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The Use of Models and Theories in Nursing Practice Assignment Sample

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Introduction: Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Nursing Research Studies

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Through reviewing the quantitative study it been focuses that topic of the article focuses on understanding the key ratio of the nurses within the Scotland that are diagnosed with the obesity and overweight problem. The key measurable variables within the article is ratio of obesity and overweight among the individual. It has been also assessed that topic is significant for the researcher as it assists in gaining the adequate information regarding the overweight nurses so that they can engage in the activities and practices that support in lowering their ratio in the Scotland.


The key background of the article include increasing ratio of overweight and obesity is consider as global epidemic that need to be addressed properly so that they can overcome this ratio. As per the view of () in the present context there is increase in the ratio of individual that possess the obesity and overweight therefore, it is required by the occupation groups existing in the international healthcare system to engage in the activities so that they can minimize the ratio. Furthermore, it is also stated that it is significant for the researcher to estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight among the nurses. Furthermore, it has been also evaluated that form the previous studies reinforcing this topic is essential for the researcher as it support them in gaining the adequate knowledge and information regarding the topic.


The key aim of the study is to estimate or examine the ratio of obesity and overweight among the nurses within Scotland and it also compare different healthcare professionals and those individual rendering services in the non-health related occupations. Moreover, it is also assessed that the aim of the quantitative study is to estimate the ratio of obesity and overweight situation among the general working population and nurses so that researcher may contribute in delivering the healthcare education and knowledge to the individual so that they can easily address the pandemic of obesity and overweight.


The present study is cross sectional study that is comparing the ratio of nurses and other general population therefore, it engage in using methodology related with quantitative methods that is applying different mathematical tests as well as SPSS technique so that they can acquire the reliable and accurate results within minimum standard error. As per the view of Bernard (2011) researcher while conducting the quantitative study uses figures to test the devised hypothesis. In the situation if the devised hypothesis is accepted then in such situation the study will be carried properly.

Tools of data collection

In order to collect the data regarding the prevalence of obesity and overweight among the nurses within Scottish research uses the Scottish Health survey. It is considered as an effective method for collecting the data within the Scotland (Creswell, 2013). Along with this the survey is also used to collect the relevant data related with ratio of health condition, diseases risk factors, track health trends etc. along with this, it has been also evaluated that face to face interview method is used by the researcher for collecting the data from the residential adults (age group of 16 and above). Furthermore, it has also critique that to ensure proper analysis five round of Scottish Health Survey has been aggregated. In which the participant from the age group 17-65 years were included. On the contrary to this Andrews and Herzberg (2012) has stated there was no pilot study was conducted for collecting the data as for the large sample it was the better option that support in gaining accurate results.

Data analysis

For the quantitative research paper researcher has focused on the descriptive statistics for the socio demographic variables. As the selected variables mainly focuses on the gender, age, parental class etc. along with this for analysing the data researcher also engaged in the logistic regression model that focuses on comparing the odds of being overweight with not being overweight nurses in the occupational courses (Pleis, Ward and Lucas, 2010). Furthermore, through reviewing the article it was also found that data were also analysed through using SAS 9.1.3. that is Statistical Analysis System software. It has been also critically evaluated that the chosen technique is appropriate for the study as it allows proper analysis as well as categorization of quantitative data.


Through analysing the article it was measured that selected sample size for conducting the research the selected participants or the sample unit were 13,483 adults of the age group 17-65. it was indicated that all the participants were properly classified into the four different occupational groups that mainly include nurses (411), other healthcare professionals (320), unqualified care staff (685) and the last category of the participants include general participants who are employed in other occupation other than health care (12,067). therefore, the selected sample size is too large and using quantitative tools and technique assists the researcher in gaining accurate and reliable resultant. Along with this, purposive sampling is been used by the researcher for successfully conducting the study in which the researcher relies on their own decisions and judgement. On the other hand, Hasan, Chandrasekaran and Hansen (2010) has critically evaluated that there were several other survey technique that is successfully within the study that is cluster sampling as well as cross sectional survey etc. in addition to this, the key strength of the sample is that is is convenient for the researcher as well as also less costly that results in gaining the accurate result (Lin, Liu and Zhu, 2010).

Ethical considerations

Analysing the whole article it was studied that researcher has engaged in considering the ethical consideration that support them in attaining the valid and reliable information (Houser, 2013). It has been also assessed that for the conducting the study research has taken approval from the research ethics committee in the school of health sciences, University of Stirling UK. Along with this, aspect of ethical consideration also ensure that researcher has not been engaged in any sort of bias activities and assists in attaining the most accurate and reliable information. Whereas, engaging in the ethical consideration activities also support the individual in overcoming the ethical issues and thus pursue in the informed consent, fairness among the activities as well as anonymity (Fain, 2013). Moreover, ethical consideration also assists in ensuring the validity and reliability of the collected data from the large sample size but in the present article it has not mention anything regarding the validity and reliability of the collected data and information.

Main findings

With the key aim to estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight nurses in the Scotland it may result in finding the different ways for the welfare of nurses so that they may overcome the situation. On the other hand, the findings also focuses on stating the question regarding the importance of health to the individual. It has been critically evaluated that all the research questions of the study has been answered and ensure that prevalence of obesity and overweight is higher in the area of Scotland as compare to the area of UK and US.

Conclusion and recommendations

Through critically evaluating the quantitative article it has been concluded that with assessing the participants over two third of the nurses were having the overweight and obesity. Along with this it was also evaluated that ratio of obesity and overweight was higher in the healthcare professionals as compare to the non healthcare professionals. Moreover, the observed or determined prevalences was higher in the previous studies that were conducted in the region of UK, Australia as well as New Zealand etc. whereas, it was also recommended that development of supportive workplace interventions is being consider as effective value that support in overcoming the prevalence rate. In addition to this, engaging in the health promotions campaigns and activities is also consider as effective activity that assists in overcoming the increasing situation of obesity and overweight in the Scotland.

Overall strengths and limitations

Through conducting the quantitative research paper it was assessed that author or researcher has identified the proper limitation of the study that is researcher might conduct the more deeply study for estimating the prevalence of obesity and overweight situation. Along with this, it was also stated that there were certain limitations to the study that is analysing using cross sectional survey results in changing their health. Moreover, the strength of the study was that in the past different dataset were used for the study but in the present comparison is made among the different occupational groups. Along with this another strength of the study is that engaging in the survey interview rather than using the self report raises the level of accuracy of gathered data and information.

Application to practice

With the help of reviewing the article it was stated that key findings as well as recommendations has been applied to the practice as it support in providing proper awareness and education among the residential individual as well as nurses regarding the prevalence of obesity and overweight so that they can engage in the activities that support in overcoming the issue. Along with this, changes and recommendations must be considered in order to avoid or increases their ratio in the Scotland.

Article 2- Nursing management of aggression in a Singapore emergency department: A qualitative study

Another article is based on the qualitative study that concerned about the nursing management aggression within the Singapore emergency department as the level of incidence is increasing at the constant rate.


The key focus of the study was on the nursing management of aggression level of the patients in the Singapore emergency department. Along with this, the key aim of the study was to understand the perception of registered nurses regarding managing the aggressive service users within the emergency department. It has been critique that the focus emphasis on aggressive behaviour of patient that directly impact the activities of the nurses within the premises.


The key aspect for conducting the research was to explore the perspective of the nurses related with caring the people or patients with the aggressive behaviour. Therefore, the background of the study only focuses on the Singaporean nurses and their activities in managing the activities of their patients. Along with this, there are several studies that focuses on measuring the impact of patients aggressive behaviour on the nurses but the research was conducted first on the Singaporean nurses presenting to the Emergency Department.


In order to successfully carries out the research the selected methodology was phenomenological approach that mainly focuses on describing the lived experiences of the respondent. It has been critically evaluated that benefit of this methodology to the study is that it support in accumulating the reliable and accurate information and data. On the contrary to this Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault (2015) has also stated that using this research methodology is difficult to observe and prevent research worker induced bias.

Tools of data collection

For the present study the selected technique for collecting the data include pilot survey technique in which the interview guide was adopted from the previous study. Pilot survey is defined as preliminary survey that is used by the researcher to accumulate relevant information before conducting the actual study or survey (Rogers, 2010). The strength of using this method is that it focuses on selecting the small groups that help them in conducting the main study or research work. Along with this, it has also evaluated that interview method was also chosen for collecting the data. The interview were conducted in English and structured questions were followed to the respondents. The conducted interviews were recorded and all were lasts from 30 to 60 minutes. From the collected data it was indicated that nurses who were engaged in the intoxication contribute to their aggressive behaviours (Brinkmann, 2014).

Methods of data analysis and presentation

The methodology used for the qualitative study was interpretivism as the data is collected through survey as well as interview that ensure their proper interpretation and analysing that assist in gaining the adequate results (Smith, 2015). For the present study data was in the form of observation as well as verbal statement with the help of conducting interview. Thus, interview assists the researcher in framing the different themes for the study. Along with this, for analysing the collected data research had also chosen the thematic analysis four different themes has been designed that support in gaining the adequate information related with impact of aggressive behaviour on the nurses, assessment of nurses, proper management of individual behaviour as well as support and response of the organization.


It has been evaluated that for conducting the qualitative research, scholar focuses on the small number of sample that is mainly range from 10 to 20. In order conduct the adequate research and explore the ideas researcher focuses on taking the perception of the registered nurses that manages the aggressive patients within the Emergency Department (ED). The selected sample for the study was 10 registered nurses were selected from the public hospital within the Singapore. The selected sample was feasible for the qualitative study as it gain the suitable results from the respondents (Nielsen and Cleal, 2011). Along with this purposive sampling technique is been used by the researcher in which he relies on their own judgement and decisions when they are selecting the sample. It has been critically evaluated that this sampling method is ineffective as it ensure judgemental activities in selecting the sample from the population.

Ethical consideration

The ethical consideration is must within the study that support in accessing the validity and reliability of the collected data (Holloway and Wheeler, 2013). Therefore, in the present study the ethical consideration has been taken into the account. For enabling the protection of the participants or respondents researcher has taken approval from the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board. Along with this, advertisement flyers and staff briefing were also utilized to enlist the possible respondents (Munhall, 2012). It has been critique that in the situation when the researcher is unable to engage in the ethical consideration then in such case researcher is exposed to attain legal ramification. 

Main findings

From the present qualitative study it was find out that researcher is effective in understanding the nursing management of aggressive behaviour of the patients within the Singapore emergency department. Along with this it has been successfully found out in attaining the aim of measuring the impact of aggressive behaviour of patients on the activities of nurses. Along with this, it has been also found that effective support to the nurses for delivering the optimal care for the aggressive patients and accomplish in attaining the positive and negative outcomes.

Conclusion and recommendations

With the help of reviewing the qualitative research paper it has been critically evaluated that researcher has positively assisted in understanding the experience of nurses rendering services in the emergency department and impact of their care activities for the aggressive patients. On the other hand, it has also reviewed that support from the colleagues as well as debriefing of the formal workplace is lacking that impact the activities of the nurses. From the reviewed research paper work it has been assessed that nurses has been recommended with attending the aggression management training program that would support in raising and enhancing the confidence level of nurses. Further, from the study it has been also recommended that usage of legislation, protocol as well as policies would also direct the care activities of nurses related with the aggressive patients within the study.

Overall strength and limitations

Through analysing the qualitative paper work it has been assessed that there are certain strength as well as limitation of the conducted study. Thus, measuring the limitation of study will support the other investigator in overcoming the limitation gap so that adequate results can be achieved. The overall strength of the study is that it support in measuring the level of aggression in the which the patient threatened and assault the Singaporean nurses rendering services within the emergence department. The several limitation for this qualitative study is that it only focuses on the single site that is Singapore with the small sample size of emergency department nurses. Whereas, it is also critically evaluated that findings also explore the experience of the Singaporean registered nurses while it restrict the experience of western country nurses (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 2014).

Application to practice

It has been assessed that findings of the conducted study can be relate to the practice as the behaviour of patient varies from individual to individual that directly impact the activities of the nurses within the Singaporean hospital. Along with this, it is also assessed that findings is applicable to the practice as it support in understanding the behaviour of each and every patients within the emergency department so that they can provide the required activities to their patients. Therefore, it is assessed in attaining the aim of the study that was to understand the perception of registered nurses regarding managing the aggressive service users within the emergency department. It has been critique that the focus emphasis on aggressive behaviour of patient that directly impact the activities of the nurses within the premises.



Books and Journals

Andrews, D.F. and Herzberg, A.M., 2012. Data: a collection of problems from many fields for the student and research worker. Springer Science & Business Media.

Bernard, H.R., 2011. Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Rowman Altamira.

Brinkmann, S., 2014. Interview (pp. 1008-1010). Springer New York.

Creswell, J.W., 2013. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Larson, R., 2014. Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 35-54). Springer Netherlands.

Fain, J.A., 2013. Reading, understanding, and applying nursing research. FA Davis.

Hasan, T., Chandrasekaran, A. and Hansen, J. H., 2010, March. A novel feature sub-sampling method for efficient universal background model training in speaker verification. In 2010 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (pp. 4494-4497). IEEE.

Holloway, I. and Wheeler, S., 2013. Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. John Wiley & Sons.

Houser, J., 2013. Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Kyle, G., Neall, A. R. and Atherton, M. I., 2015. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among nurses in Scotland: A cross-sectional study using the Scottish Health Survey. International Journals of Nursing Studies. 53. pp. 126-133.

Lin, L., Liu, X. and Zhu, S.C., 2010. Layered graph matching with composite cluster sampling. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 32(8). pp.1426-1442.

Munhall, P.L., 2012. Nursing research. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Nielsen, K. and Cleal, B., 2011. Under which conditions do middle managers exhibit transformational leadership behaviors?—An experience sampling method study on the predictors of transformational leadership behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly. 22(2). pp.344-352.

Pleis, J.R., Ward, B.W. and Lucas, J.W., 2010. Summary health statistics for US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2009. Vital and health statistics. Series 10, Data from the National Health Survey, (249), pp.1-207.

Rogers, R., 2010. Structured interview of reported symptoms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Smith, J.A. ed., 2015. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. Sage.

Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.

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