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Evaluating The Way Older People Especially Vulnerable To Online Scams Assignment Sample

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Introduction : Evaluating The Way Older People Especially Vulnerable To Online Scams

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In this context, a rising public health issue as well as a significant social issue in contemporary society is "internet-based fraud" that targets senior citizens. Individuals over Fifty Five, who are less skilled, greater socially isolated, as well as more susceptible to fraud, reported greater financial losses than younger people for each instance of internet fraud in Australia, which will be almost twice as much money. Fraudulent actions can result in elderly people victims suffering from irreparable financial losses as well as from unpleasant feelings like sadness as well as anxiety including psychological pressures like rage, self-blame, as well as humiliation.

Researchers begin by offering a demographic explanation for why older persons will be more vulnerable to fraud. In particular, as stated in the media as well as the media, it can be seen that "age is positively" connected with the degree of vulnerability to fraud, as older persons will be more prone to fall, victim (De Kimpe et al. 2019). Demographic characteristics like income as well as education levels have an impact on how vulnerable older persons will be to fraud. There will be at least six theories about why elderly people are more likely to fall victim to scams obtained from laboratory studies.

Literature review

Elderly individuals will have less precise memory and will be more susceptible to false information than younger adults. Its AARP asserts that these age-related memory issues will be one reason why older persons will be much more vulnerable to customer fraud. For instance, elderly people could be more receptive to exaggerated previous statements like "olds forgot to pay it". Older individuals will be included in the paradigm of fraud development explained by interpersonal fraud theory. According to this view, to forecast and understand fraud, personal factors like objectives, motives, emotions, plus cognitive capacities are required (internet fraud). Regarding online fraud, there will be 4 stages to such victimization process: "(fraudulent online messages; assessment of information authenticity; trust generation; and decision-making errors)". The chance of completion throughout this "four-stage fraud theory" will be correlated with people's attention as well as processing tendencies toward "fraud clues". The complex processing possibilities model agrees with this. According to the theory of cognitive processing, people make judgments either by carefully and methodically digesting the information they will or by focusing on cognitive rules which were sparked by "heuristic cues in the decision-making context".

The focus of a recent study on the vulnerability of "older adults to online fraud" will be on psychological variations between individuals (Grilli, 2021). According to earlier research, older persons may be more vulnerable to online scams depending on their "mental health, cognitive ability, level of extroversion, level of trust, level of self-control", sense of security, as well as perceived control. For instance, the findings of a study of 255 older individuals revealed that aging fear increases gullibility while among the internal processes whereby aging fear "affects older adults" gullibility will through a feeling of safety as well as control.

Several factors influencing older individuals' susceptibility to influence were measured using the openness to persuasive scale. Its susceptibility to the persuasive communication scale will be used to assess the brain abilities, and emotional health, including literacy of "639 community-dwelling older adults without dementia" (Lin, 2019). It will discover that increasing "age, lower levels of cognitive function, decreased psychological well-being, and lower literacy, in particular, may be markers of susceptibility to financial victimization in old age". Its sensitivity to persuade scale's findings also indicated that credulous, as opposed to broad trust, could increase older persons' vulnerability to an online scams. It can also be seen that the claim that fraud will still be more prevalent among older persons will be unfounded and insufficiently supported.

However, it will not be disputed that the vast majority of research shows that elderly folks will be more likely to become victims of internet scams due to psychological issues in particular (Mentis et al. 2019). Psychological factors, more particularly personal differences (or personal tendencies), these will generally constant, and persistent, as well as internal aspects of people in their behaviors, "attitudes, feelings, and habits", as well as they can characterize or influence people's actions in a variety of contexts including situations. Psychologists contend these psychological characteristics influence decision-making in situations involving internet fraud.

Method

Participants

This research will be essentially related to primary analysis where it will be conducted to collect data from participants. In this context, it will focus on 25 respondents and they will be recruited based on searching their background related to the research topic regarding evaluating older people especially vulnerable to online scams. It will apply the random sampling method for collecting data from this response in a group where it will be given equally to everyone regarding their view on a particular dimension (Morrison et al. 2020). In this respect, it will be focused on 25 men and 10 women for collecting the data regarding the research question. In this person, it will be focused on the age group above 60 for collecting data so that it gains a mature view regarding a particular aspect.

The purpose of following the random sampling method and applying this primary analysis is to consider the reasons why older adults can be very susceptible to Financial Fraud. underIntriguingly, the older group demonstrated less initiation of the frontal insula when observing these untrusted faces, a part of their brain known for supporting interoceptive consciousness, which is also generally referred to as "intuition (Nicholson et al. 2019)." These instincts forewarn possible dangers or threats, such as an unstable individual. Reduced activity inside this occipital insula of something like the central nervous system in elderly individuals may indicate that one's risk awareness or evaluation is not as powerful as that regarding their smaller individuals, which may contribute to an increased disadvantage to scams and deception.

Materials

In the context of the application of the questionnaire for collecting data from the audience, it can be considered independent variables and dependent variables for gaining effective results from this research work.

DV- In the context of dependent variables or the main objective regarding setting the questionnaire, the main variable would be to understand the way older adults can be very susceptible to online scams or Financial Fraud.

IVS- In the aspect of achieving the main variable of this research, it can be focused on different independent variables such as awareness of older people regarding keeping some essential digital confidential and not sharing those with any unknown call or person. Making awareness regarding some fraudulent links, digital literacy of older groups, and others.

In the dimension, it can also be applied to the rating scale or matrix with a score from 1 to 7 where lower scores show the inefficiency in older groups regarding the awareness of older groups regarding ways of online scams and higher scores would show the efficiency regarding the knowledge (Payne, 2020). Therefore, the application of this scoring matrix would be very effective in evaluating different independent variables effectively for achieving the main goal of the research.

Procedure

Each respondent throughout the investigation is tested within just one circumstance. A research scientist with something like a sampling of 25 old adults. Alternatively, a research scientist with a population of 25 people experienced cases of fraudulent activity. The primary method by which investigators achieve this level of control over independent factors across circumstances is known as randomly assigned, which refers to the use of natural variables to determine which attendees are evaluated in which circumstances. Don't mix up random assignments as well as sample groups (Shao et al 2019). Random sampling is related to such a strategy for choosing a sample of a larger group that would be rarely used during psychology studies. Randomization is a technique for randomly assigning people involved in a specimen to various conditions, which is an essential component of all exploratory psychology studies and many other fields. In its most classical sense, the random allocation should satisfy two requirements. One entails that each respondent has a 50/50 chance of being assigned toward each condition. This same second difference here is that every participant is appointed to a condition individually of the others.

Analysis

In this context, the analysis section will use the tool for evaluating the method as the primary analysis. This primary analysis is to help to find out the current data from the participant with the help of the survey. This primary method can also understand the proportion of males and females who are involved in online scams. It can also understand that for this reason, people are suffering from Financial issues (Tan et al. 2020). In this dimension it can also understand the research study, the researcher also developed the quantitative analysis. This quantitative analysis also helps provide insight into older people especially those vulnerable to online scams. This quantitative analysis of the chapter helps to get the graph of the research topic. It helps to evaluate the research question which helps to make data set of the question. And this data set can identify the graph and table of the topic. So as per the analysis, the whole analysis will be done by the SPSS software. This SPSS software can analyze the ANOVA, regression, and t-test of the research study

Identify and describe the appropriate family of data analytic techniques to use to analyze the data (e.g., t-test, ANOVA, regression, etc.).

 In the context of the data analysis process, it will be effective to apply statistical analysis for making a strong numerical evaluation regarding the collected data from the audience. This research is based on the quantitative approach which will be considered descriptive statistics, ANOVA test, t-test, regression analysis, and correlation analysis for understanding different variables effectively and to show greater results after the completion of the research work. In the context of making this analysis, it will be applied to the SPSS tool for finding optimum statistical value with the data set (Yao et al. 2021).The purpose of this research is to find the reasoning regarding the way older adults can be very susceptible to Financial Fraud. Add to that, the older group demonstrated less initiation regarding the frontal insula when observing these untrusted faces, a part of their brain known for supporting interoceptive consciousness, which is also generally referred to as "intuition. " In this portion, the application of the SPSS tool can assist in showing the result with different tools and graphs and that will be helpful or showing the result efficiently.

This statistical analysis with the SPSS tool also shows the correlation value that way change in a factor can affect the other factor and that would show some main reasons regarding fraudulent cases with the older group due to digitalization. Therefore, it can also be said that it would be effective in finding or making some action plan by identifying issues so that it can remove the risk of fraudulent activity such as financial damage.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that older persons may be more vulnerable to online scams depending on their "mental health, cognitive ability, level of extroversion, level of trust, level of self-control", sense of security, as well as perceived control. the application of the questionnaire for collecting data from the audience, it can be considered independent variables and dependent variables for gaining effective results from this research work. This research will be based on the quantitative approach which will be considered descriptive statistics, ANOVA test, t-test, regression analysis, and correlation analysis for understanding different variables effectively and to show greater results after the completion of the research work.

References

De Kimpe, L., Walrave, M., Ponnet, K. and Van Ouytsel, J., 2019. Internet safety. The international encyclopedia of media literacy, pp.1-11.

Grilli, M.D., McVeigh, K.S., Hakim, Z.M., Wank, A.A., Getz, S.J., Levin, B.E., Ebner, N.C. and Wilson, R.C., 2021. Is this phishing? Older age is associated with greater difficulty discriminating between safe and malicious emails. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B76(9), pp.1711-1715.

Lin, T., Capecci, D.E., Ellis, D.M., Rocha, H.A., Dommaraju, S., Oliveira, D.S. and Ebner, N.C., 2019. Susceptibility to spear-phishing emails: Effects of internet user demographics and email content. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)26(5), pp.1-28.

Mentis, H.M., Madjaroff, G. and Massey, A.K., 2019, May. Upside and downside risk in online security for older adults with mild cognitive impairment. In Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-13).

Morrison, B.A., Coventry, L. and Briggs, P., 2020. Technological change in the retirement transition and the implications for cybersecurity vulnerability in older adults. Frontiers in psychology11, p.623.

Nicholson, J., Coventry, L. and Briggs, P., 2019, May. " If It's Important It Will Be A Headline" Cybersecurity Information Seeking in Older Adults. In Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-11).

Payne, B.K., 2020. Criminals work from home during pandemics too: a public health approach to respond to fraud and crimes against those 50 and above. American Journal of Criminal Justice45(4), pp.563-577.

Shao, J., Du, W., Lin, T., Li, X., Li, J. and Lei, H., 2019. Credulity rather than general trust may increase vulnerability to fraud in older adults: A moderated mediation model. Journal of elder abuse & neglect31(2), pp.146-162.

Tan, S.L., Vergara, R.G., Khan, N. and Khan, S., 2020. Cybersecurity and privacy impact on older persons amid covid-19: A socio-legal study in malaysia. Asian Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences2(2), pp.72-76.

Yao, Y., Zhang, H., Liu, X., Liu, X., Chu, T. and Zeng, Y., 2021. Bridging the digital divide between old and young people in China: challenges and opportunities. The Lancet Healthy Longevity2(3), pp.e125-e126.

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