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Scoping Review of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Assignment Sample

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An Introductory Systematic Scoping Review On Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Assignment Sample

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The term vaccine hesitancy helps in understanding the causes of the delay and the barriers to accepting a vaccine by the common public. It is a state of uncertainty and indecisiveness about taking the vaccine. This study is based on the critical review of people's hesitancy to take the Covid-19 vaccine and the various contributing factors associated with it. This has posed major challenges in the optimal and successful implementation of immunization programs for effective dealing with the pandemic. Addressing the barriers to the uptake of covid vaccines is a major research question of this study. The main factors associated with the hesitancy or disapproval of the common people against the vaccines for covid is geographic considerations, fear, religious considerations and anxiety about the outcomes. These factors are the major research objectives addressed in this study and help in determining the factors that lead to hesitancy. The aspects related to hesitancy toward the vaccines are discussed by taking into account the anti-vaccine theories of conspiracy, factors of anxiety and fear and the rate of hesitancy among populations of different countries with high income.

Method and Analysis

Qualitative data is taken into consideration for the study conducted by Bendau et al. (2021), and the method of research employed for this study is done with the help of mixed methods, including a cross-sectional type of study, longitudinal study and case-control type of study. However, a limitation of the method employed for this study is that the factors taken into consideration are derived predominantly from online surveys. The qualitative type of data for the study is done through various methods such as online surveys, paper questionnaires, group discussions, surveys and telephone interviews for collecting data. This is comparable to the methodology employed by Aw et al. (2021), which is based on the cross-sectional type of study design and survey conducted in the online mode. A benefit of this method is that a wide range of participants with different characteristics and viewpoints are taken into account, eliminating the probability of repeated results with less diversity. Another limitation of the study conducted by Aw et al. (2021) is that as a result of the travel restrictions, limited accessibility is encountered to the experiences and input from the older populations. This can be compared to the method by Bendau et al. (2021) in which a wide range of populations is addressed in the study. In the study conducted by Jolley & Douglas (2017), the questionnaire method is adopted in which the variables taken into account are vaccination intention, beliefs based on the theories of conspiracy on anti-vaccine and perceived dangers. In the study conducted by Bax et al. (2021), the method employed in the study is based on the gathering of required data through an online survey to get the rate of vaccinated people in Australia.

Synthesis

The study conducted by Aw et al. (2021) focuses on various factors that contribute to the increased hesitancy of people toward covid vaccines are discussed. This study takes into account the major high-income areas in four continents, and the countries included are US, UAE, Italy and Hong Kong. The findings of the study suggest that the highest hesitancy rates are predominant in North America and Asia. As opined by Aw et al. (2021), the factors that are associated with the hesitancy to the vaccine in the case of high-income type of countries are awareness and knowledge levels about the benefits of the covid vaccine, beliefs of the people about conspiracy, experiences related to vaccinations of other types and its associated negative effects and socio-economic factors. The findings of this study help in classifying the determinants and the factors of vaccine hesitancy, and they are vaccine-related, individual or group factors, and contextual type of factors. The findings of Aw et al. (2021) are helpful in planning successful vaccination programs and reducing the spread of the disease. It also provides a scope for identifying the target groups such as the female population, children, people from low economic backgrounds and lower trust levels with the government.

Findings of a study conducted by Jolley & Douglas (2017) suggest that the intervention is based on the education of people about the benefits of getting vaccinated. This technique improves the intention of people toward vaccine uptake and hence increases the success rate of the vaccination programs arranged by the government. From the above discussion, it can be stated that the intervention employed by Jolley & Douglas (2017) is a better one as it effectively addresses a wide range of factors and is based on the crucial factor related to vaccine hesitancy, which is conspiracy theories.

This is comparable to the method utilised by Bendau et al. (2021), in which a longitudinal type of online survey is done. This method can be considered the best among all the 4 studies taken into consideration as it also takes into account the influences of social media on shaping the vaccine hesitancy of people. The participant of this study is effectively communicated with the help of the provided email address, and a consent form is also used in the study. Another benefit of this study is that the online survey took a short time of about 12 minutes, and the population chosen for the study is above 18 years of age. In the study conducted by Jolley & Douglas (2017), conspiracy theories against the covid vaccines have effectively discussed that they act as a major barrier to the successful delivery of covid vaccines to the public. The findings of the study demonstrate that the belief of the people in the conspiracy theories is directly related to the covid 19 vaccine's perceived dangers. As stated by Jolley & Douglas (2017), exposure of people to conspiracy theories based on anti-vaccine is reflected by their behavioral intentions. It is found in the above-mentioned study that based on the model of serial mediation, knowledge about conspiracy theories increases the belief and the perception of people about the dangers of vaccines. This leads to decreased participation of the people in the vaccine drives and reduces the intention to get vaccinated. This is supported by the findings of Bendau et al. (2021), in which it is demonstrated that females account for a significant proportion of the vaccine-hesitant population based on conspiracy theories and beliefs.

The difference between the findings of Jolley & Douglas (2017) and Bendau et al. (2021) is that the latter emphasizes that hesitancy toward vaccines is higher among the female population. It is also suggested that the belief and trust in conspiracy-based theories are more among females as compared to males. One of the reasons explained for a higher number of females hesitant to vaccines is derived from the safety concerns related to vaccination during breastfeeding and pregnancy. One of the strengths of this study conducted by Jolley & Douglas (2017) is the technique employed to address the consequences of conspiracy theory and its effect on vaccine uptake. It is suggested by the authors that the arguments based on anti-conspiracy theories on vaccine hesitancy have a significant impact on improving the intention of people towards vaccines. However, a limitation of this study as compared to the studies conducted by other authors is based on the fact that a fictional child is taken into consideration rather than an actual person. Hence, the intentions found in the study might not relate to the real behavioural patterns of the public. In the study conducted by Bax et al. (2021), it is suggested that the factor will of the people is a major determinant in the drive for covid vaccination.

The strength of this study is based on the findings of the transmission of the covid virus particles with the help of respiratory droplets generated during speech. This finding can be compared to the findings of Bendau et al. (2021) in which it is suggested that the major factors responsible for hesitancy to the vaccine are based on income levels and education levels. One of the strengths of this study is the strategy for increasing the vaccine uptake in countries with higher income, such as UAE and Italy. The findings of this study demonstrate that uptake can be increased by effectively dealing with the administrative and logistics barriers in the deployment of vaccines and their global allocation.

Conclusion

Vaccine hesitancy is a crucial factor that limits the success of vaccination programs to deal with the pandemic at the global level. From the above discussion based on the comparison of the four articles chosen based on vaccine hesitancy, it can be concluded that these articles have effectively addressed the research question based on the various factors that play a role in impacting the hesitancy factor for getting vaccinated. The study conducted by Jolley & Douglas (2017) helps in understanding the role of conspiracy theory against the vaccine that increases the hesitancy of the common people and decreases the overall vaccine uptake. The study conducted by Aw et al. (2021) emphasizes various determinants that determine the rate of hesitancy to covid vaccines such as administration mode, reliability of the source that supplies the vaccines and public perceptions.

Reference list

  • Aw, J., Seng, J. J. B., Seah, S. S. Y., & Low, L. L. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy—A scoping review of literature in high-income countries. Vaccines, 9(8), 900.https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080900
  • Bax, A., Bax, C. E., Stadnytskyi, V., & Anfinrud, P. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 transmission via speech-generated respiratory droplets. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 21(3), 318.10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30726-X
  • Bendau, A., Plag, J., Petzold, M. B., & Ströhle, A. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and related fears and anxiety. International immunopharmacology, 97, 107724.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107724
  • Jolley, D., & Douglas, K. M. (2017). Prevention is better than cure: Addressing anti?vaccine conspiracy theories. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 47(8), 459-469. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12453.
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