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Indigenous men living in rural and remote australia Assignment sample

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Introduction - Indigenous men living in rural and remote australia

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The present report analysed nursing practice standards for the diverse population of Australia, where various complex health issues are identified. The study has focused on the health issues of the indigenous population of rural Australia and identified nursing management plans for the selected population. In the first area of the study, the health issues and outcome of those issues on the selected population are identified, and management of those issues is identified with the help of nursing standards in the next phase. The nursing “standards 1, 2 and 6” are selected for the development of care plans for indigenous men in rural and remote Australia.

2. Indigenous men in rural Australia

2.1 Impact of social determinants of health

SDH or social determinants of health are identified as the “non-medical factors” which directly impact the health of the community of a nation. As per the view of Cosgrave, Malatzky & Gillespie (2019), various conditions are identified, which include “Economic Stability, Education quality and access, Health Care, Neighbourhood and environment and Social and Community Context” which directly impact the life of the population. Similarly, WHO identified that SDH has an impact on the daily life of an individual, such as social and economic growth. In addition, positive and negative impacts of those factors are identified, which include food insecurity, and conflicts and many more (Who.int, 2022). Therefore, in the critical analysis, health outcomes directly result from those factors, which also impact the daily lives of indigenous men. In addition, the positive appearance of those factors helps in the development and improvement of civil society.

The selected population, indigenous men in the rural and remote areas of Australia, are also impacted by the social determinants. Based on the reports of the Australian government that is identified 28% of the population, up to 7 million people, will belong from rural and remote areas of Australia in 2022 (Aihw.gov.au, 2022). “The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)” identified various risky behaviours in those areas, such as “smoking and consuming alcohol”, which included the social determinants. In addition, the “Socioeconomic Status” of the rural area has a direct impact on the lifestyle of indigenous men. According to the view of Haber et al. (2021), “unemployed, have less post-secondary education and lower household income” are negatively influencing the lifestyle of the indigenous population of Australia. In the male population of the rural area of Australia, most of the risky behaviour identified that results from SDH are those developed health issues.

2.2 Health inequalities of indigenous men

The selected population has suffered from various health issues, which included negative socioeconomic status of the population. In addition, “domestic and sexual violence” is identified as a welfare and health issue in the rural population of Australia, where 2.2 million people reported violence in 2019 (Aihw.gov.au, 2022). Similarly, some other social and health issues are identified, such as "Chronic conditions", which include “arthritis, asthma and diabetes”, resulting in a high mortality rate in that area. As per the view of Chen, Tan & Padman (2020), cancer and issues regarding mental health issues are identified as other complicated health issues where most cancer is found in the "liver, uterine, cervical and lung", which creates complications. In addition, in the rural and remote areas among the indigenous population high mortality rate is identified where 70.3% remotes males. Therefore, various issues are developed in the population of the rural area, which directly lowers the quality of daily life of the population.

Support for primary health care helps in the management of the health issues of the indigenous populations of Australia. Based on the view of Ketheesan et al. (2020), various differences in well-being are identified, such as “shorter lives, higher levels of disease and injury and poorer access to health service” are lower health. Similarly, the limited infrastructure of health care services in remote and rural areas is identified as a health inequality. Those are resulting in a higher rate of morbidity and mortality in the Australian population, where a higher rate of issues is identified among indigenous males.

2.3 Health inequities

Rural and remote areas of Australia faced various issues such as “higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use, high mortality rate and less education”, resulting those situations. According to Taylor & Haintz (2018), differences in income are development issues in the adoption of quality in the lifestyle where affordability of the services is included. In the rural area of Australia rate of unemployment is 91%, where 8.5% are found in the male population, and 9.8% are identified in females (Healthdirect.gov.au, 2021). Besides this, based on the data from “The National Rural Health Alliance”, 13% of the indigenous population are under the level of poverty, which impacts the quality of daily life. Therefore, that inequality in income and living conditions affects the affordability of the population of remote and rural areas. Lower levels of employment have developed hazardous issues among the populations of the rural area of Australia.

In the above section, various risk factors are identified that developed inequality among the indigenous population of Australia. The male population of that group of people suffer from alcohol and tobacco consumption that are identified as risk factors for health issues such as cancer and chronic diseases (Haber et al. 2021). Unequal distribution is found in the group of rural and remote Australian populations where a socioeconomic condition is identified as the main issue of lower health and well-being. As a result, “respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease” are identified in the indigenous population of the rural area (Healthdirect.gov.au, 2021). Those impacts are identified as the impact of the negative social determinants of health, which have higher mortality and morbidity rate. The government of Australia develops health support and services, which are not afforded by the population due to the presence of poverty.

2.4 Health outcomes

The Indigenous populations of Australia are suffering from various complex health issues due to the presence of poverty and social-cultural issues. As per the view of Bennett & Woodman (2019), up to 25-30% of the indigenous population of Australia are suffering from diabetes; in addition, chronic kidney disease is also present. Besides this, some other common health issues are identified due to poor economic conditions and unemployment issues, such as "maternal and infant mortality, tuberculosis, malnutrition, cardiovascular illnesses and HIV", which are identified as health outcomes (Perdacher, Kavanagh & Sheffield, 2019). Those health issues have an impact on the well-being of the population, where complications are developed more with poor economic conditions. Those issues are developed issues of “mental health” are quality of life are lower more with those issues.

The physical health complications are developed as mental health issues among the selected populations of Australia. According to the view Perdacher, Kavanagh & Sheffield (2019), “Discrimination and racism, trauma, few economic opportunities and physical issues” are identified as the risk factors for mental health issues among indigenous men. On the other side, those risk factors are an increased rate of "anxiety, depression and severe stress," which directly results in suicidal and risky behaviour among the populations. In addition, major physical and mental health issues are identified as the development of the situation of injuries, which may be managed, with an adaptation of government and nursing standards strategies.

3. Nursing care based on nursing stranded for Indigenous men

3.1 Impact of nursing standard 1

The selected nursing strangers are focused on the “critical thinking and analysis of nursing practice”, which may help in the management of the health of indigenous men. The RN need to develop the quality of thinking with analysis of the situation of the indigenous people of Australia (Nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au, 2021). In the selected population rate of literacy and level of income is much lower, which reduces their well-being and develops health issues. Registered nurses use “ethical frameworks” during the development of decisions where the cultural beliefs of the indigenous population are supported. In the above section, risky behaviour is identified among the male population of rural areas due to drug and alcohol consumption which was mitigated with the development of a nursing care plan with the application of stranded 1 (Nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au, 2021). The development of “welfare programs and awareness programs” and mental support with the application of nursing strategies helps to reduce such issues among the indigenous population. 

Standard one is focused on the evaluation and management of nursing care plans based on “legislation, common law, policies and guidelines” of Australia. The “Primary Health Centre (PHC)” is developed in the rural area of Australia to provide quality care to the indigenous population (Bennett &Woodman, 2019). Based on the present standard promotional decision-making process is developed for the suffering population of the selected area of Australia. The registered nurses have developed an effective nursing care plan for stuffed people with menstrual and chronic diseases.

3.2 Impact of nursing standard 2

Standard 2: Engaging in a therapeutic and professional relationship

This standard developed for RN states that it is a crucial aspect for the RN to be dedicated to providing effective therapeutic and maintaining professional relationships with the client. It states that the involvement of therapeutic and professional relationships should be done with mutual respect, and trust should be maintained in the relationship. It has been observed that the indigenous population faces multiple issues in managing their health and social life (Nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au, 2021). Increased consequences of violence, health risk factors, and increased prevalence of chronic disease can be found among them. Moreover, the increased inclination of indigenous men has been found to be toward drinking and smoking activities due to poor economic conditions and increased peer pressure. In this regard, it is important to have nursing considerations that can be useful in communicating with this population in an effective and respectful way in order to decrease the prevalence of health risk factors impacting this society. This would also help them in improving their health-related activities and thereby optimising the health outcomes of these people.

In order to improve the health outcome of these people, it is important to communicate in an effective way with them. Better communication with the selected population can be fostered by demonstrating a better understanding and restricting discrimination (Health.qld.gov.au, 2020). The introduction should be done in a warm and friendly way to make them feel comfortable. Interaction with them should be fostered in their native language to understand their situation better. Non-verbal communication with the help of hand gestures can also help in maintaining better communication. Eye contact and active listening should be maintained throughout to make them feel valuable, and interaction should be within their personal comfort, time and space to have better outcomes. It is of utmost importance to show respect to the dignity, beliefs, culture and rights of these people to make them feel valued (Claw et al. 2018). Understanding and consulting their cultural practices and pReferences would help in showing respect and adopting the right practices for healthcare that do not affect the cultural sentiments and dignity of this population. These people should be provided with decision-making power to make their health decisions, and they should be prioritised (Health.qld.gov.au, 2020). No discrimination should be done, and these people should not be ashamed or questioned in terms of their cultural beliefs. Thus building better relationships with the community and understanding their cultural preferences assist in showing respect and maintaining the dignity of their culture, beliefs and rights.

After the accomplishment of effective communication, it is important to acknowledge the aboriginal people with resources and education that can help them to optimise their decision-making process. As the increased prevalence of chronic disease and inclination towards intoxicants has been found in this population, awareness would be spread regarding the ill impact of toxicants. They would be educated regarding the inclusion of better food practices and healthy living by involving in physical activities to decrease the disease burden (Kurtz et al., 2018). This population would be directed towards the health interventions available and would be acknowledged health policies and rights devised for these people. The increased knowledge and education regarding the available policies and treatment procedures would help these people understand their rights to healthcare. This, in turn, would help in optimising their health-related decisions and improve the health outcome of these people by reducing their disease burden of these people.

3.3 Impact of nursing standard 6

Standard 6: Provides safe, appropriate and responsive quality nursing practice

This standard directs RN to maintain delegacy, safety, fairness and appropriateness in nursing practice. It states that the nurse should provide comprehensive, systematic care and maintain quality and ethical consideration while providing care. According to this standard, RN should provide timely and effective supervision to the client, and the delegated practices should be safe and correct (Nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au 2021). The adopted practices should be practised by following all the guidelines, regulations, standards, and legislations developed. The selection of appropriate processes would help in the correct identification and reporting of the actual and potential risks and, therefore, would help in providing responsive quality nursing care to the client. 

This standard is of importance because it assists in increasing access to the appropriate care practices at the right time and with the right service. This would also help in imparting better communication and being responsible for making the right decisions. In the context of providing care to aboriginal people, RN can consider the maintenance of policies, frameworks, guidelines and concepts to ensure safety and quality of care (Ristevski et al. 2020). No discrimination or inequality should be done against the aboriginal people. The inclusion of fair and authentic practices with informed practices should be considered while providing care to the client.

 Moreover, while providing care, the nurse should be responsive to the questions and confusion of the patient. They should consider educating the patient and their family in a correct and appropriate manner in order to ensure that they do not make any false assumptions regarding the treatment (Wylie & McConkey, 2019). Ethical considerations should be made while providing care and any personal information should not be shared or leaked while providing care to the aboriginal people. This would help in providing quality care to the patient and also assist in making the aboriginal people comfortable during their treatment procedure.

Improved quality of care can be provided to the aboriginal people by making them educated about their rights and encouraging their participation in the treatment and decision-making process. Safety should also be maintained in the context of the culture in order to maintain their cultural sentiments (Ckn.org.au, 2017). This would foster the promotion of equality in healthcare and make the environment free from discrimination to provide quality care to these people. Improving skills, maintaining fair communication, and adapting safe practices, in compliance with the existing guidelines and procedures can help in improving the health outcome of this population.

Conclusion

The above discussion shows that social determinants of health directly influence the health and well-being of the indigenous population of Australia. It is concluded that the social-economic status of the indigenous people has a direct impact on the quality of life and increased radius issues. In addition, chronic health diseases such as diabetes, kidney disease and heart disease are commonly found among the selected populations. Therefore, it is concluded that poor education and a high unemployment rate are directly related to the health of the indigenous population, which is mitigated with an adaptation of nursing care. Besides this, the identified health issues managed and mitigated with the development of primary health care plans for the selected populations with the adoption of nursing standards.

Three standards have been selected that help in the primary care plan development process for the indigenous men of Australia. Therefore, it is concluded that therapeutic and professional relationship management is selected in standard 2, which developed more with standard 1, which focused on the decision-making process. Quality nursing care is included in standard six, which is modified more with the application of Australian legislation. Therefore, it is concluded that the selected standards help to improve the quality of life of the indigenous populations. 

Reference

Reviewed

  • Bennett, B., & Woodman, E. (2019). The potential of equine-assisted psychotherapy for treating trauma in Australian aboriginal peoples. The British Journal of Social Work49(4), 1041-1058. doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bcz053
  • Canuto, K., Brown, A., Wittert, G., & Harfield, S. (2018). Understanding the utilization of primary health care services by Indigenous men: a systematic review. BMC public health18(1), 1-12. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6093-2
  • Chen, M., Tan, X., & Padman, R. (2020). Social determinants of health in electronic health records and their impact on analysis and risk prediction: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association27(11), 1764-1773. Doi: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7671639/
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 Websites

  • Aihw.gov.au (2022). Rural and remote health. Retrieved from:https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/rural-remote-australians/rural-and-remote-health [Retrieved on: 30.09.2022]
  • Ckn.org.au, (2017). Three ways nurses can enhance patient safety. Retrieved on: 30th September. Retrieved from: https://www.ckn.org.au/content/three-ways-nurses-can-enhance-patient-safety
  • Health.qld.gov.au, (2020). Communicating effectively with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Retrieved on: 30th September. Retrieved from: https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0021/151923/communicating.pdf
  • Healthdirect.gov.au (2021). Indigenous health. Retrieved from:https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/indigenous-health [Retrieved on: 30.09.2022]
  • Nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au (2021). Registered nurse standards for practice. Retrieved from:https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/codes-guidelines-statements/professional-standards/registered-nurse-standards-for-practice.aspx [Retrieved on: 30.09.2022]
  • Rrh.org.au (2021). Comparison of injury-related hospitalised morbidity and mortality in urban and rural areas in Australia. Retrieved from:https://www.rrh.org.au/journal/article/1326 [Retrieved on: 30.09.2022]
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