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Introduction - Internet Communication
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1. Controlling Internet Traffic Through Next Generation Optical Fiber Communication
Internet communication is one of the most prominent methods in today's world. Billions of people are using internet to connect and communicate with each other. For this, high speed internet is required which can transmit the information in faster way. Older cable are not good for long distance abstraction, because they are having low band width (Poggiolini and et.al., 2014). This will create lots of disturbance while transmitting the information. Optical fibres are used for this purpose, as they are light in weight, having high band width and long range transmission capabilities. Internet traffic conditions have some serious impact over the functioning of telecommunication industry which can be resolved through effective use of optical fibres.
The purpose of this research is to understand the usage of optical fibre in controlling the issues developed due to internet traffic in telecommunications industry of Malaysia. The focus is on the ways by which the communication level can be increased and the best way is by using optical fibres. Various types of fibres are used depending on the nature of demand and requirements. These fibres are very cheap and easy to install and can manage the traffic on internet in the most effective way.
The importance of this research is to improve the communication level and efficiency by using optical fibres. This study shows that in future generation or even in today's world optical fibres are very essential in connection because by using this, people can be in contact with other people through internet. Optical fibres are important while sending the information from one point to another point because it will not let the substance convergence and no hindrance will be there while transferring it (Winzer, 2015). In today's world, it is very important to have a strong internet connection, so by using older generation cable wires it will not be possible. Optical fibres make it possible, because they can divide the information into different contents which will avoid the heavy traffic problem.
- To examine the issues related to internet traffic faced by organizations operating in telecommunications industry and use of optical fibres for their management.
- a) To examine the issues associated with internet traffic in telecommunication companies.
- b) To understand the use of optical fibres.
- c) To analyse the application of optical fibres for management of issues in telecommunication industry.
1.4.2 Research Questions
RQ1) What is the major problem faced by telecommunication's industry in context of internet traffic?
RQ2) What steps are organisations taking for controlling the internet traffic problems?
RQ3) How can optical fibres be useful in managing the issues faced by telecommunications' industry?
1.4.3 Research hypothesis
Ho1) Optical fibre communication has reduced the issues related to the internet traffic faced by the organizations operating in telecommunication industry.
Ho2) There are no issues raised by the consumers after the use of optical fibres in controlling the internet traffic.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Issues of internet traffic faced by telecommunication's industry
The growing demand of users for internet facilities and access to websites has caused severe traffic conditions over the interface of companies. Be it official websites or cached content, when large population is accommodated over one particular side then there are issues like ineffective operations and reduction in performance. According to Antonio and et.al., (2015), the basic operations like transfer of files or sharing of credentials of consumers is stopped or hanged for a particular time period when internet traffic conditions are not well managed. Furthermore, telecommunications industry experiences reduction in productivity and deteriorations in performance when such conditions continue to prevail for a long period.
Capabilities of the companies in telecommunications industry is reducing. As per Ishan (2016), it is important to have a human resource that is capable of resolving issues and difficulties that arise at the technical end. If persistence of such issues increases then negative impact is addressed over the image of this company. The network upgrades can be a solution which is stabilised through use of optical fibre as a primary instrument. According to Winzer (2015), the network speed is another aspect which is affected due to internet traffic. The telecommunications industry has to maintain a rhythmic flow of network so that every individual receives sufficient signal in performing respective operations. The internet traffic causes reduction in speed of the network which slows down the individual operations of customer. This indicates that customers are not satisfied with quality of services provided.
2.2 Optical Fibre Communication
Optical fibre communication is the way of sending the subject matter from one location to another with the help of light pulses through an optical fibre. The transmitted light forms a carrier wave which is electromagnetic, it is modulated further, so that it can carry information. These fibres are used instead of electrical cabling, because it require high bandwidth, less electromagnetism. These fibres are used by various telecom companies to convey signals, internet, television signals. Optical fibres are developed in 1970's and since then they have played very crucial role in the advent of information age (Napoli and et.al., 2015). The process used for communication is including some basic steps, first one is to create some optical signals by using transmitter. This generally generate electrical signals. After that the second step is to relay the signal with the optical fibre. The maker must ensure that the signal is not weak or distorted. Third step is receiving the formed signal and the last step is covert that signal into electrical signal.
Ishan (2016) described optical fibres as the medium or the technology which is related to the transmission of different information by the use of fibre. An optic of fibre is having many numbers of glass fibres vary from two to couple of hundred. One fibre surrounded by another glass core is called as cladding. These fibre optics transfer the data in the form of light particles. The refractive index will be different for each fibre optic and its cladding. This will bend the light coming from different angles. When the signal of light sent into the cable of fibre optics, they gets reflected from the core and cladding. This will make a formation of zig-zag. The speed of these signals will be less than the speed of light because the layers of glass are more denser. It will reduce their speed by 30%.
Peter (2015) presented his views on the challenges and solutions of optical fibre's networks. According to him, In today's world the consumer demand is increasing and this is creating lots of problem in network traffic management. Every phone call, every sent message, every application based on internet is rely on the immense network of optical fibres. Previously, the interference between two signals were more because heavy cables were used. Those cables are having high band width and this is preventing the easy transmission of information. This is not the case with optical fibres, because they are having very small band width. One single mode fibre can transmit up to 10 Gbps with the band width of 20 GHz (Terada and et.al., 2015). The main role is to make sure that the transmission of networks are cost effective, this will improve the future of digital communication.
Optical parallelism is the term which is used while doing the scaling of optical fibres. Scaling is done to improve the efficiency and the distance rate of fibres. Scaling will include availability of networks and according to those networks it adjust the speed of internet. By optical parallelism, which is having more physical dimensions can improve the scaling (Gringeri, Bitar and Xia, 2013). This can be done by combining several carriers from different locations to develop one single logical interface which can be described as optical super-channel. This will increase the efficiency in very dense frequency packing signals and further improve the economics by integrated transponder componentry. By the use of optical parallelism and these super-channel technology, the rates of interface can be increased up to 1 terabit per second and even more.
Antonio and et.al.,(2015) stated that these elastic optical networks are the future of telecommunications. They have realized this by seeing the effect of EON, because they can be deployed very easily and it gives maximum amount of flexibility with the least disruption. This is because they can handle the variable band width. They have utilized the spectrum optical by the help of the infrastructure of networks. These networks uses quite flexible channel allocations by using the small size frequency slots. If any new light path is detected, EON supply the customized spectrum grid, which can be adjusted according to the requirements of the company or on the demands of consumer. The main blocks of EON are the data plan architecture. These are completely programmable and very easily controlled by the software engineers which are implementing these online services by using elastic optical networks.
Erik and Magnus (2016) presented their ideas and knowledge on the use of optical networks. They believe that the majority of the society today relies on some fast and reliable information exchange. The advanced system provides support to different organizations like banks, electronics, transportations with their high quality transmission of important information. Other than optical fibre, no other medium can provide the support for such kind of high demand rates of data, their energy efficiency and reliability. Their purpose was to survey the art in optical communications from different view points. They have designed some blocks which are based on the use of optical fibres, their amplification, the spatial divisions and the transceivers which are coherent. This will include the fields of hardware, networks, algorithms and emerging technologies.
2.3 Applications of optical fibres
According to Tony (2016), optical fibres are very essential in the supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA). One of the huge change in this type of network is their evolution from old serial networking protocol to internet protocol. The use of fibres in SCADA networks results in decrease in the cost of equipments, improving their efficient and effectiveness and improving the band width from 10 Gbps to 100 Gbps for end stations and backbone networks respectively. All the fibre networks provides transmission distances, security, optimum bandwidth and electro magnetic interference, but to select right kind of fibre depending upon the usage is very important. Different technologies of networking provides manageability, redundancy and reliability to the information, but their cost can vary and it can be more while building the optical fibre networks.
David (2016) has said that over the past couple of years the standard single mode fibres have improved significantly, like the effective area is improved and the water content is reduced and the value is drastically changed from 0.15 dB/km to 1550 nm. The development methods of these fibres have changed which reduces their cost. However, despite all these improvements in single mode fibre, their design is not changed that much and the scope for further improvements is very limited. Further some laboratory experiments are now changing the methods of developments and they are becoming more fundamental and their limits is improved, which is around 100-200 Tbit/s by the use of inter-channel non-linear effects.
The consequences of fear of capacity crunches of fibres, the efforts to explore the radially new fibres have been mobilized. These fibres are capable to support very higher capacities with the help of multiple path of transmissions from the same glass strand. Higher information flow per unit area will certainly reduce the cost and improve the power saving benefits. This will be done by integration and the opportunities of interconnectivity. The most advanced and obvious approach to space division multiplexing of fibres is the usage of arrays. This means that the single core fibres are used in the form of array which is coated (normally multi element fibre). This gives them rigidity and easy way of handling. Such kind of approaches gives significant advantages where practical implementation is required, but the integration of associated devices is very much limited.
2.4 Management of issues through optical fibres
Steven and Nabil (2013) said that today's communication network is improved in terms of size and demands. This makes it the system more complex. The use of optical fibres are reducing the cost of implementation, simplifying the management, improving the provision time of service. To meet the objective, it is very necessary that the used fibres should be of proper size and band width. If the fibre is not according to the demand, it will create lots of interference while communicating with other person over phone. The control plane is separated from the networking plane. This can be done by using fibre cladding. This will keep the information separate and prevent interference. The band width of cladding fibre is also low, so the information can be transferred in real quick time without any disturbance.
2.4.1 Resolving issues faced by telecommunication's industry through optical fibre
According to Sanjeev and Rakesh, (2017), for the development of next generation networks, software defined networking (SDN) played an important role. This system of networking is based on the usage of advanced optical fibres. The advancement of SDN reduces the traffic from the mobile application because it will distribute the path of users into different sections depending upon their size. Thus it will be helpful for the development of infrastructure of fibre and their service provider. There are some elements used in optical fibre communication system (Singh and Jha, 2017). First is compact light source. For very short distance and low rates of data, Light emitting diodes are used. In this edge emitting are mostly used because they are having high power and smaller or narrower line width. Laser diodes are used when the distance is more and data rate is very high. They are non-linear and very sensitive to the variations of temperature. Second is low low optical fibres. The cable is made up of very high quality extrude glass. It can be either silicon or glass but is is flexible. The diameter is ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 mm. The last element is photo detectors. They are used to convert the light signals into electrical signals.
Cesar, Jens and Andreas (2013) has explained about the high power fibres. These are required for high beam and high average power. There are many scientific applications where these fibres are very important. The use of fibre are having their own advantages and disadvantages. Advantages are: they are having very high band width, which can be very useful in transmitting the information in bulk quantity. They are having very low loss of power. This will allow them to transmit the information for longer period of time. A copper wire can transmit up to 100 meters while an optical fibre can transmit up to 2000 meters. This determines that optical fibre communication helps in stabilising the internet traffic which helps in improving the efficiency of companies and reduces incidences of customer dissatisfaction.
In comparison with cable wires, they can carry 4.5 times the information and the area will be 30 times less (Cesar, Jens and Andreas, 2013). The weight of optical fibre is very less, because they are very thinner and made up of silicon which is light in weight than metal wires. Due to this they can be installed very easily. These fibres are dielectric, so the hazard of spark produce is very rare or negligible. They are very much flexible and made up of glass, this makes them very cheap.
As per Gyungseok and et.al., (2013), the optical fibres help in sending large packets of data to distant places without incurring high cost. Furthermore, they help in managing the traffic conditions over internet through use of total internal reflection. Both single mode and double clad fibres are used for delivering the light sources to different tissues and then receiving that light from tissues to photodetectors. In future these optical fibres will be used everywhere. Presently there are over 2 billion km fibre optical are deployed globally. They are linking businesses, people, different communities and continents (Gyungseok and et.al., 2013). This new technology will used in sharing the videos, data and voice through file-sharing, gaming etc. These fibres are very compatible with other technologies and they are having the large bandwidth which is unlimited, so these fibres have the capability to develop itself according to the needs of consumers. This will keep on developing the next generation of communication technology.
Books and Journals
- Antonio N., & et.al., (2015). Next Generation Elastic Optical. Networks: The Vision of the European. Research Project IDEALIST. IEEE Communications Magazine, 152-162.
- Cesar J., Jens L., & Andreas T., (2013). High-power fibre lasers. Nature Photonics Review, 7, 861-867.
- David, J., & et.al., (2016). Roadmap of optical communications. Journal of optics, 18(6), 7-16.
- Erik, A., & et.al., (2016). Roadmap of optical communications. Journal of optics, 18(6), 7-16.
- Gringeri, S., Bitar, N., & Xia, T. J. (2013). Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport. IEEE Communications Magazine, 51(3), 32-40.
- Gyungseok O,, and et.al., (2013). Optical fibers for high-resolution in vivo microendoscopic fluorescence imaging, 19(3), 760-771
- Napoli, A., & et.al., (2015). Next generation elastic optical networks: The vision of the European research project IDEALIST. IEEE Communications Magazine, 53(2), 152-162.
- Poggiolini, P., & et.al., (2014). The GN-model of fiber non-linear propagation and its applications. Journal of lightwave technology, 32(4), 694-721.
- Singh, S., & Jha, R. K. (2017). A Survey on Software Defined Networking: Architecture for Next Generation Network. Journal of Network and Systems Management, 25(2), 321-374.
- Steven, G., Nabil. B., (2013). Extending software defined network principles to include optical transport. IEEE Communications Magazine, 51(3), 32-40.
- Terada, Y., & et.al. (2015). Residual capacity aware dynamic control of GRE-based routing optical path networks under traffic growth model. In Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), 2015 (pp. 1-3). IEEE.
- Winzer, P. J. (2015). Scaling optical fiber networks: Challenges and solutions. Optics and Photonics News, 26(3), 28-35.
- Chris, W., (2016). Fiber optics. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.explainthatstuff.com/fiberoptics.html>. [Accessed on 22nd June 2017].
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- Ishan, D., (2016). TechnologyWhy Are Optical Fibers Better Than Copper Wires For Signal Transmission?. Available through: <https://www.scienceabc.com/innovation/fibre-optic-copper-faster-better-signal-transmission-bandwidth-speed-cost-fast.html>. [Accessed on 22nd June 2017].
- Peter, J., (2015). Scaling Optical Fiber Networks: Challenges and Solutions. [Online]. Available through:<https://www.osaopn.org/home/articles/volume_26/march_2015/features/scaling_optical_fiber_networks_challenges_and_solu/>. [Accessed on 22nd June 2017].
- Tarun, A., (2017). What are the Basic Elements of a Fiber Optic Communication System?. [Online]. Available through: <https://www.elprocus.com/basic-elements-of-fiber-optic-communication-system-and-its-working/>. Accessed on 22nd June 2017].
- Tony, L., (2016). Understanding fiber-optic network technology for SCADA. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.controleng.com/single-article/understanding-fiber-optic-network-technology-for-scada/8035216938e601c1bc9b3c3b673edf44.html>. [Accessed on 22nd June 2017].