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Career Guidance Theory Assignment Sample

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Introduction - Applying Career Guidance Theory to Adult Learning

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Section 1: Introduction – The Value of Theory and Research

Critically analysis of the value of theory and research 

The theory and research have an important role in social science as it provides a connection between the existing knowledge with the theoretical framework. The theories support knowledge and development as a guideline to manage the hypothesis in conducting generalizations and researching. Theories are also valuable because it provides an understanding of the whole concept along with defining limitations. The research also has a variety of potential benefits such as addressing pertinent issues by encouraging economic diversification and resolving practical problems based on resources and knowledge. The theory important role in learning concepts which encourages practising or doing the concept and developing its applicability. 

According to the study of (Thompson, 2000) Theory is the practice of thinking that encourages opportunities of enhancing practices, practice refers to doing the learnings of a theory that creates the opportunity of a better understanding from experience (fig.1, p. 8). Without an appropriate understanding of practising the value of a theory is limited and without practising research is incomplete. A theory develops a commitment of higher standards and values to word guided practices and principles but research or practices periods professionalism and recognition of maximizing effectiveness from formal knowledge and process. They provide structural guidelines on a particular subject and provides knowledge whereas the research is indulged with practising the concepts by analysing and evaluating the impacts of theory on personal and other experiences and clearly find the issues by evaluating efficiency during practice. 

Following the research of Hughes and Gration (2009), the theory has several potential outcomes in the context of CEIAG (Careers Education, Information, Advice and Guidance). However, there is subjectivity in the potential outcomes of theory because some results can be realistic and achievable along with effective demonstrability and some of the results are not effective or applicable. The study also informed the interrelationships between research, policy, theory and practice (p.16). The different methods are utilised by practitioners and managers in terms of expressing the underpinned and substantial outcomes of research and called it an impact statement. Effective programs of education has a significant and important influence on the career planning and decision making letters of young people and it supports their practices and effectiveness to resolve underlying issues during their career planning and education (Bimrose et al., 2012). The unique perspective of theory and research is undermined by the practitioners that is reduce the understanding and proper grasp of perspectives including self-consciousness, emergence and structuring that reduces the efficiency of students and manages to perform practices and conducting research. 

The importance of career guidance activities including theory and research is developing day by day because the economic uncertainty is growing continuously and encouraging undergraduates to become more proactive towards a future career in a highly competitive talent market. The ethical issues are aligned with theory and research in the respective context because there are several employability issues that remain uninformed among students and it reduces their understanding of the job market (3). The major issue in developing the understanding of theory and conducting research is the improper attention of universities and institutions towards the students and their career guidance and employability skills. Institutions are required to develop appropriate policies in order to justify the theories in the educational face of students and improving their researching capabilities to justify human capital and achieving their social equity goals (Gelatt et al., 1989).

The study provided a conceptual framework, it is informed that they are independent and dependent variables that develop effectiveness in theory and research practices. Student employability enhancement is a dependent variable that depends on career guidance activities such as decision making, self-awareness and transition learning among individuals (fig.1, p.4). However the process of personal development planning and work-based learning along with career development practices is a complex process that requires appropriate consciousness of universities and institutions on students otherwise it leads negative impact on the career planning of students (Bimrose et al., 2012). 

The decision-making models have an important role in developing effective career guidance and it also creates the value of research and theory in actual life. The decisions of career are most important and sensitive part of a lifetime as it has long term implications on people life and their contribution in society (4). Several models of career planning support theory and research in context to such as meta-analysis modelling, structural equation model, interpersonal model, foreign models, etc. 

Section 2: Theories of Career Choice and Motivation


Holland's differentialism theory tries to classify people according to what type of job they are most interested in, and then classify professions under the same system to determine their compatibility. Holland's differentialism theory depends upon a six-point hexagon that focuses on six types of person and job which are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional. 

  • Realistic: Realistic people work alone with other real people and they focus on their task.

  • Investigative: Someone who is investigative enjoys using abstract or analytical talents to solve problems. He or she is a "thinker" who seeks to finish things and likes to do so on his or her own.

  • Artistic: Our society's artistic individuals enjoy making things. They are frequently extroverted and inventive.

  • Social: A person who is social wants to interact with others. He or she is interested in social issues and wants to assist others.

  • Enterprising: Those that are ambitious are more likely to take on leadership jobs. They are extroverted and prepared to take on new challenges (Arulmani, et al., 2010).

  • Conventional: A traditional person enjoys regulated duties and meticulous attention to detail. He or she is usually a conservative person.

Frank Parsons came up with the concept of matching jobs to people's talents, skills, and personalities.

Personal data: make a list of significant facts about the person, making sure to include anything that is relevant to the vocational issue (Bimrose et al., 2012).

Self-examination: a self-examination is carried out in secret and under the guidance of a counsellor (Daws et al.., 1995).The client's own decision and choice: this may be evident in the first two stages. 

Analysis by the therapist: the counsellor examines the client's decision to determine if it is consistent with the primary quest (Gelatt et al., 1989).

According to the technical rational method by Hodgkinson, professional decisions should be made in a methodical way, progressing logically from a consideration of their own abilities and successes to a conclusion about what they want to do.

Strength of the theory 

  1. A clear grasp of yourself, your aptitudes, abilities, interests, objectives, resources, and limitations, as well as an understanding of the causes of these constraints

  2. A thorough understanding of the requirements, conditions for success, benefits and drawbacks, compensation, opportunities, and prospects in many fields of work 

  3. Good logic on the relationships

Limitations of the theory

  1. Studies do not support Holland's argument that a correct match should result in a high level of satisfaction.

  2. The distinction between "career" and "job" is not taken into account in Holland.

  3. People may find a work they are qualified for unsatisfactory for a variety of reasons, necessitating the development of theories that account for the gap between career and employment while Holland's erodes it.

  4. People and jobs are not always easy to define in Holland's system, and things aren't always neat and tidy. Jobs, for example, are becoming increasingly complex, making it difficult to focus on just one aspect (Savikas et al., 2012).

  5. The theory places all of the skills in the hands of the practitioner and the technique, and the client is asked to do very little.


Super explores in this developmental theory how people think and feel in different stages of age. According to Super, people's preferences and their self-concepts change with time and experiences in their life (Rousseau et al., 2000). And these preferences and their self-concept changes through five stages of life and career development.

  • Growth: In this stage come, people of 14 years who develop self-concepts, attitudes, their needs and the general world of work within themselves.

  • Exploration: This stage attracts people between the ages of 15 and 24, who use the classes to develop their hobbies and skills. Their choices and decisions are made by their exploring knowledge.

  • Establishment: People who belong to the age between 25 to 44 develop their self-concept and perception through their work experiences.

  • Maintenance: The age of 45 and 64 comes in stages of maintenance in which people develop and change their skills through the process of continuous adjustment to enhance position.

  • Decline: People who belong to age 65 plus are decreased productivity and planning for retirement.

Strength of the Developmentalism

  • Every stage of life emphasises the importance of various roles that individuals play in their lives (Arthur et al.., 2001). For example, as a kid, a student, a worker, or a parent, people play various roles and have various self notions.

  • The influence of living space

  • The forces of nature, individual decisions and behaviour are influenced by variables such as socioeconomic policy, community, and economics.

Limitation of the Developmentalism

  • The primary flaw in development theory is that it is overly concerned with individual growth (Roberts et al.., 2005).

  • The theory of development is too linear.

Opportunity Structuralism

Ken Roberts claims that societal factors influence vocational choice in his opportunity structure structuralism. Roberts made a point of saying that jobs are about changing yourself to the chances that are available to you, not about picking a destiny (Neahr et al.., 1986). Roberts research centred on new graduates and the connection between professions help and how socially close to particular professions were on the grounds of class, gender and ethnicity. He came to the conclusion that social elements were more important than career support(Watts et al..,2015). Robert wants to explain in their theory that career options can be selected by keeping the social factor in mind. The decisions people do make are affected by this social framework, which has an impact on both education and employment selections. Robert gave an example that individual people travel alone rather than an entire class of people with the same destination.

Weakness of the differentialism and developmentalism

  • The differentialism and developmentalism focused on individual skill and self-concept enhancement but in this opportunity structuralism also focused on social factors.

  • Opportunity structuralists said that their choice to choose career opportunity with the help of sociological factors but these two theories do not describe this kind of information, they only state their theory at an individual level (Watts et al.., 2011).

Limitation of the opportunity structuralism

  • Career development option in 21 century does not fit perfectly in this opportunity structuralism because many people do not accept the concept this theory proposes. There are more individual enhancements. 

  • This theory of Robert looks very dogmatic.

Career and Social Learning theory

Social learning theory explains why people behave differently and differently for similar experiences. People learn from their consequences and observe others.

The practical implication of the theory

  • People should increase their abilities and interests by exploring new activities and changing their routines (Mitchell et al..,1999).

  • People should keep adapting to the new skill every day and be ready for the change.

  • People should learn the power of decision making (Krumboltz et al..,1986).

  • Career practitioners must expand their roles.

  • The practitioners should motivate the client for creative re-thinking with innovative designs and not with a new learning experience.

  • Reframing the client's self-concepts is required to engage the client in positive conversation.

In career learning what kind of content people should learn for self-awareness, opportunity awareness, decision making and transaction management.

Before people understand things and focus on them, they need to sense and shift.

The process of DOTS( self, opportunity, decision making and transition) comes from understanding, focus, sense and shift (Law et al..,1999).

  • Sense: Gathering and assembling information for finding the DOTS things out clearly. 

  • Shifting: Shifting means making compression by using the concept of sorting the DOTS in a useful manner.

  • Focusing: Think about every viewpoint and make your own viewpoint by checking what is important.

  • Understanding: To find out what can be done by developing explanations and anticipating consequences.

Strength of the theory

  • By using this concept of theory people get to know what type of learning skill they learn and how to enhance it.

  • The rest of the theories doesn't focus on the learning material but theories provide the concept.

Constructivism and The Narrative Approach


The constructive theory states that the way people interpret and perceive this world is highly personal and they bring it from their experiences and culture (Bada et al., 2015). Constructivism said that career choice is not pinned down by simple explanations because people are capable of rational thinking. And rational career planning is limited because it derelicts the subjective perspective of the person thinking. Attribute and factor matching approaches implement a set of constructions that may have little relevance to the way in which the client sees and understands the world.

Individuals can make their own choices and construct their meanings and interpretations for the world. Different factors of the client come into play each time a choice is made. The advisor needs to be aware and understand the client's constructs notions.

Narrative Approach

The Narrative Approach is a practical application of constructivism theory that seeks to meet constructivism's demand by treating the client as the creator of their own life (Savickas et al., 2012).

They will become more conscious of what they are doing and why they are doing it as a result of this strategy, which will lead to them making better judgments in the present and future. An advisor's job is to communicate tales to his customers, not just by asking questions, but also by employing various and new approaches and concepts, such as visualisation and picture work (Savickas et al., 2016).

Community interaction theory

The impact of psychological and sociological elements on professional decision-making is explored by community interaction theory. The community interaction theory discusses how the community in which individual lives and works can either inspire or prevent him from following a specific professional goal in their life (Arulmani & Watts et al., 2014). This theory includes all of a person's relationships like partners, family, friends, parents, coworkers, and others. People listen to the advice of their near ones for making career decisions, this is how community interaction plays a role in people's life for making decisions.

The practical implication for advisor

This notion implies that advisors should seek to comprehend and work inside the client's system of authority and acceptance.

The customer has become much more diverse and multifaceted, necessitating the provision of a wider range of services. Many individuals are forced to attend counselling, which has increased resistance and unwillingness. Client-presented challenges have also become more complicated (Admunson et al., 2008).

Planned happenstance

Planned happenstance has developed a lot of social learning theory and it recognized the impact it could have on career choice over unexpected and chance events (Krumboltz et al..,1976). Our routes are often not planned, according to Mitchell, but are revealed in the light of who and what we need along the road. 

Changing nature of career

Career choice can be reached by involving the process of active exploration in decision making and socializing with an open mind, rather than trying to make long term planning (Mitchell et al., 2012). Mentors can help clients reach interim opportunities by enhancing their sociological skills, redefining self-limiting beliefs and engaging in open-minded exploration (Arthur et al., 2009).

Practical challenges

  • Advisors create the ultimate aim of career counselling for satisfying lives not for making the decision.

  • Particular tests are taken to simulate the learning process not only just to match.

  • Advisor courage the open-minded client not to discourage their potential.

  • Making sure of lifelong learning is an essential part.

  • The transition approach provides more benefits for appropriate career counselling.

  • The differences between career choice and personal choice should disappear.

  • Provide professional training for expanding to make sure the practitioner extended their role.

  • For unplanned events, benefits should increase.

Furthermore, not to create a long term career plan, the client force for a process of curious exploration, and to have an open mind to take the interim decision.


This theory is based upon understanding human motivation. The study of what motivates a person to work toward a specific goal or end is known as motivation theory. It is significant in many aspects of society, but it is particularly important in business and management.

Extrinsic variables: External considerations such as a bonus for hard work or a sanction if targets are not fulfilled motivate employees here.

Intrinsic variables: People are driven here by a desire to meet human needs. These motivations could include a desire to satisfy their supervisor or attain certain professional or personal objectives.

Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation variables combine to motivate the majority of people.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a set of physiological and emotional needs for human happiness that are listed in order of importance. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is frequently depicted as a hierarchy, with the most basic and biggest requirements at the bottom and the need for self-actualization at the top (Maslow et al..,1981). Physiological, safety, belongingness, prestige, and self-actualization are Maslow's categories for needs. Many distinct levels of involvement are likely to be present in a human at the same time, according to Maslow. When he talked about the hierarchy, he focused on identifying the basic categories of motivation and the sequence in which they normally progress as lower demands are met (Schein et al..,2006).

Cognitive behaviour coaching

Cognitive behavioural coaching (CBC) is a business and personal coaching practice that helps people overcome psychological and emotional barriers to achieve their objectives. It was generated and refined from two distinct source techniques: first, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). It was a concept intertwined with his previous concept of 'thinking patterns,' or the emotion-filled musings that would arise in a person's mind in response to an emotive query. He showed that the limitations connected with instinctive thought might be overcome through learning and improving the ability to identify and report similar reactions. Second, Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) is used to a lesser extent.


A transition, according to Schlossberg, is any action or non-event that results in altered relationships, routines, expectations, or responsibilities (Schlossberg et al..,2006). It's vital to remember that interpretation is essential in changes since an event, or semi only satisfies the criteria of a transition if the people suffering it defines it that way. To comprehend the relevance of a shift for a people, the nature, situation, and effect of the transition must be evaluated. Although Schlossberg's theory is primarily concerned with adult transformations, it can also be extended to teenagers (Anderson et al.., 2011).

  • Adults go through transformations on a regular basis (Cornier et al..,2014).

  • The way people react to transitions is determined by the sort of change–actions or – anti–their perspective and context, as well as the impact on their lives.

  • As people are moving in, throughout, and out of a changeover, it is a constant process with no inevitable conclusion. It comprises periods of absorption and ongoing analysis.

Types of transition

  • Transitions that are projected, such as university graduation, are called anticipated transitions.

  • Transitions that are not anticipated or arranged, such as separation or the loss of a spouse, are examples of unanticipated transitions.

  • Context relates to one's connection with the transition as well as the environment in which it occurs.

  • The level to which a change affects one's daily existence determines its impact.

Situation, self, support, and solutions, widely known as the 4 S's, are four primary sets of elements that determine a wide variety of conditions with a shift, according to Schlossberg.

Strength and weakness

Schlossberg's model appears to have a lot of merits and is extensive, providing for a variety of transitions that other versions do not. Like Kübler-Ross and Scott & Jaffe, Schlossberg suggests a method for moving through the many stages of transformation or transformation. Unlike some of the models, however, Schlossberg means allowing for a lot greater flexibility in terms of how and why the paradigm is understood and then used, as well as the types of movements it aims to represent.

Your Life experience

Some theories reflected my career path and the most reflecting theory is community interaction theory. Community interaction theory reflects in my life on decision making and how friends, parents, partners and relatives help to make decisions for career choice. And motivation theory also plays a major role in my life by understanding motivation (Newman et al., 2015). The motivation theory helps towards the specific goals of the career. These two theories helped most for career goals.

  • Using an eight-step method, first fully comprehend and describe the problem, next clarify the problem, and finally establish the problem's goals. After that, determine the problem's root cause or devise an action plan to address the issue, and then carry out that strategy. Finally, examine the outcome and strive to enhance your profession.

  • Structuralism is a style of understanding and analysing things like language, culture, and community that focuses on competing concepts or structural properties and tries to show how they connect to all this. That's how it affects career decision making.

  • Advisors allow learners to turn interested into opportunity, teach them how to personality traits associated with chance events, and defeat barriers to action using planned happenstance. Learners then apply this paradigm to their professional choices for the rest of their lives.

  • Individuals learn that they can improve their leadership, communication, teamwork, and problem-solving abilities. Community engagement also helps many learners be aware of and engaged in inequality issues.

  • Learners understand each other through observation, imitation, and modelling, according to Social Learning Theory. Because it incorporates concentration, recollection, and motivation, the theory has already been considered a bridge between behaviourist and cognitive learning theories.

  • When managers or staff make an intentional attempt to change in response to a particular situation, this is referred to as strategic planning. Unplanned changes happen at randomness without any kind of clear obligation on the part of managers or staff to solve an issue.

  • My pleasure and achievement are determined by your mentality. Our perspective on reality is influenced by our thinking. If the others are biased, so will your perceptions about yourself and society. Even though we're not aware of it, our attitudes and opinions influence how individuals act. I do not avoid or embrace decisions because I am very much motivated. Conventional responses to life and events serve to provide people with a sense of security. Uncertainty regarding the impact of change, particularly on job security, has been one of the main causes for the lack of social mobility. People' decisions are always influenced by their curiosity about the unexpected.

Section 3: Your Role

Client group and issues they bring 

Youth is a name that comes across as a bunch of potential, determination and passion and to carry on these qualities it has to be practised in the form of employment. Here's a group of teenagers under the age of 17-20 years whose finding difficulties in the job search or to get employed. As they are qualified with fine qualifications but not getting the way to uprise in their career while having satisfactory qualification. These people are still finding difficulties in finding their suitable career as they are not much open about their problems due to which they are facing unemployment in every possible try. They are compensating with unpaid internships or small earning jobs with wide working hours and stuffing into the stressful environment (Covelli, 2017). By following the wrong structure and constructive method they are unable to polish their skills in every field and turning out as a stiff worker with limited boundaries. Lack of decision making and awareness about different activities is stopping them to find their comfort zone in job junction. And the agenda which they were seeking for seems to be shallow in respective to their employment. In the field in which they want to excel in their skills and knowledge, but they are not finding any career opportunity due to lack of practice and learning. Unemployment has been always a big issue, as this group is facing an obnoxious environment is related to employment. And due to all this, stress has become an important part and cause of exhausted an inflexible hour. And incensement in the situation of unemployment has been the barrier to the growth and development of the group (O'Neill and Thomson, 2013).

Theories and methods with reasons

There were some suggested theories which are boon for the clients to find their career, and also if the clients are fully qualified and not getting a good employment opportunity. Due to which the upliftment of their own career growth and has been set up as a fixed growth to their career.

There are some processes and concept

s under this, we explain to our clients to make use of their qualification inappropriate and correct ways like how to be more constructive, structural and narrative towards their career. Due to these small uprising steps a client can be prepared as an effective career chooser and can work in an interesting field to make the right use of their potential in the right manner. We help our clients to be aware of different career opportunities (Covelli, 2017).

Career and social learning theories 

The social experience is one of the major helpful techniques by which clients can have a better experience to words their career building. It’s always important to observe society and to learn different experiences from them because seeking knowledge from other people experiences is always obliging, people should also learn from their own consequences which will always lead towards remarkable growth.

We help our clients to explore different activities related to different interests instead of turning their focus into routine and activities and schedule. Helping them to compete and cope up with the different levels of workload and the stress which comes as a bonus to the client, which can also be exhausting for the client due to ongoing process, skill and exposure. Fear of decision making under which a client can face some difficulties could also be due to family pressure, self -degradation etc. Clients should be flexible on practising into different levels of obstacles, careers ups and downs and changing of different activities and interesting fields (O'Neill and Thomson, 2013). This theory implies reframing of daily activities and keeping the schedule in a positive and fresh manner.

Structure theory 

It implies the constructive and structural way of thinking and decision making there are many structural opportunities that are coming out as a myth to youth just for the sake of best skills and development. Unpaid internships, fewer wages and extra hours, discrimination on the basis of states etc.

Concept of support, empowerment and enablement

This concept can help the client to work as a confident and capable employee, we support our clients to fulfil and exercise the skill and knowledge in the particularly interesting field so that the client can run up in the direction of positivity and confidence. We provide formal or informal support, verbal and non-verbal, professional or non-professional, web connecting, face to face connecting ways etc. To connect to our clients and help them in every possible situation. We provide comfortable hours to our clients so that they don't face any problems. Also as a support, we give them the freedom to decide the time and schedule for their comfort (Covelli, 2017).

 As being the helping hand and giving suggestions with different concepts and solutions related to a particular problem. We empower them from the basics to clear out every possible fault that is being a barrier in clients growth and doing sufficient help to build empowerment.

 An action of making our clients fulfilled and active by some of our authorities and operational activities. Which can help in furnishing our client ability so that it could come out as focused and b aspirants.

Concept of career management and my own role as the practitioner 

 It is very important to build an understandable relation with our clients so that there could be an easygoing way of understanding problems and giving solutions. 1- sensing the problem with the client and finding the exact problem. 2-sorting problems in a useful manner.3- than focusing on the exact problem and grabbing that particular problem as a cause. 4- giving out the best solution to the problem faced by the clients.

  • Making your client step out of their comfort zone.
  • Solution should be as living examples not just as making a decision.
  • Engaging client in order creates a hook for them to practice. 
  • Evolving clients to different activities so that they practice to their fullest.
  • Giving counselling as long life not just one the basis of one event.
  • There should be no distance between career counselling and personal counselling.
  • Should work as a whole for our client.

Being a practitioner it was very important to give a comfortable service to my clients and can give them the satisfactory result. As my clients are facing the problem of unemployment, practising in the limited field of skill and decision making leads them onto wrong structure exploring. Firstly I explained to them the value of skills and knowledge and involved them in different activities related to a different field. So that they could understand and identify their best skill in which they need to be focused and have to continue further as a career option (Yelich Biniecki and Conceição, 2016). Helped them in decision making under the most pressurized situation by building their inner confidence so that they could make a decision without doubting themselves by providing life coaching, skills and performance coaching etc. I provide them career and personal counselling so that there should be no self-doubt. Advised them about the correct operational structure of earning money instead of following silly ways to make earning and help them to come out from the myth of unpaid internships and low wage jobs.

Application of motivational techniques to support clients career development

Solution focusing technique

Under which we advise our clients not to focus on past mistakes and problems and help them to focus on building their present and future. This does not mean that we don't discuss the past problem of our clients. Our only motive is to make our clients understand and recognize their past practices that they might be doing wrong and can practice rightly in the future. To prevent them from negative cycle practice which they might were following in their past. Sometimes a client finds out the exact problem but tries to struggle to move forward so we give them suitable advice to move in the right direction. Mainly we focus on communication practices like verbal or non -verbal just to give some time and help them to think and relax so that we can get our answer beyond 'I don't know. We create a pleasant environment for the client so that there should be no communication barrier and must be an active conversation (Hashim et al., 2015).

Creating a thinking environment 

Under this we create a self-thinking environment, it is said that attentive and admiring listening always help people to think about themselves sometimes. People make an assumption and they start treating their thoughts as a truth which can act as a barrier to their progress and can slowdown their growth. To resolve these problems we advise our clients to ask the question as much they can, the more they will ask questions more their doubts will get cleared. So that they could move ahead with real scenarios like -what are the things which are stopping you, what bothers you to move ahead etc. And try to console them like 'its ok not to be ok sometimes etc.

We also help our clients by making them the author of their own stories so that they can freely choose to tell their life experiences and story to us. By which we could help them according to their related problem and can polish their potential (Hashim et al., 2015). 

Section 4: Sources for keeping up-to-date

In order to analyse the ways of keeping up to date with development in research and theory in brief to weighing up the strengths of the theories, here several theories have been taken into consideration to give a brief concept of practical use of theories and various articles were took into account and acknowledgement of many sources used and taken as reference for it.

Reviewing the above content, here used the source from where the information about the assignment has been collected are as follows:-

  • Public relations review, a journal devoted to the article with respect to theories.

  • Several internet websites include information about the theories.

  • And different pdf which was informative about the different theories and their relative strength, limitations and practical implications (Beller et al., 2013).

Other than this source there are some other sources that can be useful for keeping up to date with development in research and theories which are as follows:-

  • Theories related to recent books 

  • various search engines

  • scientific and technical publication having information about the respective theories

  • Data based on the research that has been done on a particular theory

  • By preferring information-seeking survey about the theories

  • And by doing activities which helps in gathering information about the theories and research

For analysing all the mentioned theories, secondary methods have been taken into consideration and it aimed to do a systematic investigation about the existing information. The secondary method which is used in this assignment for analysing theories and research are pdf of published academic research papers about the theories, journal articles and online web sites .these methods are valid and reliable for analysing because all the information contained in these sources was updated and the journal article used in this are PR reviewed and the pdf included updated information according to the statistical database. so from these sources, relevant data has been collected and used for the analysis (Beller et al., 2013). 


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Arthur, M.B. and Rousseau, D.M. eds., 2001. The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era. Oxford University Press on Demand.

Bada, S.O. and Olusegun, S., 2015. Constructivism learning theory: A paradigm for teaching and learning. Journal of Research & Method in Education, 5(6), pp.66-70.

Beller, E.M., Chen, J.K.H., Wang, U.L.H. and Glasziou, P.P., 2013. Are systematic reviews up-to-date at the time of publication?. Systematic reviews, 2(1), pp.1-6.

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Covelli, B.J., 2017. Online discussion boards: The practice of building community for adult learners. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 65(2), pp.139-145.

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Gelatt, H.B., 1989. Positive uncertainty: A new decision-making framework for counseling. Journal of counseling psychology, 36(2), p.252.

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