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Primary Health Considerations And Policy Change Assignment Sample

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Introduction : Primary Health Considerations And Policy Change

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Quality standards

The present project of renal clinical for the indigenous people has been developed based on the standards and laws which are needed in the development of quality primary care. In the rural area of Australia, quality standards are identified, which help in the development of quality primary care for rural people. Based on the data NICE, the quality standard of primary care is identified as a specific statement which provides cost-effective and high-quality care in a clinical area (, 2020). In addition, “AS/NZS ISO 9001:2016” is identified as quality management standards of any service or product which helps to manage quality standards of primary care programs of the renal clinic. NSQHS standards are identified as the healthcare standards of the Australian area, which help in the development of effective primary care.


The Australian government has developed some primary care principles which are needed to provide quality care to the aboriginal people of Australia. PHC or Primary Health Care principles are “equity, access, empowerment, community self-determination and intersectoral collaboration”, and that help to develop an understanding of the determinants of health (, 2021). The Australian government has developed effective health support programs for indigenous people where various programs are arranged in primary care. Those care programs are “annual health checkup, Ear and eye support, lifestyle and family health and many more” (Hendrickx et al. 2020). The identified primary care programs were redeveloped along with funding models which help to develop quality primary care for the Australian population.


Identification of the critical stakeholders helps in the development of quality service in primary care. Therefore, the identified stakeholders of the present renal clinic for indigenous people and those are listed below;

  • Patients such as indigenous people
  • families
  • dialysis technicians
  • social workers
  • facility administrators
  • Dietitians
  • Nurses
  • Clinicians (Blackburn et al. 2018).

The above-mentioned stakeholders play the most important role in developing care plans, and those services help identify barriers to indigenous people and mitigate those.

Primary care plans for the renal clinical are managed with an effective staffing process where “training, accreditation, Primary care” are included. The selection of the staff for the quality care of rural people is developed with an effective management process. The training plan of the staff is related to some processes, and those are identified in the below section;

  • A minimal qualification, such as high-school
  • A knowledge about primary care developed with the training process,
  • Training about the use of equipment for checkups and patient services,
  • Technical skill development with the development of structured multicomponent training (Padmanabhan et al. 2019).

The training process helps to improve the quality of work and primary care skills of the people who are selected as the primary care staff.

The development of the accreditation process for the care centre of the present case is identified with “NSQHS National Safety and Quality Health Service (NSQHS) Standards”. In addition, five steps of the accreditation process are followed for the development of a rural centre for indigenous people. Those steps are “Self-assessment, Assessment, Commission Review and Decision, and. Maintaining Compliance and Accreditation”, which helps in the development of effective centres of primary care (Bond et al. 2019). Quality primary care is provided with the aim of "expected patient safety and quality standards", which is taught to the staff.

Primary care is developed with “Secondary/Tertiary” responsibility which is developing quality care services. The development of advanced care services with the improvement of primary care is identified as tertiary care for patients (Ford?gilboe et al. 2018). Improvement of the working ability of the primary care staff of the renal centre for management of critical situations is mentioned as the secondary and tertiary care services.

Implementation of quality primary care considers the management process along with safety management.

Control of communicable disease

The control process of the communicable disease for the patients and staff, the maintenance of hygienic practice is encouraged for the staff. As per the view of Hendrickx et al. (2018), regular cleaning and management of hygienic practices in a clinic help to avoid the spread of communicable diseases. After the pandemic situation, management of the safety of staff and patients is needed in the primary care plan. In addition, the renal clinic centre needed to encourage the staff and patients to follow standard precautions for infection control;

  • Hand Hygiene
  • Respiratory Hygiene
  • Safe Injection Practices
  • Disinfection and sterilisation of Patient-Care equipment
  • Sharps Safety (Javanparast et al. 2018)
  • Sanitary hygiene and regular cleaning.

The identified procedures need to be followed to control communicable diseases and infections among patients.

Food supply and safety management

The rural clinic has developed effective food service for the patient as the clinic is situated in a rural area; such service attracts rural people. In addition, the quality of the food is an important component in the quality food service process which needs to be managed by the primary care service centre. The primary care centre gives variations of foods as the patients can select food based on their cultural and social pReferences (Hendrickx et al. 2018). WHO has recommended five processes for managing the safety of food products and making their food effective for patients. Those processes are;

  • keep clean
  • cook thoroughly
  • separate raw and cooked
  • keep food at safe temperatures (, 2021)
  • use safe water and raw materials.

Personal protective equipment (PPE)

Personal safety management of the specialist and staff is also important, besides the management of a safe practice for the patients. The management of hygienic practices and control of communicable diseases or infection use of PPE is effective and beneficial. The common PPE is “Gloves, Gowns, Shoe and Head Covers, Masks and Respirator, Face and Eye Protection”, which helps to avoid infection (Pottie et al. 2020). Besides this, the primary care service for the indigenous people of Australia is supported by the use of that equipment. In the care service, adoption of the “Occupational Health and Safety (OH & S) Policy” to manage risks of the service centre is required.

The use of primary data collection methods, such as the quantitative study analysis process, helps to analyse the actual problem of the selected area. The present care centre has analysed the data of the selected population, which is the indigenous people of Australia. In the young adult group, which is “18–24 aged people '' up to 0.1 % of the population has been identified with chronic renal disease (, 2019). On the other side, people over 55 years or over, up to 7.6% of the population, are suffering from renal disease. Therefore in the critical analysis that identified a high rate of old age, people are faced with issues due to the presence of kidney disease. An awareness program argument by the renal care centre may help the population of indigenous people to get primary care for renal issues. The renal care centre may develop a quality service with the identification of the people who have suffered from actual issues (Busingye et al. 2019). The development of the survey process will help the renal care centre to improve the area of service to reduce barriers to primary care.

The survey process is identified as an effective primary data collection process which helps to identify the cultural and social needs of the rural people along with their illness. The survey will be conducted before the adoption of the strategic plan, such as an awareness program to evaluate the needs of the people. In addition, the survey will be conducted after the adoption and application of the strategic plan to understand the effectiveness of adopted policies in the selected areas (Swerissen, Duckett and Moran, 2018). The survey will help to identify the number of patients who may be reduced with the primary care service for renal issues for indigenous people in Australia.


Blackburn, S., McLachlan, S., Jowett, S., Kinghorn, P., Gill, P., Higginbottom, A., Rhodes, C., Stevenson, F. and Jinks, C., 2018. The extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in primary care research: a mixed methods study. Research involvement and engagement4(1), pp.1-18.

Bond, C., Brough, M., Willis, J., Stajic, J., Mukandi, B., Canuto, C., Springer, S., Askew, D., Angus, L. and Lewis, T., 2019. Beyond the pipeline: a critique of the discourse surrounding the development of an Indigenous primary healthcare workforce in Australia. Australian Journal of Primary Health25(5), pp.389-394.

Busingye, D., Gianacas, C., Pollack, A., Chidwick, K., Merrifield, A., Norman, S., Mullin, B., Hayhurst, R., Blogg, S., Havard, A. and Stocks, N., 2019. Data Resource Profile: MedicineInsight, an Australian national primary health care database. International journal of epidemiology48(6), pp.1741-1741h.

FORD?GILBOE, M.A.R.I.L.Y.N., Wathen, C.N., Varcoe, C., Herbert, C., Jackson, B.E., Lavoie, J.G., Pauly, B., Perrin, N.A., Smye, V., Wallace, B. and Wong, S.T., 2018. How equity?oriented health care affects health: key mechanisms and implications for primary health care practice and policy. The Milbank Quarterly96(4), pp.635-671.

Hendrickx, D., Bowen, A.C., Marsh, J.A., Carapetis, J.R. and Walker, R., 2018. Ascertaining infectious disease burden through primary care clinic attendance among young Aboriginal children living in four remote communities in Western Australia. PLoS One13(9), p.e0203684.

Javanparast, S., Windle, A., Freeman, T. and Baum, F., 2018. Community health worker programs to improve healthcare access and equity: are they only relevant to low-and middle-income countries?. International Journal of Health Policy and Management7(10), p.943.

Padmanabhan, S., Carty, L., Cameron, E., Ghosh, R.E., Williams, R. and Strongman, H., 2019. Approach to record linkage of primary care data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink to other health-related patient data: overview and implications. European journal of epidemiology34(1), pp.91-99.

Pottie, K., Kendall, C.E., Aubry, T., Magwood, O., Andermann, A., Salvalaggio, G., Ponka, D., Bloch, G., Brcic, V., Agbata, E. and Thavorn, K., 2020. Clinical guideline for homeless and vulnerably housed people, and people with lived homelessness experience. Cmaj192(10), pp.E240-E254.

Swerissen, H., Duckett, S. and Moran, G., 2018. Mapping primary care in Australia. Grattan Institute1, pp.2015-2016.

Website, 2020. NICE Quality Standards: In-depth. Available at: [Accessed on: 12.11.2022], 2019. Kidney disease. Available at:,those%20aged%2055%20and%20over. [Accessed on: 12.11.2022], 2021. PAHO/WHO recommends five keys to safer food for a healthy holiday season. Available at: [Accessed on: 12.11.2022], 2021. Public Health Association of Australia Policy-at-a-glance – Primary Health Care Policy. Available at: [Accessed on: 12.11.2022]

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