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The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Preterm Infant Mortality and Morbidity Assignment Sample

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In the healthcare sector, it has been seen that the mortality and morbidity rates of premature neonates are increasing due to a lack of proper care. In that case, the problem has increased for the healthcare sectors as there is not much equipment or not much nursing care efficiency that can solve this issue. Each year it can be seen that almost 15 million babies are born preterm and the number is increasing gradually. Approximately 1 million deaths of preterm babies were seen in the year 2015 (Who, 2018). On the other hand, 10.09% of preterm births were seen in the year 2020 in the US (Michas, 2022). This research is very much essential to be staged as this can help to assess the current mortality rates of preterm babies and can also assist to mitigate the issue.

PICO question

  • What is the effect of Kangaroo-mother care in the reduction of mortality and morbidity rate of LBW preterm neonates compared to conventional care?

(P)- LBW preterm neonates

(I)- Kangaroo-mother care

(C)- Conventional care provided to neonates

(O)- Reduction of mortality and morbidity rate


  • The keywords have been suggested regarding the research and in this research, the keywords that are incorporated are- “Mother”, “preterm babies”, “neonates”, “kangaroo-mother care” “mortality”, “morbidity” and “conventional care”.

  • In this case, the Population (P) considers the keywords such as “Mother”, “preterm babies”, “neonates”, and the Intervention (I) includes “kangaroo-mother care” while Comparison (C) denotes “conventional care” and Outcomes (O) suggest a reduction of “mortality” and “Morbidity”.
  • Regarding the topic, the search engine is considered and for that reason, “PubMed” and “Cochrane library” have been included. In the case of healthcare-related topics, search engines such as PubMed and Cochrane library are perfect as authentic and relevant journals can be found (Briscoe et al. 2020). Along with that, peer-reviewed journals can also be identified in search engines or databases. In that case, the authentic and appropriate journals can be identified in the databases that can justify the PICO question.
  • Boolean operators are also included in the research that can combine the relations among the keywords in the search engine. In that case, the Boolean operators are the simple words that incorporate the “OR”, “AND”, “NOT” and “AND NOT” (Scells et al. 2020). With the help of the Boolean operator, productive and precise results can be obtained and that can help in the relevant operations and searching in the database.


Article 1: Cristóbal Cañadas et al. 2022

  • The two groups are not applicable in this research as in this research only one group is considered
  • The confounding factors are however not identified
  • The outcome that are measured were in the reliable and valid way
  • Appropriate statistical analysis has been used

The score of the article according to the 9 out of 11

Article 2: Minckas et al. 2021

  • In article 2, the demographic characteristics were discussed clearly and the history of the patients was mentioned while the current condition of the selected population was also included.
  • In this case, the diagnostic cases and tests were run and described clearly and post-intervention clinical conditions were also described.
  • The case report does not provide the takeaway lessons.

The score of the article is 7 out of 8 according to the JBI checklist.

Article 3: Lewis et al. 2019

  • The article possesses the congruity between the philosophical perspective and the methodology of the research
  • On the other hand, there is congruence between the methodology and research question, objectives, data collection method and the representation and analysis of data.
  • Along with that the congruence between the interpretation of the result.
  • There is no statement that locates the researcher culturally or theoretically
  • The influence of the researcher in the research was not addressed
  • The voices of the participants are included in the research with the evidence of the ethical approval
  • The research report also includes analysis and interpretation in the conclusion

The score of the article is 8 out of 10 according to the JBI checklist.

Article 4: Cristóbal Cañadas et al. 2022

  • In article 4, the review question was stated clearly and the inclusion criteria were appropriate for the review question.
  • In this article the search strategy was appropriate and the sources and resources that had been included in the studies were adequate.
  • Along with that, the criterion of the appraising studies was appropriate. The critical appraisal of the reviewers was independently taken. However, the methods that can be incorporated to minimize the errors are not considered. In that case, the methods that are used in the combined studies are appropriate
  • The bias is present in the article and recommendations supported by the reported data
  • In that case, the specific derivatives were not applicable.

In this article, the score is 10 out of 11 according to the JBI checklist

Article 5: Mohammadi et al. 2021

  • In this article the congruity between the research methodology and philosophical perspective, research objective, question, data collection methods, data analysis, and result interpretation are present
  • The theoretical statement of the researcher is not present
  • The influence of the researchers is not present however the voices of the participants are included
  • The result is ethical according to recent studies and ethical approval.

The score of the article is 8 out of 10 according to the JBI checklist


Aim/Research Question

Study Design

Sample Characteristics




Cristóbal Cañadas et al. 2022

The aim was to evaluate the impact of “kangaroo mother

care” (KMC) on the preterm infant regarding their physiological and biochemical parameters for stress and motherly

stress in neonatal intensive supervision

Cohort study

N= 112 infants with gestational age 28-34 weeks

? n= 56 kangaroo care group

? n=56 control group seen through 12 days

The KMC procedures help in the weight gain of the infants and decreases maternal cortisol level

Minckas et al. 2021

To compare the risks analysis of the death averted by kangaroo care and mortality for corona infection

Comparative risk analysis in secondary method with sensitivity analysis

Assumed in the two ways

Estimation of deaths according to the affected infants

KMC was founded to be beneficial for the health of infants

Lewis et al. 2019

To assess the barriers and facilitators conducting kangaroo mother care in intensive care unit

semi-structured in-depth interviews

N=20 mothers of the prenatal were considered

open-ended interview questions were organized

Barriers are there that can prevent KMC

Cristóbal Cañadas et al. 2022

The aim of this study was to examine the “randomized controlled trials” (RCTs) that

scoured the impact of kangaroo mother care on physical strain parameters of premature newborns

Meta-Analysis of RCTs

PRISMA has been incorporated in the study with N=12 studies in meta analysis

Risk of bias assessment and RCTs has been done

It has been seen that KMC is just similar to conventional care and safe method

Mohammadi et al. 2021

to develop and include a C-KMC program for newborns that will be

Served in two phases using a “stages-of-change model”

Mix method design was used where 1st one was participatory research design and 2nd one is quantitative before and after study

Sample size N=204

 The ratio of the intervention and control group was 1:1.

quantitative cross-sectional data have been included

KMC is a decent aspect of neonatal care


  • The pieces of literature were supportive of the PICO question
  • The works of literature justified the question that was initially derived fort the research and was conducted through various ways
  • The answer of the PICO question was assessed through the research conductance and in that case the research literature was appropriate for the current research


From the above discussion it can be seen that the kangaroo care is the most appreciated and contemporary way that is kind of similar to the conventional one. On that note, the KMC process is largely appreciated among the healthcare sectors yet the mothers find this hard due to some barriers.



Briscoe, S., Nunns, M., & Shaw, L. (2020). How do Cochrane authors conduct web searching to identify studies? Findings from a cross?sectional sample of Cochrane Reviews. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 37(4), 293-318. DOI: 10.1111/hir.12313

Eriksen, M. B., & Frandsen, T. F. (2018). The impact of patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) as a search strategy tool on literature search quality: a systematic review. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 106(4), 420.

Scells, H., Zuccon, G., Koopman, B., & Clark, J. (2020, April). Automatic Boolean query formulation for systematic review literature search. In Proceedings of The Web Conference 2020 (pp. 1071-1081).


Michas, F., (2022). U.S. preterm birth rate 1990-2020. Retrieved on: 30 October 2022. Retrieved from:

Who, (2018). Preterm birth. Retrieved on: 30 October 2022. Retrieved from:,of%20preterm%20birth%20(1).

5 peer reviewed Journals

Article 1:

Cristóbal Cañadas, D., ParrónCarreño, T., Sánchez Borja, C., & Bonillo Perales, A. (2022). Benefits of Kangaroo Mother Care on the Physiological Stress Parameters of Preterm Infants and Mothers in Neonatal Intensive Care. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(12), 7183.

Article 2:

Minckas, N., Medvedev, M. M., Adejuyigbe, E. A., Brotherton, H., Chellani, H., Estifanos, A. S., ... & Lawn, J. E. (2021). Preterm care during the COVID-19 pandemic: A comparative risk analysis of neonatal deaths averted by kangaroo mother care versus mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. EClinicalMedicine, 33, 100733.

Article 3:

Lewis, T. P., Andrews, K. G., Shenberger, E., Betancourt, T. S., Fink, G., Pereira, S., & McConnell, M. (2019). Caregiving can be costly: A qualitative study of barriers and facilitators to conducting kangaroo mother care in a US tertiary hospital neonatal intensive care unit. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19(1), 1-12.

Article 4:

Cristóbal Cañadas, D., Bonillo Perales, A., Galera Martínez, R., Casado-Belmonte, M. D. P., &ParrónCarreño, T. (2022). Effects of Kangaroo mother care in the NICU on the physiological stress parameters of premature infants: a meta-analysis of RCTs. International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(1), 583.

Article 5:

Mohammadi, M., Bergh, A. M., Heidarzadeh, M., Hosseini, M., SattarzadehJahdi, N., Valizadeh, L., ... & Hakimi, S. (2021). Implementation and effectiveness of continuous kangaroo mother care: a participatory action research protocol. International Breastfeeding Journal, 16(1), 1-8.

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