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Introduction : Hybrid Charging Stations Powered With Solar Energy
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With the gradual advancement in technology, renewable sources of energy are currently used throughout the world. This helps to reduce the carbon footprint of the world. Keeping in mind about sustainability, the world is shifting towards the renewable sources of energy in every sector. This results in reduced global warming. The atmosphere of the world is overloaded with the activities of humans increasing the pollution. The rise in the cost of petroleum and also to reduce the dependance on the use of fossil fuels are the driving factors for using electric vehicles. For this the development of hybrid charging stations is made that uses renewable sources of energy like solar energy as the source of power. The production of grid connected solar energy powered hybrid systems ensures reduced cost of energy in comparison to the cost of grid electricity. Moreover this hybrid charging system will reduce the emission of the carbon dioxide to a great extent. Thus the research proposal is about devising a hybrid charging station that will utilise solar energy.
Research Aim, Objective, Questions and Significance
The demand for solar energy is growing day by day, which is renewable energy. A hybrid charging station mainly modified with advanced power supply which helps to recharge electric vehicles. The hybrid charging station always requires a high power supply which is not possible by using local utilities. That is why it is called an EV autonomous charger. Using solar energy in hybrid charging stations makes it more advanced . The main aim of this project is to make a hybrid charging station which will get power with the help of solar energy.
- To evaluate the importance of solar energy power stations.
- To develop a renewable energy based power plant for different types of charging processes.
- To understand the efficiency of solar based power stations in the case of hybrid charging.
- To investigate various kinds of challenges and opportunities in a hybrid type charging station which is made by solar power.
- What is the importance of solar energy power stations in the case of hybrid type charging systems?
- How does a renewable energy based power plant work in different types of charging processes?
- What is the efficiency of solar based power stations in the case of hybrid charging.
- Why is the investigation of challenges and opportunities in a hybrid type charging station necessary?
In recent years, extensive research has been conducted to design hybrid solar systems. Fostered a Solar based hybrid charging station power age and inferred that crossover frameworks can diminish energy changeability and intricacy. reproduced a solar energy oriented system to compute the levelized cost of power (Pradhap et al. 2020). In order to compare power generation technologies, LCOE has frequently been utilized. A solar hybrid system was measured in terms of LCOE and LPSP and led a monetary and specialised examination of crossover energy frameworks in light of solar powered, wind and battery in view of LCOE and LPSP to decide the ideal design.
According to Ilieva, use of sustainable energy is currently focused on to reduce the carbon footprint of the earth. The traditional sources of electricity are the coal, oil, petroleum, natural gases that contribute to a large part of the emission of the greenhouse gases. Inorder to provide a cleaner environment, reliable, eco-friendly sources of energy are used (Ilieva and Iliev, 2018). This also helps in saving the economy of the world with the provision for raising the quality and standards of living. The 21st century world has seen significant transformation from using fossil fuel driven transportation to renewable sources using transport vehicles with “ultra low to zero tailpipe emissions vehicles”.
As stated by Singh,with the rising population and vehicles there is an escalation in the need of energy and the conventional energy sources have a negative effect on the environment. Inorder to regulate the temperature of the planet and carbon dioxide emission, resources of clean energy are utilised. The hybrid charging stations provide the facilities of charging the electric vehicles using renewable power sources like solar energy. The setup is known as an “ EV autonomous charger” using the solar panel array. The battery storage system is powered by solar energy and this in turn provides the power required for the charger (Singh et al. 2020). This is an off-grid solar power utilising hybrid charging station. The batteries do not store the energy in the on grid systems. To implement the charging station various components are needed that include EV charger, intelligence mediated software, storage system for battery energy, “solar panel array”.
According to Karmaker, the key to reducing the dependency and constant use of fossil fuels is the use of renewable sources of energy by combining the solar energy and the EV or electric vehicle charging (Karmaker et al. 2018). The general notion of charging an electric vehicle is that it takes similar time to charge to that of filling up the fuel capacity of the car. But that is not the case. Many organisations are trying to do that and to install solar charging stations.
As stated by Mehrjerdi, one of the popular choices of renewable energies is the ‘solar photovoltaic (PV)’. The intermittent nature of photovoltaic cells causes many difficulties of which the interrupted supply of power is the major one. There is a difficulty in supplying continuous and stable power while using these types of sources. Inorder to mitigate the problem, energy storage elements are used (Mehrjerdi, 2019). PV Cells have a complementary behavior with the grid power and inorder to utilize the resource minimally, the DC-DC converter is used. This has resulted in the formation of ‘hybrid photovoltaic systems’. Further research is ongoing to integrate the use of multiple sources of energy that are renewable in nature. This will help in mitigating the problem of interrupted power supply.
The research aims to develop hybrid charging stations powered with solar energy. But the process involves only the use of one renewable energy that is solar energy. Implementation of multiple sources of renewable energy will lead to a more efficient charging process. There is no such technology of using multiple renewable sources in hybrid charging stations. Research is ongoing to overcome this limitation (Khan et al. 2018). Use of solar energy is very costly as the manufacturing of the photovoltaic cells are costly enough. The research lacks the ways to reduce the costing of the entire process. Moreover the maintenance of the devices is very much important. This is also costly enough. Any fault in the machinery leads to repairing which is also expensive. Solar Photovoltaic does not give an uninterrupted power supply. The technologies have not yet produced an uninterrupted charging station with solar energy. The entire system is very much dependent on the weather conditions as there is the use of solar energy.
The main purpose of this research study is to understand the efficiency of the solar powered charging stations and to construct a hybrid charging station powered by solar energy that can be used to charge EVs and various other electrical and electronic devices. For making the charging station of maximum efficiency, it should be able to obtain and harness maximum power from the rays of the sun falling on the solar panels (Savio et al. 2019). Therefore, the research method should adopt Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technology to harness the maximum amount of energy from the sun. The MPPT will cooperate with the DC-DC boost converter by following the maximum voltage and current of the PV solar system and in this way, control the cycle of the converter.
The algorithm that will be used in this research method will be the Incremental conductance (INC) based algorithm of MPPT for the solar PV system. The algorithm has been discussed in further detail along with the associated equations in the later sections (Domínguez-Navarro et al. 2019). The main hardware requirement for this project will be the Solar PhotoVoltaic (PV) systems that are becoming increasingly popular these days. Apart from this, solar panels, inverter, microcontroller and batteries will be required to make the device running.
The design of this research will mainly be divided into qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitative research deals with factual information and their interpretation from already published sources which do not involve any statistical data or mathematical values. Quantitative research, on the contrary, deals with mathematical data. For this study, qualitative analysis will be performed from looking into the methods of the already performed research works that are published on the internet (Karmaker et al. 2019). The study plan and design of the experiment will be based on qualitative analysis of the already published work. Quantitative analysis will involve analyzing the quantitative data that has been obtained in the results of the published work based on which the algorithms of the present study will be designed and the results will be predicted. Overall, the entire study is based on secondary data analysis from already published work as no new software work has been done for this study.
Research strategy is the way the research is conducted and the way of gathering information. There are different types of research strategies available. The selection of the proper research strategy is a crucial step in designing the methodology of a research study. The appropriate research strategy is chosen by the researcher based on the sources from which data can be collected for performing the analyses required in the research (Chakraborty et al. 2019). For this study, the algorithms had to be generated and the charger had to be designed based on secondary data available in the already published journals. Therefore, the strategy of research used here can be regarded as a derivative of the Archival research strategy (Fouladi et al. 2020). This research strategy had to be adopted because designing the solar charger using software and collection of primary data from software work was outside the scope of this study.
Collection of Data
This research is based on secondary data collection, because in the research no software work is proposed. All the data gathered from the article is available on the internet. For collection of relevant data from the online sources, the databases for published academic literature were searched for journals related to solar powered hybrid charging stations (Liu et al. 2019). Most of the work has been performed on charging stations of electric vehicles. The algorithms and quantitative results found in those research papers were used to collect data for this study. Any form of primary data collection was outside the scope of this study.
The limitations of this work lie in many aspects. The major limitation is that here only one source of renewable energy is used. The use of solar energy is considered for making the hybrid charging stations (Eldeeb et al. 2018). Whereas if multiple renewable sources of energy would have been used in making the hybrid charging stations for powering and charging the electric vehicles then the generation of power would have been more. Solar power cannot give uninterrupted power supply (Muttaqi et al. 2019). This is a major limitation to this research. Moreover the installation of multiple charging stations can lead to “peak load increment”. The weather plays an important role in charging stations powered by solar energy. So the weather condition is a potential limitation to this research proposal.
The entire research work was performed keeping the ethical considerations in mind. The data that was collected from the secondary sources of information was done following strict scientific ethics. The interests of no persons or communities were harmed during the performance of the project (Zhang. and Cai, 2018). Practical implication of the project in real life will not harm any humans or animals or nature in any way. The design on the solar powered charging stations had been done keeping these things in mind. No data was blatantly copied from any of the published sources.
A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to size a solar-wind hybrid system in order to reduce the likelihood of power loss (LPSP) and the annual cost of the system (ACS). The maximum allowable power loss limit for a reliable system is shown by LPSP. Because it measures each system's relative contribution to the system's total net present cost (NPC), ACS was another useful metric for comparing costs. An economic evaluation of solar-powered charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs) was carried out (Khan et al. 2018).With a system's LCOE of $0.097/kWh and an interest rate of 6%, it concludes that photovoltaic (SPV) modules can satisfy the demand for electric vehicles.An optimization algorithm based on teaching and learning was used to maximise the annual investment and upkeep costs of a solar hybrid EV charging station. An economic analysis of DC microgrids powered by solar and wind to reduce the LCOE of the system was carried out. LPSP and solar power were also computed. The NPC of a solar type hybrid energy-powered electric charging station in a rural area was calculated and the best configuration was chosen. There is extensive literature on solar type hybrids.
New production method
SPV panels are used to generate electricity from solar energy.The remainder of the solar radiation that hits the SPV panel is converted into heat and only a small amount into electricity.As a result, temperature and the impact of solar radiation on output power are taken into consideration. A single SPV panel's output is as follows:
The following equations provide the cell's temperature and performance as a function of temperature:
where Tcell, Tamb, and NOCT are the cell temperature for which the power is calculated, the ambient temperature, and the percentage of power drop that corresponds to the cell temperature at a solar irradiance of 0.8 kW/m2 and an ambient temperature of 20°C.The following formula can be used to determine the maximum nominal power, Pm:
where the maximum voltage and current are Vm and Im, respectively.In addition, the following formula is used to determine the SPV module's total power PPV(t):
where the number of SPV panels is the NPV.
EV based charging station
In the case of converters, charging bays, and electric vehicles make up the charging station.The charging station is connected to a microgrid controller, which assists in directing the flow of electricity at any given time (Deb et al. 2018). This allows for the control of the flow of electricity. The “state of charge” of an electric system, which is the ratio of the battery's available capacity to its maximum capacity when fully charged, can be used to charge it.As a result, it indicates the battery's remaining charge percentage.
The practical limits imposed on charging electric vehicles are expressed mathematically as:
where SOCmin, SOCmax, and SOC(t) are the electric vehicle's minimum, maximum, and current SOC values at a given time t, respectively. Crate(t) and Cmax Rate are the electric vehicle's current charging rate and maximum allowable charging rate, respectively.The following formula is used to determine an electric vehicle's power at any given T. charging station:
where an electrical system's maximum energy capacity is Emax.It is the time period that is regarded as one hour. Contrast in EV charging not entirely settled by contrasting the SOC with the basic SOC, SOCcr. This research paper looks at the level 2 type charger that has the advantages of being simple and easy to use for charging 20 electric systems at a single charging station.
Budget and Timeline
The proposed time plan for this project is:
The research proposal is about preparing a hybrid charging station powered with solar energy. The budget for the entire solar powered charging station should be kept within £50K as per the requirements of the project. Therefore the cost of all the materials required need to be kept within that budget. A budget plan according to this requirement for this project has been presented below.
0.5 Watt Solar Panel
DC to DC Booster Circuit
Proper risk assessment is a very important step in every research project, specially those which deal with electrical circuits. Just as the case for most projects, this project might also have various risks associated with it. Risks may include from failure to complete the design within the budget, to interrupted power supply from the solar charger to accidental electric shock to users while charging their electric cars or other devices (Shariff et al. 2019). In order to comply with the budget, the design of the charging stations should be kept minimalistic and proper insulation of all the exposed parts should be ensured so that no one gets an electric shock during operating the charger.
The electric vehicle is currently being used as a substitute to the traditional motor vehicles that reduces the fuel consumption and also lessens the emission of air pollutants. Nowadays solar energy is required for hybrid charging stations which give it a high power supply. In order to calculate the output power of a solar type hybrid system, created a mathematical model and conducted a reliability analysis to ascertain the system's performance both on and off the grid. In an on-grid solar power utilised hybrid charging station, the cost of the process is less as the energy which is stored is in the grid. This results in increasing the efficacy of the systems.
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