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Legislation, Ethics, Business Health Check In Travel And Tourism Sector Assignments

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Introduction Part

The travel and tourism laws implies on the travel agencies and organizations and airports. It comprises the health and safety, protection of environment, customers protection etc. it has been implied to make smooth and easy functioning of the tourism services (Turner, 2011). Is also increases the quality of work of the people who are working in this industry.

Main Body

1.1 Legal and regulatory framework of the travel and tourism sector

It is the main system that consists government rules and regulations for the decision making and laws. The travel and tourism industries include customers, the big business organization, hospitality, suppliers etc. It is essential for the tourist companies to imply follow these rules and regulations. The tourism industries comprises the following acts.

  1. Development of tourism act, 1969 - The British Tourist Authority introduced this act in 1969 which co-ordinates with those organizations which are involved in the industry of tourism (Crooks, Turner and Kingsbury, 2011). The British Tourist Authority combined itself for visit Britain with the English Tourism Council.
  2. Transports acts 1980 and 1985 - This act had terminated the laws of licensing because they were affecting the routes of express coaches. By this the competition between the private and national buses had been increased. According to act 1985 the route systems were removed to allow the private buses for operate the routes (WHAT IS TOURISM LAW? 2017). This means the private buses can operate on any route and would provide cheap travel rates, this will be the advantage to the travellers as they can visit the places at cheaper rates.
  3. Package holidays, regulations of package tours and package travel 1992 - The aim of this act was to establish the tour operators and also to develop the tourism. Every tour operator has to follow these regulations. There are many regulations that has affected the laws of tourism in countries to great extent. Some of which are health and safety commission, this is the authority which prevents the injuries and deaths on the workplace (Cohen, 2014). There is an International air transport association(IATA) which offers the topics of aviation such as safety, security etc. Its main aim is to establish the policies in the travel and tourism sector There is Strategic rail authority(SRA) which provides the direction strategies to the railway industry. These measures will help the cited firm to provide better products and services and cater various types of customers or tourists.

1.2 Surface, sea and air transport law in relation to the carriage of passengers within the legal and regulatory framework

  1. Surface law - According to the road act, 1979, the international carriage regulates the law of said surface of the country. It gives the protection to the travellers on their permission. This contains the physical, mental damages of passengers which are travelling. This law also provides the luggage loss done by the carriages by act 1972. The surface law gives safety to the disabled passengers.
  2. Sea law - The international maritime organization gives the security and safety regarding shipping. “The international convention for the safety of life at sea” that is SOLAS gives the regulations for the fire protection and skills of fire fighting and provides the equipments for life saving to sea craft of minimum 12 passengers. According to“The Athens convention' act, 1974, the damages which occurred on the ship or ferry will be compensated (Cohen, 2013). It was make mandatory by the 2002 protocol.
  3. Air law - This law contains many legislations. The 1929 Warsaw convention defined the rules for the international carriage and the carriage documents. It also included the compensation claim for the damage or death of the passenger. The agreement of the Five Freedom,1944 contains the rules in the context of flying without landing or put down the passengers, or non-traffic purpose landing. After that, the Warsaw convention system was replaced by the 1999 Montreal Conference which included only one legal instrument instead of the earlier patchwork. On the contrary The Denied Boarding Compensation Schemes(EU) targeted to raise the standards for the passengers. All the above were made for the airline passengers.

2 Legislation and regulations relating to health, safety and security in the travel and tourism sector

Initially, the legislators were intended to put rules for tourism development by introducing collective practices of tourism by deciding rights of the people who are in this industry. These rules and laws regarding to health, security and the safety of the passengers regulate the possibilities of risks. It was the responsibilities of their employees and the employers to ensure the minimisation of the danger. The country ensures to give safe accommodations and the other securities to the travellers. Whenever, the situation comes where the laws and the rules were not working well, The Health and Safety Commission has the following three options-proper guidance - By this the HSC find the proper guidance to aware the passengers of the regulations and also helps them to understand these laws as well. They give visitors the information about accommodation, transport, and ensure that travellers are given the updates about all the changes and modifications in the rules and regulations.

Approved codes of practice(ACOP) - These codes put the structure down to practical implications of laws. The ACOP sets the codes for the materials which are risky and also can lead to the liabilities of the employers whenever the health or the safety breaks. Some of the rules can be obligated by the HSE by the parliament approval because they are made to be combined with the guiding of EC. This can give the information to the passengers about how to comply with the law of HSC so that they can get a better travel experience.

These are the following duties of the employers of ACOP-

  • The heating and the lighting
  • Provision to give the first-aid.

The duties of the employees of ACOP are as follows-

  • Prevention from accidents
  • Report the potential risks.
  • Should attend the sessions of training.

The Regulations -The employers are responsible for the safety and the health of the employees. According to the Health and Safety Legislation, the organization needs to write a code if it employs a 5 or more members in its staff. These are the kinds of training sessions provided by the organization to follow-

  • Induction- the information is given to the new employees.
  • Ongoing- the existing staff are given the training to develop new skills on the equipments.
  • Notices- issues the exercise of procedures.
  • Handbook- it is to be published for the staff.
  • Representative- by this, it means to develop a role to be the representative of health and safety.
  • Demonstrations- to demonstrate the fire and evacuation tools.
  • Advice- regular sessions of advice are given by the officers of health and safety.

2.1 Impact of the principles of health, safety and security legislation on the travel and tourism sector

By all the rules and regulations, the passengers tend to understand that they have given full safety and security while travelling. They have given proper guidance regarding their accommodation, their stay etc. these legislations ensures the fear free visit of travellers throughout their journey. They also make sure to give updates to the visitors time to time so that they can be aware of their rights and safety measures while boarding. The rules will also give boost to travel industry and attract more travellers to visit freely without any fear regarding their safety. This will improve the product and the service quality of the company.

2.2 Legislation that relates to equality

Equality means to give the equal treatment to everybody. Various legislative measures are been taken into the consideration. The regulations of the tourism gives the instructions to the providers of the tourism to treat everyone equally disregarding the age, race or the gender of the tourists. Providing the low quality of services and conducting inappropriate behaviour with people or tourist is wrong.

When peoples are treated differently, then it will come under the behaviour of discrimination. Discrimination is to be referred as providing the low grade service or inappropriate behaviour (Turner, 2010). The Equality act, 2010 clearly instructs that every citizen or the employee should be treated equally by law simplifications. There are many legislations which are made in accordance with the equity. It ensures that every customer and member will be treated with the equality. The legislations which are in relation with the equity in travel and tourism sector are as follows:

Employment act 2002

  • This is the legislation which shows about various guidelines which are to be followed by the employer in accordance with their employees. This make the organisations to give equal payments to workers without doing any kind of discrimination. This make the employees feel safe and secure.
  • In accordance with this legislation workers have the rights to take the leaves in maternity period. Any statutory leaves can also be taken under this law (Smith and Puczkó, 2014). No company of travel and tourism industry can snatch these rights from the employees.

Race discrimination act 2005

  • This act prohibits all the activities which are done in accordance with any kind of racial discrimination.
  • It makes the firms to remove all the activities which are done at the work place and show some kind discrimination on the basis of colour, status, cast and race.
  • The companies have to see that their all the employees are handled with the equality in relation with any kind of race.

Human rights act 1988

  • This is the legislation which protects every right of employees in travel and tourism sector. Workers will feel satisfied with the protection which they are being provided with.

Sex discrimination act 1975

  • It is the legislation which is on the basis of any kind of discrimination between male and female employees of travel and tourism industry (Spece, 2010). This protects individuals from discrimination in accordance with the sex, marriage etc.
  • This law is mainly based on any favouritism done at work place of various companies in relation to harassment, employment etc.

Disability discrimination act 2005

  • This is the legislation which protect the individuals who are disabled, in relation with travel and tourism sector.
  • Many types of facilities are given to persons who are disabled. They are provided with the quarters which are made especially for them.
  • This law furthermore makes the organisations to give some raise to disabled persons, which they can use in getting the treatment for their disability.

The effective following of this legislations will help the company to meet the requirements of its clients in a better way and will affect the operations of the company in a very positive manner.

3. Consumer protection legislation

3.1 Contract legislation in accordance with the customers of travel and tourism sector

The term contract states that it is the agreement which is made between two or more individuals (Lee, Song and Han, 2012). This is termed to be the legal bound to perform some activities or tasks when it is signed by all the concerned parties. Now they have the legal binding in accordance with the court. Travel and tourism sector have to follow all the processes and procedure for making legal contract.

Court has very much importance in making the rules and regulations which are to be followed by the travel and tourism sector in relations with their customers. The organisation have to do all the activities which are stated in the agreement. If not than consumer can claim against the companies of this industry. The individuals will also have to interact with tourism agency and make all the clarification before signing the contract. There should be no misunderstanding between the concerned parties.

The first factor which is to be considered under contract act 1950 is termed to be offer. At first the one party should provide offer to the other party. The contract can be made when the second party accepts the offer of first party (Heung, Kucukusta and Song, 2011). This element needs at least two individuals.

Contract in travel and tourism sector will only be valid when the concerned parties will sign the document. The agreement should all the terms and conditions. The contract legislation helps the organisation of travel and tourism sector to follow all the ethics in the proper and efficient manner.

The effective following of the contract legislation will help the cited firm to ensure and provide suitable services to its customers.

3.2 Consumer protection law in relation to customers of travel and tourism industry

The legislations which are made to protect the customers are termed to be consumer protection laws.

  1. Consumer protection act 1987 - This is the act which prohibits all the activities which are doing any harm to consumers. It makes the organisations to provide that products and services which are of quality. It also prohibits all the activities in which consumers are being provided with any king of defective product by the companies of travel and tourism sector. If the organisation do any kind of operations which are not fair on the hand customers then some legal action can be taken against them. Organisations which are working in the travel and tourism sector should see that all the information which are related to the package are stated in the contract. Customers should know that all the information related to the facilities should be provided to them.
  2. Trade discrimination act 1968 - This act states that organisations cannot do any activity which will mislead the consumers. They should be provided with all the informations in relation to prices of goods and services (Donchin, 2010). If not than company will have to pay high fines and damages. The businesses of travel and tourism sectors must see that they quote right price to their consumer about all the prices. They could not state any price which is wanted by them. It is completely illegal. They are obligated to not to perform any activity which can creates misunderstanding among the individuals.

These are some laws which are in relation with the protection of consumer in travel and tourism industry. Consumer protection laws helps the businesses of travel and tourism sector to satisfy all the customers by following all the ethics and keep in check with their health.

The efficient management of these laws will help the company to meet the requirements of the clients or the tourists in a better way.

4. Role of Business ethics

4.1 Ethical dilemmas in accordance with travel and tourism sector

There are various ethical dilemmas which faced by cited industry. There is the term ethical tourism which states that the environment and individuals of different places should get some benefits. This can be effectively and efficiently done by following all the ethics. There are some values which are to considered by the businesses who are working in travel and tourism sector. Following all the ethics is not treated as the legal obligation of organisations. But it can satisfy all the elements which are associated with them.

It is seen that ethical values has become very common in present situation of the world. This is necessary to conduct fair practice and satisfy all the members associated with firm. There are many approaches which are used by the companies to follow all the morals and values (McGuinness and McHale, 2014). Those can be environmental policies, supply chain in relation to consumers, regulations of integrity on the basis of both corporate and personal elements, corporate social responsibility etc.

The main issues which are faced by the travel and tourism sectors are in relations with the consumers, supply chain etc. There are many ethical challenges which are faced by the companies on the basis of pollution, environmental degradation etc.

The organisations have to see that all the responsibilities are effectively fulfilled by using the most suitable approach. Otherwise, there are many issues and problems which can be faced by them in relation to the ethics. They have to see that workers who are working are not being exploited in any way. It the duty of managers to see that all the issues are effectively and efficiently resolved. The companies should think about the effect of not following ethics on the world condition. Properly following all the ethics of travel and tourism will make the businesses to give sustainable business performance.

The ethical dilemmas which are faced by the organisation of travel and tourism sectors can create trouble for them in the activities or operations. These dilemmas are required to beavoided by the company for the better management of the various operations.

4.2 Corporate social responsibility in relation to the Hilton Hotel in travel and tourism industry

CSR is the process which makes the firms to fulfil all their responsibilities towards the society. It is the duty of the company to do something for the environment and society. It means that organisations should follow all the values and ethics in the business operations and functions (Turner, 2012). The approach of CSR is very much effective to be used by the organisations to fulfil all their duties. It is upon the firms that they want to use it or not (Definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR). 2017). The concept of corporate social responsibility includes perceptions about environment and society. This concept is not treated differently from the strategies and business activities. To efficiently adopt the CSR in working of businesses will proper knowledge of external and internal elements which has high impact.

Hilton Hotel

Hilton Hotel is very wide organisation of travel and tourism sectors. They effectively use the approach of corporate social responsibility in their working style. It makes them to satisfy all their customers and local community. The approach of CSR makes cited firm to use and allocate all the resources in effective manner. It makes them to reduce the waste of natural resources which is very important for the survival. There are various activities which are done by Hilton Hotel to protect the natural beauty of the place where they are established. The areas which are concerned by them are customers, suppliers, safety and security, workers, environment etc. It is seen that cited hotel adopts many measures to provide proper facilities to the customers. It made them to increase their performance level. This states that the approach of corporate social responsibility is effectively and efficiently used by the Hilton Hotel. 

It makes the organisation to follow all the legislations and keep in check with all the ethical values. It is also helpful in business health check. The CSR process will help the company to take into the consideration the suitable measures that will affect its operations and will attract larger number of customers.

5. Understanding the focus

5.1 Objective of organisation

There are many objectives which are set and targeted by Hilton Hotel. Those objectives are described below:

  1. Experience of customers - They plan to give very good experience to their customers while their stay. They think that consumers are the most important part to make any organisation successful and lead in the market (Jackson and Barber, 2015). They adopt many measures to conducts all the activities which are needed and required by the customers to make their experience better.
  2. Lead the market - It is the objective of cited company to give the sustainable business performance and lead the market. It is important for them to keep giving better performance for maintaining their performance in better and efficient way.
  3. Employees satisfaction - Hilton Hotel wants to conduct all the strategies and objectives in that way which will provide all the employees equal opportunity to get developed.
  4. Fulfilling all the obligations - Cited organisation wants to fulfil all the duties and responsibilities for which they are obligated. They want to adopt all the laws which are stated in accordance with travel and tourism sector.
  5. Ethics - Following all the ethical values is termed to be as an objective of the Hilton Hotel. There are various ethical issues which arises because of which they set it as an objective.
  6. Expansion - cited organisation wants to expand their business at more place. This is the long term objective of the firm.

These objectives of the businesses will affect the operations of the cited firm. These objectives are associated with the all the legislative measures and ethics which are to be followed by the companies of this industry. 

5.2 Factors impacting Hilton Hotel

There are many internal and external factors of the business organisation which has very deep impact on the company (Fenclova and Coles, 2011). Those factors can be effectively analysed by using SWOT and PESTLE analysis.

Internal factors

  1. Strengths - Cited organisation has the strengths of being established in many countries. They have very high strong brand name. It makes them to gain the attention of many individuals. There are high chances that those individuals can become loyal customers for them. The technologies which are used by them are highly efficient. They bring many innovations in their technologies which lead them to increase in productivity. The employees who are working in the firm are highly satisfied. There is high employee retention rate in Hilton Hotel (Haung, Wang and Chiang, 2010). Furthermore, they have experience of 93 years in travel and tourism sector. They are very much reputed in the market.
  2. Weaknesses - The market share of cited business is low in spite of having so many strengths. The activities and operations which are done by the company gets very much affected by the policies and procedures made by the government for the travel and tourism industry.
  3. Opportunities - There are opportunities which can be grabbed by Hilton Hotel to be more successful and get developed in the market. They can perform efficiently and effectively in the markets which are emerging (Penney, Snyder and Johnston, 2011). Consumer services which are provided by they can be innovated. There are many technologies which are used by the Hilton Hotel, they can be used in more effective and efficient manner. However, there are countries in which cited company can expand their business.
  4. Threats - There are many other strong brands which creates very high competition for the Hilton Hotel. Cited company faces the competition on the basis of price. This organisation operates in many countries which have different economic and political situations. This factor comes as the threat for business.

External factors

  1. Political factors - These are the factors which affects cited firm in relation with the policies and procedures made by the government for travel and tourism industry. Hilton Hotel is established is many countries and each country has different political environment (Chuang, Liu and Lee, 2014). Travel and tourism industry get deeply affected by the activities in accordance with terrorism. The variation of the global political condition will lay a major impact on the cited firm.
  2. Economic factors - Economy never remains same. Due to operating in many countries cited company have to face different economic conditions. GDP is increasing in the emerging markets. It creates opportunity for the Hilton Hotel to get more successful. Change in the economic conditions will affect the operations of Hilton Group.
  3. Social factors - These are the factors which affects the company in many ways. Taste and preferences of customers never remains same, they get changed. With the moving time needs and demands of the individuals get changed (Turner, 2013). It is shown from the current situations of the world that there are many people who are showing their interest in travelling. It will eventually increase the revenue of cited business.
  4. Technological factors - These are the factors which are based on the technologies. Hilton Hotel is planning to improve their technologies by bringing digitisation in them. It is done by them to increase and improve experience of customers (Lovelock and Lovelock, 2013). Cited company uses many efficient systems which makes them to conduct their work in smooth and effective manner. For instance the better implementation of the latest technologies will allow the company to increase its productivity and profitability.
  5. Legal factors - It is the factor which affects the Hilton Hotel in accordance with the laws and legislation. These legislations are to be strictly followed by the companies of travel and tourism sector. It is found that in some countries travelling is completely banned. Cited business have to be very much careful in relation with the activities of terrorism.
  6. Environmental factors - It is seen that environment is getting degraded day by day. It is the duty of the organisation to do something which will reduce the environmental degradation done by them (Reisman, 2010). Hilton Hotel is taking and adopting various measures which reduces the harm done to environment and ensures sustainability. For example, using of green products to reduce the pollution

These internal and the external factors will affect the cited firm by looking after the effective following of various legislations, ethical values and growth factors

5.3 Potential improvements that can be done in the Hilton Hotel

There are various improvements which can be done in the business operation to be more developed and successful in the market.

  1. Customer services - The services which are provided to the consumers can be improved. It will make cited organisation to gain the attention of various individual which in future can become the loyal customers (Eraqi, 2010). It will eventually increase the income generation of organisation and their market share among their customers.
  2. Expansion - Hilton Hotel is very large organisation of travel in travel and tourism industry. But there are many countries where they are not operating. They can be established in those countries and improve their business. For example, India.

The adoption of these factors will not only make the important improvement but also will increase the legislative efficiency and ethics which are to be followed by the businesses.

6. Development of plans and business

6.1 Effectiveness of Hilton Hotel

Cited business is very much effective in the travel and tourism industry. It is working in this sector since 93 years and has very good and efficient experience in this field. They use innovative technologies in their business operations. Hilton Hotel works in the direction of making all their employees highly satisfied (Badulescu and Badulescu, 2014). It reduces employee turnover. All the activities which are performed by them are based on the ethical values. The company provides vary good experience to their consumers while their stay. It has very strong brand image in the market. Many people get attracted towards Hilton Hotel by seeing their brand image and reputation. Various types of services are provided by them to fully satisfy the individuals who visits them. All the duties of organisation are effectively and efficiently fulfilled. It is done with the help of using the approach of corporate social responsibility. It makes the organisation to understand all the factors or elements which are associated with the environment and society (Simat, Dragin and Dragićević, 2012). Hilton Hotel maintains healthy relation with all the stakeholders and involve them in their various business operation and activities.

Thus, the Hilton group will have a better market position and meet the requirement criteria of the customers in a better way.

6.2 Developing plan to improve Hilton Hotel

There are many ways in which cited organisation can be improved. For the further improvement the Hilton Hotel have to overcome all its weaknesses. Proper research is needed to find the areas where the improvement is needed (Turner, 2011). It will help the company to find the best suited method to remove the weakness and make it their strength. Plan to improve the business is as follows:

Areas for development


Expected time of achievement

Actual time of achievement


Proper research

1 year

1.5 year

Customer services

Training to employees

3 months

4 months


Using effective technology

4 months

4.5 months

There are many areas in the organisation which are in the need of some improvement. There are various ways which can be used to achieve the objectives. For the further expansion of cited organisation in other countries proper research id to be done. It will make them to understand all the situations which are associated with the target country. To increase the customer services there is the need to giving proper training to employees. It will make the workers efficient and they will provide better services. Furthermore, to adopt the digitisation in Hilton Hotel there is the need of using the best technology (Crooks, Turner and Kingsbury, 2011). It will make the organisation to give smooth and effective performance.

This plan will allow the Hilton Group to follow all the legislative measures and ethics, that are been implemented at the firm, in effective and better way.

7 Evaluate and develop skills of management and staff  

7.1 Current skills of management and employees in Hilton Hotel

There are various skills which are carried by the management and workers of cited company.

  1. Leadership skills - The managers of the organisation have the leadership skills which makes them to lead and manage all the activities in effective and efficient manner. This help them to motivate and inspire their employees to work hard and give better performance for company. It is leadership skills which make the firm to retrain their all skilled employees. These skills make the leader to use different styles in accordance with the changing situations.
  2. Efficient - Employees or staff of Hilton Hotel is highly efficient. They use all their skills to perform the activities (Cohen, 2014). It eventually leads the company to achieve all the objectives and goals which are targeted and desired by them.

These skills will make the cited firm to follow all the ethical values and legislations. Besides this, it will also make them to keep a check on their business health.

7.2 Plan to develop the skills of management and staff

There are many ways in which skills which are carried by management and workers can get developed.

Skills to be developed

Method of development

Time of achievement

Leadership skills

Proper training

3 months


Proper feedback

1 month

This above plan states the ways which can be used for the further development of skills in management and staff. Proper training will make the managers to develop their leadership skills in effective and efficient manner. They will be able to handle the issues and problems which arises in the company. It will make the leaders or managers to chose the best method which will be most suitable to handle the situation of conflict in better way. Efficient training will make the individual to select the best leadership style which will be highly suitable. It will make them to motivate and inspire the employees to work in proper manner at the time of implementation of some change (Cohen, 2013). It states training is the best method which will improve the skills of leadership in the management of Hilton Hotel.

On the other hand, proper feedback of performance is necessary to increase efficiency in the staff. Proper feedback will make the employees understand about their strengths and weaknesses. By doing this the employees will be able to work on maximising their strengths and overcome all their weaknesses. By taking the feedback better relationship will be maintained between the employer and employee of Hilton Hotel.

By using these methods the company will be able to increase their market share. This will make cited organisations to gain various type of advantages and benefits among their competitors (Smith, Behrmann and Martin, 2010). Hilton Hotel will achieve all the objectives and goals in the effective and efficient manner.

By the development of skills in management and staff the company will be able perform all the activities in relation with the legislations and ethical values.

For example, the better development of the staff will help the Hilton group to develop and attract the customers on larger basis, which will give rise to its better productivity and increase its profit margin.


This report concludes that there are many laws and legislations which are to be followed by the travel and tourism sector. The companies working in this industry are obligated to follow all the laws in their working style. It is seen that approach of corporate social responsibility is very much important to follow all the ethical values in effective and efficient manner. For the further improvement of the organisation it is needed to analyse all the internal and external factors. Plans are made to improve and develop the business and skills of management and staff.


It is recommended that the company needs to do proper research for the further development and success. This will eventually make them to increase their market share and gain various types of advantages.


Books and Journals

  • Badulescu, D. and Badulescu, A., 2014. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article. Iranian journal of public health, 43(4), p.406.
  • Chuang, T. C., Liu, J. S. and Lee, Y., 2014. The main paths of medical tourism: From transplantation to beautification. Tourism Management, 45, pp.49-58.
  • Cohen, I. G., 2013. Transplant tourism: the ethics and regulation of international markets for organs. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 41(1), pp.269-285.
  • Cohen, I.G., 2014. Patients with passports: medical tourism, law, and ethics. Oxford University Press.
  • Crane, A. and Matten, D., 2016. Business ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford University Press.
  • Crooks, V. A., Turner, L. and Kingsbury, P., 2011. Promoting medical tourism to India: Messages, images, and the marketing of international patient travel. Social Science & Medicine, 72(5), pp.726-732.
  • Donchin, A., 2010. Reproductive tourism and the quest for global gender justice. Bioethics, 24(7), pp.323-332.
  • Eraqi, M. I., 2010. Social responsibility as an innovative approach for enhancing competitiveness of tourism business sector in Egypt. Tourism Analysis, 15(1), pp.45-55.
  • Fenclova, E. and Coles, T., 2011. Charitable Partnerships among Travel and Tourism Businesses: Perspectives from Low‐Fares Airlines. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(4), pp.337-354.
  • Haung, C. Y., Wang, S. P. and Chiang, C. W., 2010. Cost feasibility of a pre-checking medical tourism system for US patients undertaking joint replacement surgery in Taiwan. Chang Gung Med J, 33(6), p.684.
  • Heung, V. C., Kucukusta, D. and Song, H., 2011. Medical tourism development in Hong Kong: An assessment of the barriers. Tourism Management, 32(5), pp.995-1005.
  • Jackson, L. A. and Barber, D. S., 2015. Ethical and sustainable healthcare tourism development: A primer. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 15(1), pp.19-26.
  • Lee, C. K., Song, H. J. and Han, H., 2012. The impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions for 2009 H1N1 influenza on travel intentions: A model of goal-directed behavior. Tourism Management, 33(1), pp.89-99.
  • Lovelock, B. and Lovelock, K., 2013. The ethics of tourism: Critical and applied perspectives. Routledge.
  • McGuinness, S. and McHale, J. V., 2014. Transnational crimes related to health: How should the law respond to the illicit organ tourism?. Legal Studies, 34(4), pp.682-708.
  • Meghani, Z., 2011. A robust, particularist ethical assessment of medical tourism. Developing World Bioethics, 11(1), pp.16-29.
  • Penney, K., Snyder, J. and Johnston, R., 2011. Risk communication and informed consent in the medical tourism industry: a thematic content analysis of Canadian broker websites. BMC medical ethics, 12(1), p.17.
  • Reisman, D. A., 2010. Health tourism: Social welfare through international trade. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Simat, K., Dragin, A. and Dragićević, V., 2012. The institutionalization of business ethics of travel agencies in Serbia. International Scientific Journal Turizam, 16(3), pp.113-123.
  • Smith, E., Behrmann, J. and Martin, C., 2010. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers. Developing World Bioethics, 10(2), pp.59-69.
  • Smith, M. and Puczkó, L., 2014. Health, tourism and hospitality: Spas, wellness and medical travel. Routledge.
  • Spece Jr, R. G., 2010. Medical tourism: protecting patients from conflicts of interest in broker's fees paid by foreign providers. J. Health & Biomedical L., 6, p.1.
  • Turner, L., 2010. “Medical tourism” and the global marketplace in health services: US patients, international hospitals, and the search for affordable health care. International Journal of Health Services, 40(3), pp.443-467.
  • Turner, L., 2011. Canadian medical tourism companies that have exited the marketplace: Content analysis of websites used to market transnational medical travel. Globalization and health, 7(1), p.40.
  • Turner, L., 2012. Beyond" medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel. Globalization and health, 8(1), p.16.
  • Turner, L., 2013. Canadian medical travel companies and the globalisation of health care. Medical tourism and transnational health care. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.151-78.


  • WHAT IS TOURISM LAW? 2017. [Online]. Available through: <>
  • Definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR). 2017. [Online]. Available through: <>
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