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Introduction - Travel And Tourism Management
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Tourism is any travel that is done for pleasure or business. It's also the theory of traveling, the business of attracting, accommodating and entertaining tourists and the business of operating tourism. Tourism can be both traveling out if your country borders, international or domestic within one's own country. Tourism is one of the fastest growing industry of the world and a major source of revenue collection for many countries. Tourism actively participates in reviving the economy of any destination. United Kingdom is the 8th largest tourist destination in the world with 36.115 million people visiting in a year. It is an island comprising of up of cities like England, Scotland, Wales Northern Ireland. Domestic tourism is still the biggest revenue collector in UK. The local tourist travel mainly during the bank holidays and summer months august being the busiest holiday season. The country is a storehouse of places with scenic beauty and natural resources.
England is one of the most progressive and happening cities of the United Kingdom, its home to the capital London and a globally influential Centre of finance and culture. London has its history stretching back to the Roman times. The city stands on the famous river Thames in the southeast of the island of GreatBritain. The city was founded by the Romans who called it Londinium. London's ancient core, the city of London, largely retains its medieval boundaries. The greater London todayis a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London assembly.
London is globally a leading city in terms of art, commerce, education, entertainment, health care, fashion, finance, media, research development and tourism (Dickinson &Lumsdon, 2010). It is rated as the world's largest financial Centre. London has often been acclaimed as the world's cultural capital. Data's reveal that it is one of the most visited destinations in terms of international arrivals (Mann &brahim 2002). It has the world's largest city airport system. It is the world leading investment destination. London was the first city to host the modern summer'sOlympics games three times. London is the 3rd most populous European country by population within city limits. London also witnesses the oldest underground railways network. It hosts the house of parliament, the iconic ‘Big ben' clock tower, Westminster abbey, the beautiful Thames river and Heritage sites, Buckingham palace, museums, galleries, many more beautiful sites of natural scenic beauty that would make a trip to this city totally fruitful. London is artistically a beautiful amalgamation of a rich ancient culture blended with a modernized contemporary living. The place makes a very important tourist and trade Centre of the United kingdom.
London is second heavily populated, In comparison to the city of Paris. Paris and London run neck to neck in their fight to grab the position, globally being the most attractive and tourist friendly city. Paris the capital of France, is also a great Centre of art, culture fashion and high style living. It has been an important city for around 2000 years Its Europe's biggest Centre of finance, commerce and science music and fashion. Paris is also known as the city of lights because of its leading role in the age of enlightenment and literally because Paris was one of the first cities to adopt gas street lighting. The city is a major rail, highway and air transport hub. It is the second busiest metro in the world after Moscow. The city has a large number of museums and architectural landmarks to boast about.
London and Paris are both in the top list of tourist interest destinations of the world. London often outsmarts Paris in terms of air traffic network and tourists visiting every year. According to the official statistics released on 18 January, a record number of international tourists visited United Kingdom in the first nine months of 2017,London was the most sought of in this. The office of national statistics records show 17.4 million overseas visitors came to London in 2014 which definitely is also a 3.5 percent increase from the previous year. This number has continuously growing after the country hosted the Olympics in the year 2012. The diverse range of exhibitions and events offered by the Henri Matisse and the events at the museum of London are also huge crowd pullers. Celebrations of the 100th anniversary of world war one also had major impact on the visitor number from home and abroad both. The number of people who visited military exhibition also rose by 22 percent. The tower of London and HMSBelfast had almost more than 5 million visitors. Buckingham palace received a record breaking 413000 visitors in the year 2010. Many who had visited the palace in previous years came back to see the exhibitions. The Queens year, which charted the spectacle and a variety of queen's work. The palace new garden cafe was also a crowd puller. Furthermore the highly acclaimed Victoria And Albert: Art and Love exhibitonat the Queens Gallery brings together over 400 works of art collected by the royal couple many of them as gifts to mark special occasions. As stated by Gordon Innes, Chief executive of ‘London and Partners', Royal occasions like arrival of princess Charlotte with many other heritage attractions and super energy filled rugby world wars are major factors to expect many more visitors in the coming times (Hall & Richards, 2003). The mayor of London proudly boasts that London new terrific tourist's figures are sufficient to outline London it as a major tourist destination of the world.
Paris is another destination that is frequented by visitors all over the world, yet it is facing a constant decline in tourists in last few years. Greater Paris received 36500000 visitors in 2016, which was measured by the hotel stays. The largest number of foreign tourists come to Paris from United Kingdom 1,080,000 Followed by Germany725000, Italy 622000 and Spain 60900. Russia and rest of Europe also contributes a large number of visitors around 211000 followed by near and Middle EastAsia approximately 535000.746000 tourists came from china and 481000 from japan. A large number of 395000 from Africa and 1065000 from Asian countries. In 2016, measured by the MasterCard global city destination index Paris was the third busiest airlines in the world. Tourism in Paris suffered a major setback after the two terrorist attack one in Paris in 2015 and other in nice in 2016. The drops were considerably witnessed in museums like Louvre where 70 percent visitors fall back came from abroad. Statistics clearly show a rapid increase in tourism in London since last few years and is definitely taking over Paris as the most opted tourist destinations of the world
Political and economic system
London is a commercial hub and has been regarded as one of the largesteconomy all over the world. Its GDP is over 565 billion pounds and forms 17 percent of total GDP of UK. GDP of Paris is however more than that of London and accounts to 649 billion (Bush, 2017). But as per size of economy London is greater than Paris. In terms of growth rate as well London is far ahead of Paris with a growth rate of 2.4 percent while that of Paris is 1.7 percent (Pike, 2018).
In terms of political system, Paris which is the capital of France is a semi-presidential democratic republic. The executive power in the hands of government while legislative power is with government, senate and national assembly. The political system of London operates on the basis of constitutional monarchy' where queen is the head of state while prime minister in head of government (Kornhauser, 2017). Overall, London has a presence of loose regulatory, political and judicial environment which acts as a model for rest of world including Paris.
The human and physical resources of a place typically attract tourists to visit it. The human resources are the manmade architectures like Eiffel tower that become a matter of curiosity and appreciation. Physical resources include natural sights like beaches, mountains, valleys and forests where tourists find resort for peace and serenity. London no doubt has an ample to offer to the tourists of both the categories. There are numerous tourists' attractions in London ranging from sightseeing destinations, theme parks and world heritage sites. There are wide variety of physical resources in London that make travellers appreciate and marvel the craftsmanship and excellence of creativity. The tower of London is one of the world's famous fortresses and home to the priceless crown jewels. It was built as a royal residency and prison and it has fascinating stories within its walls. Westminster abbey is one of the most picturesque spot. Abbey has beautiful memorials of great kings and queens. Flamingo land theme park and zoo over 150 species live at this zoo. It also offers rides, entertainment and called so as the graceful pink birds were the first inhabitants of this place, Stonehenge is a part of the UNESCO world Heritage sites,London zoo has more than 12000 animals including exotic breeds of tigers, gorillas and penguins. Drayton Manor theme park with roller coaster rides, entertainment centers, water parks thrill rides and lots of family fun it is reputed as a perfect family theme park catering needs of all age groups that come together in a family (Johnston, 2005). For tourists who prefer to spend peaceful time in the lap of nature the London has various natural spaces and wildlife London wetland Centre, RSPB Raynham Marshes Nature Reserve, Epping forests, Thames river probably is the best natural attraction in London. Being the longest river of London it passes through most of the tourist sites in London and taking a cruise is the best way to get to know the city in a glimpse. The River gives an overview of the architectural landmarks and other points of interest in the city. Kayaking, canoeing and sailing can be done here. Green park located in central London is the only park not interrupted by manmade buildings and gives a breath of fresh air amidst the busy city life. Kensington gardens. St James spark the regents garden, Greenwich park, Hyde park which hosted the great exhibition of 1851 is a natural landmark of London, bushy park Virginia waters, lee valley park, High gate wood, Chislehurst caves, Chelsea physic garden queens wood, Railway fields Brockwell park and many more options for nature lovers to sit back and enjoy the natural geographical scenery (Pattullo ,Minnelli , Hourmant, Smith, Viesnik&Dall, 2009). The city undoubtedly promises interesting natural recreational activities in between the modernized, architecturally sound buildings.
While Paris is famous art Centre the landforms under and around have shaped its history. Paris is on the bank of river Seine, there are two islands connected by bridges, they are Ille De LA Cite and Ile Saint-Louis. Paris topographically is relatively flat ,but has a few flat hills. It does not have many natural attractions for nature lovers, but a large number of manmade parks, reserves and gardens are maintained for nature lovers. Luxembourg gardens, Parcmonceau, ParcMontsouris, Parc de Bercy, Bois de Vincennes are few places to bask in the serenity of nature. Paris has a colossal of architectural buildings, Montmartre is an historical walk-in area, there is much to look forward in Paris in terms of activities that include cruise and tours, day trips to Normandy Day battlefields, visit to Sainte–ChappelleLouvremuseum, Pont Alexandra III. Not to miss physical feature the Eiffel tower, which is an iconic landmark all over the world.On the champ de Mars in Paris. It was named after the engineerGU stave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. In French it's called La Tour Eiffel. It is a wrought iron lattice tower. It has 3 levels in all. It is one of the most favorite destinations while in France. It was the tallest structure when completed in 1989 although now it just retains its status as the tallest freestanding structure in France. Paris visit is considerate incomplete without a tour to Eiffel tower. Tourist attractions to enjoy the magnificent views of the city from the heights of the second floor. Just the mention of Paris brings to mind various designer names yves Saint-Laurent, Lancôme, Loreal, and Christian Dior. It offers extravagant shopping experience with shopping centres ranging from open air markets to boutiques and flea markets. Moulin rouge opened its doors in Paris in 1989 and is still considered the most premier entertainment venue in the city. Paris has the Pantheon, the Conciergerie, Pere Lachaise Cemetery, Disneyland Paris a very famous theme park of Europe, PalaisGarnier, Les invalides building that honor French military are some of the few attractions visitors can vouch for when in the city.
There is a presence of many issues that may affect the popularity of London and Pairs as tourism destinations. These have been discussed below.
Weather - The weather of Paris is not a good one and often has a presence of record rainfall which adds to issues for tourism industry. In recent times, there was a flooding of Siena River that led to shut down of major landmarks. It thus led to disruption of traffic, closure of subways and river side restaurant. Just like Paris, London also suffers from unwanted rains and thunderstorms that disrupt the tourism activity (Novy, 2018).
Terror attacks - In the recent times, London has suffered from a few terror attacks the notable among this is Westminster case that has deterred tourists to visit this destination for some time. Just like London, Paris has also suffered from terror attack in the recent times. In fact the attack that happened in 2015 is regarded as worst terrorist attack within Europe in 11 years (Maxim, 2017).
Rising cost - this is one of the biggest issues that are being faced by tourism industry f London. On account of rising cost in area of travel, food and drink, Londonhad almost 2 million less visitors in 2018 in comparison to 2017 (Itv, 2018). In the same lines, Paris has also been regarded as one of the mostexpensive cities in the world. Its rising rent cost is making stay in hotel very costly for tourists (Devine and Ojeda, 2017).
The most important objective of marketing a destination for tourism is identification of the type and characteristics of the destination, identification of the life cycle of the destination as a tourist place. Most tourist destinations can be classified into several categories that become the principal focus of their attractiveness. They are classified as urban destinations, seaside destinations, alpine destinations, and authentic, unique exotic, exclusive (Bahulis 2000). Some destinations satisfy combined needs like business trips, shopping, vacation, and relaxing, cultural needs. Certain other are demand oriented like seaside, mountains snow etc. Recently there has been an increasing demand of authentic places and destinations that offer unique travelling experiences which are non-conventional places (Mastny, 2001). Travelling is consumers specific and each destination can match only a specific type of demands that's the reason numerous tourist destinations are using methods to add on the demand levels to fit the increasing traveller choices. This often links with the criterion of the responsible tourism. Responsible tourism was defined in Cape Town in 2002. Responsible tourism aims at making places better to live in and places better to visit (Spenceley, 2008). This requires a coordinated effort of the hoteliers, travel agents, government, operators and tourist to make tourism more sustainable (Robinson & Picard 2006). Sustainable tourism refers to tourism that generates greater economic benefits for the local people, improves working conditions of the host country. Sustainable tourism respects both local people and traveller, cultural heritage and the environment. Sustainable tourism contributes in conservation of natural and cultural heritage, keeping intact the world diversity (Groth, 2000). Providing more enjoyable and comfortable experience to the tourists, through greater understanding of the local, social and environmental issues and increased interactions with the local people.Providing easy access to people with disabilities and disadvantages.And in all this process maintaining the local pride and confidence of the community. London in every sense has bragged the concept of capturing the tourists interests (Graci&Dodds, 2010) and maintaining tourism sustainability in all terms. The rise of the tourism depicts the comfort level the tourists get travelling to London. The city has taken great care in revising its cultural heritage and the royal palace is the example of the city moving forward with its rich ancient historic past (Mowforth and Munt, 2008)
The tourism is categorized into four main categories mass, elite, explorer and traveler. Any tourist destinations is capable to satisfy any one category of traveller, but some destinations try and evolve to fulfill more than one type of traveling needs. London has progressed to reach a level where any of the four type of traveller can comfortable plan small gateway (Ghimire, ed 2001). Large number of factors contribute in maintaining sustainable tourism in London. Uk is a very well connected country for international tourism. Hundreds of air route, water route and channel tunnels make it easier and faster to reach the country. Increase of low cost airline shave definitely added a marked increase in mass traveller. It is even more pocket friendly for the domestic tourists. The great Britain, the biggest ever tourism campaign in 2011 to promote 2012 LondonOlympics games led to drastic increase in the number and interest of tourists visiting the city. The objective behind greatBritain campaign is to add value to the tourism industry and economy to the country. The campaign also focused at highlight Britain as a great place to study, invest and do business. Weather also plays an important role in deciding the tourist strength (Bulbeck, 2005). The autumn is the loveliest time of year to visit London in order to enjoy the mild weather and a large variety of annual events from Thames festival to Halloween celebrations. The time from March through may also bring lots of vacation travelers who enjoy the mild temperatures with the city parks green and blooming with life. Health, safety and security measures also become an asset for travellers coming to London. Tourism in Paris suffered saw large fall after the two major terrorist's attacks. Safety definitely is a constant criteria for travellers to choose a destination. London definitely boasts more visitors per year. London houses 131 football clubs to choose from if u want to play or watch or follow football, London is your city, where people live breathe and sleep football a paradise for sports lovers. Paris has just 15 football clubs across the whole city. Rugby season is definitely an eye catcher for tourists to travel to London to enjoy this sport session (Mitchell & Ashley, 2009). Big ben come out as the London's top attraction standing at 314 ft. in contrast to Eiffel tower in Paris at 1062 ft. Paris might be more beautiful with better culinary offerings but London no doubt snap the tourism market with far too many attractions, something for every age group and varied travel and not forgetting the royal family. The prominence of the royal family and its popular culture make the city unrivalled. Celebrating the predicted 16 million travelers to London city in 2013 depicts that fascinating museums, best theatre sites in the world, lot of green space than any other European country has, low crime rate, sporting events at its best have attracted tourists globally to flock to this city of mesmerizing beauty and rich culture
Latest listing of world's top 100 cities have seen London outsmart Paris in ratings as the tourist friendly city. Mr.Johnson claimed London to be the best city on the planet, when Anne Hidalgo deputy mayor of Paris responded as London to be a suburb of Paris. The figures yet agree that the last few years have seen a remarkable increase in tourist inflow in the city. It's a fun city delight for English speakers. It has a slight edge over Paris in terms of rich history. The world class museums in London are almost free of charge so visitors can enjoy most of them and get enriched with the cultural and historic lineage. It is a travelers perception that sunsets at Thames are always more mesmiring than the once at Seine river. London has Harold's a department house of dreams with 7 floors 330 floors departments 4 acres and a tapas restaurant, 7500 bright colors double dickered busses from a cute and classy mode of transport against a normal Persian bus system. In London tourists get the advantage of making phone calls from adorable vintage phone booth that adds to an amazing fun experience against basic phone booths or bust in Paris London has Prince harry and Buckingham palace basic. In a nutshell travelling to London will load you with memories and experiences that will be cherished lifelong. London outshine anytime in natural beauty and geographical scenery, physical resources, culinary delicacies and not to miss entertainment and theme parks. London can be fairly be determined as a wonderful holiday spot for travelers all over the world.
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