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Introduction - Historical and Current Perspectives of the Nursing Profession
Nursing is the independent and collective caring of people of different ages, families, groups, and communities, sick or healthy, in various circumstances. Nursing involves health improvement, the avoidance of sickness. The care of the sick, disabled, and aging also falls under the role of nursing. Nursing is considered as an independent profession in which it covers individuals in health promotion and health maintenance. There are several or different kinds of theories and classifications that are related to nursing. Over a century ago, Florence Nightingale described nursing as "the act of utilizing the patient's environment to support him in his recovery." A clean, well-ventilated, relatively calm atmosphere, according to Florence, was crucial for quick healing. So, nursing is entirely related to the recovery that is linked to the individual. This recovery of the individual can be related to various factors whether it can be due to the environment, cleanliness or due to any other reason.
In this section the theory Novice to expert is explained in detail. This theory mainly explains that the nurses acquire different skills and understanding related to patient care over the time through a mix of a solid educational Foundation and personal experiences. This theory is given by Patricia Benner (Braithwaite et al 2018). The theory itself gives the knowledge and skills that are related to nursing. In this there are five levels of nursing experience. This can be divided as "novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert". These levels are based on the total experience that the nurse has. A novice is a complete beginner who has no experience in the field of Nursing (Chernichovsky et al 2019). Then after that advanced beginner who has acceptable performance and has little bit experience in the nursing field. The next is the competent nurse who has more than two years in the same field. After that the next one is a proficient nurse. In this the nurse has the Holistic understanding of Nursing with well versed decision making. At last the expert nurse who has long years of experience in this nursing field and also has proper knowledge about all principal and guidelines.
In the present situation also the nurses are divided according to these levels (Davies et al 2018). These levels are very beneficial in terms of expertise that the nurse has in this field. Florence nightingale theory mainly focused on the environment. Description of different aspects related to the environment is mentioned in his theory. This theory is can also be divided in four major concepts of Nursing. This major concept can be listed as environment, person, health and nursing.
Opening and establishment of the Florence nightingale school for nurses in London in 1860 gave some major boost to the nursing group (Edney et al 2018). This is the first professional Nursing School in the entire world that is established in London. The students who came from all over the world to study nursing and graduates were known as "Nightingales”. Later moves to Florence Nightingale's region in response to a request from the colonial authority.
She then continues to accept the offer on behalf of her team. Lucy Osburn founded the very first nursing school in Australia at the Sydney Hospital site in 1868.
Lucy Osburn is one of very few Lady Probationers in training who was ready to go to Sydney for medical reasons (Pichler et al 2019). Despite losing a third year of training because of sickness, she was chosen to lead the team of nurses to Sydney. Lucy Osburn and a few other nurses took a flight to Sydney. They were all hired by the New South Wales government on three-year contracts with excellent pay and benefits. The offers are given by the south Wales government on the contract basis. Then after that the establishment of the “International Council of Nurses” was done (Rickwood et al 2019). This is acting as a federation of “national nurses associations” in more than 130 countries worldwide. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) is the Federation of nurses in more than 130 countries. It is the first and widest of the International Organization for the health which is headquartered or located in Geneva, Switzerland.
In the conclusion section the overview of the entire explanation in brief manner. Here at first the introduction about nursing is presented. In this the basic definition related to nursing is explained. Nursing involves health improvement, the avoidance of sickness. The care of the sick, disabled, and aging also fall under the role of nursing. This is also related to the well ventilated and clean environment for the improvement in health. Then after that the discussion section is presented. Here the different theories related to nursing are discussed in detail. Then after that different nursing categories are placed in this section which is novice, advanced beginner etc. These are divided on the basis of total experience in the nursing field. After the explanation about the levels the establishment of the Florence Nightingale School of nurses is discussed. This is considered as the first school in the whole world. It was built in 1860 and is located in London. The students who came to study nursing and graduates are called Nightingales. Then in connection with Lucy Osborne the first school of nursing in Australia was also established. After that the different perspectives in the history related to nursing are discussed. So, this conclusion section provides a brief summary of the entire section.
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Chernichovsky, D., 2019. Health system reforms in industrialized democracies: an emerging paradigm. Management of Health Care, pp.143-176.
Davies, A. and Wood, L.J., 2018. Homeless health care: meeting the challenges of providing primary care. Medical Journal of Australia, 209(5), pp.230-234.
Edney, L.C., Haji Ali Afzali, H., Cheng, T.C. and Karnon, J., 2018. Estimating the reference incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the Australian health system. Pharmacoeconomics, 36(2), pp.239-252.
Pichler, P.P., Jaccard, I.S., Weisz, U. and Weisz, H., 2019. International comparison of health care carbon footprints. Environmental research letters, 14(6), p.064004.
Rickwood, D., Paraskakis, M., Quin, D., Hobbs, N., Ryall, V., Trethowan, J. and McGorry, P., 2019. Australia's innovation in youth mental health care: the headspace centre model. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 13(1), pp.159-166.