575. Approximately 95,500 people worked full-time, 17,205 part-time, and 24,873 casually, according to FTE. Based on yearly reports from the seven Victorian institutions, we projected the number of positions that will be lost by December 2020. According to these estimates, the industry may have lost 20,000 jobs by the ending of 2020, which translates to 7,000 FTE (Larkins and Marshman, n.d.).

Additionally, the State of the Global Education Crisis: A Path to Recovery report indicates that given the lengthy school closures and the inefficiency of virtual classrooms to ensure full learning continuity during school closures, the share of children living in learning poverty in low- and middle-income countries—which was already 53 percent before the pandemic—could potentially reach 70 percent. The report also emphasises that, to date, less than 3 percent of governments' stimulus packages have been allocated to education. The cost of immediate learning recovery will require significantly more money. The research also points out that although virtually every nation in the world provides students with access to remote learning possibilities, the effectiveness and scope of these programmes vary; in most cases, they provide, at best, a mostly insufficient substitute for in-person education. More than 200 million students are educated in low- and lower middle-income nations, which are ill-equipped to implement remote learning during unavoidable school closures (www.unicef.org, 2021).

Prior to Covid-19, the leisure and tourist industry were one of the most significant growing industries in the world, contributing 10% of the global GDP and supporting over 320 new employment opportunities. The epidemic, which is the first of this magnitude in the time of globalization, has threatened millions of employments in the sector (United Nations World Tourism Organization, UNWTO, 2020). In fact, comparison with 2019, the airline industry's companies' sales have dropped by over 60%. (International Air Travel and Tourism Council, 2020). According to estimates, it was suggested that there might be a worldwide destruction of approximately 75 million jobs and $2.1 trillion in GDP if the epidemic persists for a few more months and which has happened as well. (World Travel and Tourism Council, 2020).

Research design

Purpose of the above study is to describe the present condition of tourism industry by using a descriptive approach. Quantitative strategy sampling is done by possibility and straightforward randomness. The social cost suffered by locals of different tourist destination due to Covid-19 is measured by Contingent Valuation method (CVM), where the participants are asked to give preferences in different hypothetical situations. In my research, total 128 participants volunteer. Analysis of Artificial neutral networks (ANN) and Structural equations modeling(SEM) is used to mark the influence and effect of different variables. The main objective of research is to find out the economic and health crisis caused due to Covid-19 in tourism industry. To achieve this quantitative transversal study need to be done. Second objective is to explore the opportunities to transform the tourism economy to a resilient one.To achieve the second objective, a qualitative exploratory research design is done.. The overall population in this study is uncertain because the questionnaire was disseminated online while people were staying at home throughout this pandemic. In this study, the sample size was determined to be at least 100 participants. The sample size recommended for most studies, according to Roscoe (1975) in Sekaran, is greater than 30 and lower than 500. The questionnaire's questions are cantered on indicators of behaviour that are affected by perceptions towards behaviour, normative beliefs, and control of behaviour, in addition to signs and symptoms of anxiety that really can affect travel decisions. Data was collected between March and April 2022, at the time that the COVID-19 epidemic spread to practically every nation on earth.

Exploratory research is associated with a primary research methodology approach that emphasises collecting information by investigating participants and respondents by asking several research questions that have not considered previous results and perspectives. Exploratory research can be segmented as a primary quantitative data analysis process that involves the survey. Exploratory research design focuses on collecting information and analysing them regarding responses to survey that help to reach an ultimate conclusion concerning impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on economic downfall of tourism industry and significant way to implement their business process to recover the previous status and market size effectively. Therefore, this research design aims to identify future implemented processes without considering previous results.

This study describes the present condition using a descriptive approach. Quantitative strategy sampling with possibility and straightforward randomness. 128 participants were reached when survey data was collected utilising WhatsApp transmissions to distribute online surveys (Google Form). Analysing quantitative data simply. The overall population in this study is uncertain because the questionnaire was disseminated online while people were staying at home throughout this pandemic. In this study, the sample size was determined to be at least 100 participants. The sample size recommended for most studies, according to Roscoe (1975) in Sekaran, is greater than 30 and lower than 500. The questionnaire's questions are cantered on indicators of behaviour that are affected by perceptions towards behaviour, normative beliefs, and control of behaviour, in addition to signs and symptoms of anxiety that really can affect travel decisions. Data was collected between March and April 2022, at the time that the COVID-19 epidemic spread to practically every nation on earth.

The questionnaire was picked because, for this type of study, it was better suited than a conversation during the COVID-19 isolation. In a limited amount of time, collecting replies from a significant number of people. Respondents are also given the option of responding to the questionnaire at their convenience. A 5-point Likert scale, from strong disagreement to strong agreement was used to score answers in the questionnaire. Online surveys are frequently used by researchers in the travel and tourism industries, and one such method of distribution involves the internet.

link.:

  1. Is COVID-19 responsible for job loss of people?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Is COVID-19 pandemic situation impacting mental health of people?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Is COVID-19 pandemic situation creating obstacles to business growth of tourism industry with fewer opportunities?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Is proportion of mental illness increased since COVID-19 pandemic situation due to lockdown and fewer opportunities to travel for tourists? 

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Was most tourists avoiding going abroad due to fair regarding spread of coronavirus and obstacles in international tourism through airline?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Is outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic responsible for economic downfall of tourism industry as well as different countries?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Is tourism industry changing its operational policies for starting its business and recovering previous losses?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Is tourist numbers decreased due to job loss during COVID-19 pandemic situation that signifies less market demand?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Is operational policies of the hotel and the hospitality industry important for growth of tourism industry considering increased COVID-19 expenditure?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Was COVID-19 pandemic situations playing an important role in changing social lifestyle of community people due to developing COVID-19-oriented regulations and restrictions?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Is economic downfall during COVID-19 pandemic situation responsible for afraid tourism industry with fewer business opportunities?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Are tourist planning for international travel after COVID-19 since 2021? 

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 

13 Is COVID-19 pandemic situation increasing concern of people caring about hygiene?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Does tourist want to maintain strict rules regarding hygiene and other restriction regarding protection from COVID-19 tourism industry to prefer international travel?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 
  1. Is that easy to be normal quickly from social and economic impacts of COVID-19 pandemic situation for tourism industry?

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree 

Research findings/results

 The effect of Covid-19 on economic and health crisis is very prominent. The link between international tourism, COVID-19 cases, and deaths in over 90 countries using mathematical regression is conducted by Farzanegan et al. and it shows a positive correlation. The countries which are exposed to vast tourism industry are the most affected one. The increment of death rate, not only lower the tourism but also declined the GDP, where there is a vast tourism industry settled.

As the questions were related to people’s normal life they could answer it by increasing decreasing the line which is provided in front of each question. In this situation it if more comfortable for the respondent to answer the question by not disclosing the personal details. Alsp there was a option for the respondent to add their additional information. In this additional information they could get more open about their view points and share their personal information, such as their age, job, study, region, salary or more. Most of the respondents responded with additional information of their age and study.

Results: In this research, surveys were delivered using Online questionnaire and broadcast messages on the WhatsApp programme. There were 128 responders who filled out the form responses. Female respondents made up 58% of the total. The respondents' average age was between 21 and 30 years old (41%), followed by 31 and 40 years old (34%). contributors were mainly made of younger generations. A millennial is someone who was born between 1981 and 2000. The web is heavily used by the millennial generation in its existence. Additionally, because of it, they found it very simple to complete the online questionnaire.

Most respondents with the most school curriculum (44% had a bachelor's degree), followed by those with a postgraduate degree (29%) and those with an approximation of a high school diploma (27%). Private sector employees made up most of the participant's occupations (45%), followed by academics (27%) in that order. Since all the questions are completed and there are no errors, using Online survey as research tools is seen as being dependable.

The results indicates that most of the respondents have been impacted by covid 19 outbreak. 1 out of 10 lost their family member. 7 out 10 got effected in terms of their studies for long terms whereas 3 out of 10 got stuck with their future job plannings.

In terms of tourism 7 out of 10 were feeling okay to travel with strict rules but on the other hand 3 out of 10 are still not comfortable to travel yet anywhere on board. Most of the respondents felt mental illness because of the stress about job loss and no future growth. Some of the respondents were from tourism industry where they lost jobs and there was no other help for them from any of the organisation which indicates that the tourism industry was ruined by covid 19.

 According to the hypothesis, COVID-19 outbreaks are more prevalent in nations with higher import and outgoing tourist flows. Utilizing data on deaths and verified COVID-19 cases from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Treatment, we evaluate this hypothesis (ECDC, 2020). The ECDC data includes the daily totals for new cases and fatalities. Most COVID-19 data presentations focus on the overall number of infections and fatalities per nation. By April 30, 2020, we calculate the total number of COVID-19 cases and fatalities that have been confirmed. The primary explanatory factor is worldwide tourism, which was quantified using data from the World Bank on the average (log) frequency of visitors and departures of travellers from outside from 2010 to 2019. (2020). The number of persons who travel abroad for a duration of less than a year is referred to as overseas inbound tourism. The number of travellers who leave their place of origin for destinations abroad without engaging in paid work is known as the number of international outbound tourists.

We show the relationship between both the cumulative COVID-19 cases reported associated mortality and overall international tourists as of April 30, 2020. (Arrivals and departures). Results discover that COVID-19 breakout cases and deaths are both favourably correlated with overseas travel (r = 0.78 and 0.72 respectively). The adjust for additional potential COVID-19 transmission factors in multiple regression, which we detail in the following section, to test the validity of this link.

where the tourism industry in Indonesia is one of those impacted. Indonesia is presently aware of this pandemic virus, which hurts the business, someone's career, and influences the hospitality and tourism industries as well—especially now that the disease is getting worse. The purpose of this study is to examine the opinions of Indonesian tourism employees who work in the travel and hospitality sectors to determine how their careers have been impacted by their occupations. For this research, the researcher will do a qualitative investigation. The pandemic caused a 70% drop in foreign visitor visits from January and October 2020 compared to the corresponding time in 2019.

 A number of 170,084 hotel reservations made between 11 January and 16 March 2020 were withdrawn, resulting in an RM68,190,364 revenue reduction. The COVID-19 epidemic was primarily accountable for the loss.

The withdrawal of hotel reservations in Kuala Lumpur resulted in a reduction of earnings of RM23,021,301, followed by Sabah, which lost RM11,550,605 in revenues. Sarawak is the state that has been least impacted by COVID-19; throughout the period under analysis, just 76 rooms were cancelled, leading to a loss of approximately RM23 million. It's anticipated that the wave of hotel cancellations won't stop until MCO is through (World Economic Forum, 2022).

 Further research investigation In South Asia, the COVID-19 epidemic has a severe effect on the region's natively diverse, multi-cultural, and rich historical and sociocultural tourism geographies, hurting over 47.7 million informal and formal travel and hospitality jobs. After this pandemic, the region's tourism industry alone would be expected to have a GDP reduction of more than US$50 billion (Louise and F., 2020). Although the negative impact of this global epidemic on both formal and informal actors and stakeholders of this developing tourism region, including Bangladesh, cannot be ignored, the tourism regions and countries of the Maldives, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh have all been adversely affected in various ways. This is because the tourism sector contributes to the national GDP in each of these countries.

People who didn't want to spend the money on travels or were prohibited from flying due to federal regulations were the main causes of this. Based on these data, the UNWTO anticipates a 70–75 percent decrease in international passengers for the entire 2020 year (Riadil, 2020). This would imply that global tourism has resumed its pre-about-30-year peak levels. In 2020, World Heritage sites saw a 66% decrease in visitor numbers and a 52% decrease in tickets sales because of COVID-19, according to World Heritage in the presence of COVID-19 (2021). The UNESCO Task Force on Lifestyle, Tourist activities, and COVID-19 is currently focusing to collect extra detailed data to assess the short- and long-term effects of the crisis on maintainable hotel management at World Heritage sites. This work is being done in collaborative efforts with both the independent review Bodies to the 1972 World Heritage Convention (Centre, n.d.).

Managerial implications: Throughout all of the respondents, whether they were discussing expected consumer behaviour or lessons for business, instructors, or trainers, hygiene and sanitation continued to be a recurring sub-theme. Literature on travel and hospitality has provided extensive documentation on the topic of hygiene (Jauhari, 2010, 2009; Tripathi et al., 2010). However, it is too important a matter to be disregarded for an emerging economy such as India that faces with problems like overcrowding and congestion (Nath, 2003). In light of a recent Lancet article (Lodder and de RodaHusman, 2020) in which researchers hypothesized that the prevalence of SARS-COV-2 in human wastewater could have serious consequences if not properly controlled, this concern becomes even more important. Though it may have comparable roots to the earlier Sars epidemic, the current pandemic's effects have been much more severe and are still being felt in nations including the United States, Brazil, and Asia (Mohanty, 2020; Konarasinghe, 2020; Marques et al., 2020; Yeolekar et al., 2020). Because of growing unemployment rates throughout the industry, the pandemic's effects on India's tourism and hospitality are only becoming worse. An estimated 38 million jobs, or 70% of the workforce in the tourist and hotel industry, could be lost (Radhakrishna, 2020). The projections of losses in the Indian tourist industry have increased from an earlier forecast of INR 5 lakh crore to INR 10 lakh crore, according to FAITH, a Federation of Associations in Indian Tourism & Hospitality (PTI, 2020).

It is impossible to overstate how critical this problem is. Regardless of the kind and size of the institution, the next important factor that is likely to determine its survival is the availability of better hygiene procedures and waste collection regulations in all types of hospitality activities. Until a long-term cure is found, such as the COVID-19 vaccine, which is the most frequently discussed solution, hospitality management should consider making mask use mandatory. Regardless of the nature of the activities, managers must think about forming specialized task teams among the workforce to address hygiene problems and related education and awareness raising. Based on the comments, it becomes obvious that creating federal guidelines for tourism and hospitality businesses is urgently needed, and that their development and monitoring should be successfully carried out.

Practical implications: The findings from this research have certain repercussions for important tourism industry participants, such as travel agencies, the administration, and legislators. It is advised that tourism companies seek to renew or foster innovation their strategic plan in order to achieve long-term valuation and undertake ecological sustainability, given the discovering that the significant proportion of the interviewed firms concentrated on cost-cutting operations and maintaining firms' range of business opportunities to generate immediate impact. This is crucial because COVID-19 could result in the worst economic shock and lead to structural changes in the tourism industry (Dolnicar and Zare, 2020). In particular, a company can reinvent its service offerings, target customers, and internal operational procedures.

The findings have already made clear the necessity for reform. Given that there are essentially no limits within Vietnam and that there are over 96 million people living there, it would be ideal to diversify local tourism groups. Additionally, tourism businesses can restructure their trips to cater to different segments and include activities and attractions that adhere to health and safety regulations. A appropriate management renewal in response to COVID-19 also involves working with other companies in the tourism supply chain to provide more affordable travel combos and packages and improve consumer safety. Businesses must continuously watch changes in customer behaviors and attitudes in addition to legislative regulations and policies in order to successfully implement renewal and innovative initiatives.

HOW TOURISM CAN GET BACK ON TRACK

 Covid-19 has huge impact on the economic and health crisis of tourism industry and it will be a permanent one, affecting a number of aspects of economic and social life on this planet. Dramatic drop in tourism market, decline number in international travel create a real long term unemployment problem in the labor market of tourism industry.

According to the findings of Rodríguez-Antón and Alonso-Almeida recovery can be done by adopting new strategies by both of tourism operator and authorities of government. Cost reduction, promotion of regional and local tourism markets, introducing effective economic packages from government, Promoting new policies and emergency plans can be floated in this vulnerable situation to cope up with the losses. Efficient management of human resources, segmentation of market to mitigate the fall of profit are some critical factors to manage crisis.

Rodríguez-Antón and Alonso-Almeida and Hu et al suggested that to fight this crisis, definite measures need to be taken in terms of labor, economy, sanitary and finance in industry, international and national level. To sustain global tourism, I balance need to found between the new development of quality in tourism in developed countries to maintain revenue of tourism there and involvement of tourists pf less developed countries also by avoiding over-tourism.

To forecast the viability of their operations, the tourism industry must get knowledge of visitor behaviour. Several studies have suggested that a variety of factors influence how travellers choose their locations. Gender, ethnicity, relationship status, employment, schooling, way of life, personal beliefs, and purpose for travelling are the first specific elements that influence tourist decision-making. Second, certain aspects of potential tourist spots, such as availability of tourist destinations and qualities of tourist destinations, such as major attractions, tourist supplies, facilities, and amenities. The third category is situational elements, which also include the atmosphere, the cultural aspects of potential vacation spots, and societal aspects like current political climates.

There has been a rising situation of omicron variant after covid 19 pandemic. It started to spread in various countries who were already facing covid-19 it is still unsure that the covid 19 is going to be fully recovered until 2023 or not. There should be a further constructive investigation on that how omicron variant started to rise and what impacts it can further distribute to the economy of the world.

Conclusion

None of the past calamities and crises that have harmed the tourism industry compare to the COVID-19 epidemic (Hall et al., 2020; Sigala, 2020). The South African tourism industry is suffering greatly from the effects of COVID-19, much like the world as a whole. In fact, the outbreak is a catastrophe that has the potential to change the scope and nature of the South African tourism industry together with the environment in which it operates. Undoubtedly, the severity of the epidemic will alter South Africa's current tourism, lodging, and air transport flow patterns.an international recession is the consequence of COVID-19 containment efforts' drastic negative effects on the world economy. There is broad agreement that the travel and tourism sector, particularly the airline and retail divisions, would be the most severely impacted, with extremely significant declines in income and liquidity. Domestic tourism can help national tourism sectors, even though governments must better coordinate containment efforts to restore international mobility. The problem has not yet hit several nations, primarily in the southern hemisphere. The questionnaire has helped the world and the world organizations the understand the whole criteria of the leisure industry. The governments and authorities have taken suitable steps in order to minimize the losses and the impacts of covid 19 for quick recovery. Banning international travel, mandatory vaccinations are all the part of making tourism safer for everyone. Many countries such as Algeria, Maldives and Indonesia have also suffered and lost their economy as the tourism industry was Maldives main source of wealthy economy. As the impacts of covid 19 are decreasing the leisure industry is getting back on the path of success and abundance of customers.

Reference list

Aburumman, A.A., 2020. COVID-19 impact and survival strategy in business tourism market: the example of the UAE MICE industry. Humanities and social sciences communications7(1), pp.1-11. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-11-2017-0769

Ahmad, A., Jamaludin, A., Zuraimi, N.S.M. and Valeri, M., 2021. Visit intention and destination image in post-Covid-19 crisis recovery. Current Issues in Tourism24(17), pp.2392-2397. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1842342

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2021). One year of COVID-19: Aussie jobs, business and the economy. [online] Australian Bureau of Statistics. Available at: https://www.abs.gov.au/articles/one-year-covid-19-aussie-jobs-business-and-economy.

Centre, U.W.H. (n.d.). Tourism survey to analyze impacts of COVID-19. [online] UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Available at: https://whc.unesco.org/en/news/2342 [Accessed 26 Sep. 2022].

Chen, H., Huang, X. and Li, Z., 2022. A content analysis of Chinese news coverage on COVID-19 and tourism. Current Issues in Tourism25(2), pp.198-205. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1763269

Cherney, M. (2021). Covid-19 Leaves Colleges Short on International Students—and Money. Wall Street Journal. [online]18 oct. Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/covid-19-leaves-colleges-short-on-international-studentsand-money-11612434603.

Commission, A.C. and C. (2021). COVID restrictions bring domestic airline industry to a standstill. [online] Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Available at: https://www.accc.gov.au/media-release/covid-restrictions-bring-domestic-airline-industry-to-a-standstill.

Do, B., Nguyen, N., D’Souza, C., Bui, H.D. and Nguyen, T.N.H. (2021). Strategic responses to COVID-19: The case of tour operators in Vietnam. Tourism and Hospitality Research, p.146735842199390. doi:10.1177/1467358421993902.

Findlay, P., Lindsay, C. and Roy, G., 2021. Business models, innovation and employees experiences in the workplace: challenges for the post-Covid-19 economy. Productivity and the Pandemic.

Foo, L.P., Chin, M.Y., Tan, K.L. and Phuah, K.T. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on tourism industry in Malaysia. Current Issues in Tourism, [online] 24(19), pp.1–5. doi:10.1080/13683500.2020.1777951.

Heffernan, A.C., Fergus Hunter, Madeleine (2020). Loss of international students set to blow $30b-$60b hole in economy. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/loss-of-international-students-set-to-blow-30b-60b-hole-in-economy-20200416-p54kif.html.

https://www.unwto.org/news/2020-worst-year-in-tourism-history-with-1-billion-fewer-international-arrivals

Jaipuria, S., Parida, R. and Ray, P., 2021. The impact of COVID-19 on tourism sector in India. Tourism Recreation Research46(2), pp.245-260. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2020.1846971

Kaushal, V. and Srivastava, S. (2020). Hospitality and Tourism Industry amid COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspectives on Challenges and Learnings from India. International Journal of Hospitality Management, [online] 92, p.102707. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102707.

Kennedy, S., Lourie, A., Henshaw, E. & James, D. 2022, "Self-reported Invincibility, Fear of COVID-19, and Attitudes toward COVID-19 Restrictions in First-semester College Students", North American Journal of Psychology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 309-318.

Larkins, F. and Marshman, I. (n.d.). After 2 years of COVID, how bad has it really been for university finances and staff? [online] The Conversation. Available at: https://theconversation.com/after-2-years-of-covid-how-bad-has-it-really-been-for-university-finances-and-staff-172405.

Louise, T.W. and F., M., Jessie (2020). COVID-19 and Tourism in South Asia. [online] Available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/34050.

Madani, A., Boutebal, S.E., Benhamida, H. and Bryant, C.R. (2020). The Impact of Covid-19 Outbreak on the Tourism Needs of the Algerian Population. Sustainability, 12(21), p.8856. doi:10.3390/su12218856.

MercoPress. (2020). Collapse of tourism industry because of Covid-19, has caused US$ 2 trillion loss to the global GDP. [online] Available at: https://en.mercopress.com/2020/12/29/collapse-of-tourism-industry-because-of-covid-19-has-caused-us-2-trillion-loss-to-the-global-gdp.

Meyer, B.H., Prescott, B. and Sheng, X.S., 2022. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on business expectations. International Journal of Forecasting, 38(2), pp.529-544.

Mohamed, A.H. (2021). A Literature Review: The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Somaliland Economy. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 09(02), pp.54–64. doi:10.4236/jss.2021.92004.

Oksana, S. (2022). The Effect of Covid-19 on Tourism and Hospitality Industry: Resurgence in the Post-Pandemic Era. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, [online] 25(6S). Available at: https://www.abacademies.org/articles/the-effect-of-covid19-on-tourism-and-hospitality-industry-resurgence-in-the-postpandemic-era-14292.html.

Prayag, G., 2020. Time for reset? COVID-19 and tourism resilience. Tourism Review International24(2-3), pp.179-184. https://doi.org/10.3727/154427220X15926147793595

Rather, R.A., 2021. Monitoring the impacts of tourism-based social media, risk perception and fear on tourist’s attitude and revisiting behaviour in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic. Current Issues in Tourism24(23), pp.3275-3283. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2021.1884666

Riadil, I.G. (2020). Tourism Industry Crisis and its Impacts: Investigating the Indonesian Tourism Employees Perspectives’ in the Pandemic of COVID-19. JurnalKepariwisataan: Destinasi, Hospitalitas dan Perjalanan, [online] 4(2), pp.98–108. Available at: https://journal.stp-bandung.ac.id/index.php/jk/article/view/54.

ROGERSON, C.M. and ROGERSON, J.M. (2020). COVID-19 TOURISM IMPACTS IN SOUTH AFRICA: GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY RESPONSES. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 31(3), pp.1083–1091. doi:10.30892/gtg.31321-544.

Schleicher, A. (2020). THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON EDUCATION INSIGHTS FROM EDUCATION AT A GLANCE 2020. [online] OECD, pp.1–31. Available at: https://www.oecd.org/education/the-impact-of-covid-19-on-education-insights-education-at-a-glance-2020.pdf.

Sharma, A. and Nicolau, J.L., 2020. An open market valuation of the effects of COVID-19 on the travel and tourism industry. Annals of tourism research83, p.102990. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.annals.2020.102990

Smith-Bingham, R. and Hariharan, K. (2020). This is the impact of the Coronavirus on business. [online] World Economic Forum. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/02/why-is-coronavirus-a-global-business-risk/.

UN News. (2021). COVID-19: Students face $17 trillion loss in lifetime earnings. [online] Available at: https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/12/1107282.

UNCTAD (2021). Global economy could lose over $4 trillion due to COVID-19 impact on tourism | UNCTAD. [online] unctad.org. Available at: https://unctad.org/news/global-economy-could-lose-over-4-trillion-due-covid-19-impact-tourism.

Van de Velde, S., Buffel, V., Bracke, P., Van Hal, G., Somogyi, N.M., Willems, B., Wouters, E. and C19 ISWS consortium#, 2021. The COVID-19 international student well-being study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 49(1), pp.114-122.

World Bank. (n.d.). WDR 2022 Chapter 1. Introduction. [online] Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2022/brief/chapter-1-introduction-the-economic-impacts-of-the-covid-19-crisis.

World Economic Forum (2022). This is the impact of COVID-19 on the travel sector. [online] World Economic Forum. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2022/01/global-travel-tourism-pandemic-covid-19/.

www.unicef.org. (2021). Learning losses from COVID-19 could cost this generation of students close to $17 trillion in lifetime earnings. [online] Available at: https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/learning-losses-covid-19-could-cost-generation-students-close-17-trillion-lifetime.

Yang, Y., Altschuler, B., Liang, Z. and Li, X.R., 2021. Monitoring the global COVID-19 impact on tourism: The COVID19tourism index. Annals of Tourism Research90, p.103120. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.annals.2020.103120

Yeh, S.S., 2021. Tourism recovery strategy against COVID-19 pandemic. Tourism Recreation Research46(2), pp.188-194. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2020.1805933

Website

Imf.org (2022), International monetary fund, Available from: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/fandd/issues/2020/12/impact-of-the-pandemic-on-tourism-behsudi Accessed on: 12.11.2022

Livemint.com (2021), COVID-19 had massive impact on Indian aviation sector in 2020, Available from: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/covid-19-had-massive-impact-on-indian-aviation-sector-in-2020-11608984681224.html. Accessed on: 17.11.2022

Morningconsult.com (2022), When It Comes to Travel, Blended Is the New Business, Available from: https://morningconsult.com/2022/03/03/when-it-comes-to-travel-blended-is-the-new-business/. Accessed on: 12.11.2022

Statista.com (2022), Travel and tourism: share of global GDP 2000-2021 Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1099933/travel-and-tourism-share-of-gdp/ Accessed on: 12.11.2022

UNCTAD: United Nations conference on Trade and Development.

UNWTO: UN World Tourism Organization.

Recently Download Samples by Customers
Get best price for your work

offer valid for limited time only*

© Copyright 2024 | New Assignment Help | All rights reserved