24 x 7 Online Help
Get Free Samples Written by our Top-Notch Subject Expert Writers known for providing the Best Assignment Help Services in Australia
Disability can be referred to as the impairment of the body and mind that makes it difficult for an individual to accomplish certain activities. It limits the activities of a person and restricts their participation in society all across the globe. Impairment is referred to as the absence of significant differences in the structural, functional and mental abilities of a person. A person’s age, society, and external environment have a huge impact on the extent of disability. This assignment would shed light on various aspects of disability and present the analysis of sociological theories. The models of disability and their implications would be discussed critically and the relationship between society and institutions would be illustrated.
Overview of critical disability studies and key debates within the discipline
Disability studies can be referred to as an interdisciplinary area that investigates the nature, meaning, and consequences of disability. Its foundation is based on the social and humanities sciences that estimate disability in the context of society, culture, and politics instead of only focusing on medicine and psychology. It supports the understanding of disability and ageing in society. It emphasises encouraging the extension of assumptions of society (Goodley & Lawthom, 2019). In regard to critical disability studies, it can be said that it emphasises on explaining the construction and panorama of disability. Contradicting it can be said that it can support the understanding of the various aspects of disability economically, culturally, politically, and socially.
It examines the various spectrum of truth related to disability and illustrates that environmental as well as social factors both impart their influence on disability and its experiences. The main aspect supported by these studies is their beneficiary in interrogating the traditional theories and models in order to enhance the understanding of the living experiences of disabled people. In the same context “critical disability theory” can be considered as a “self-consciously politicised theory” as it assist in improving understanding in the pursuit of empowerment and substantive (Goodley, Liddiard & Runswick-Cole, 2018). This focuses on scrutinising impairments and provides a complex interpretation of disabled people thereby challenging power dynamics.
Analyse key historical and contemporary sociological theories and concepts of disability and ageing
Sociological theories can be described as the ideas illustrating the events, patterns and interactions in human society. The understanding of societies, their relationships and social behaviour can be enriched with the help of sociological theories. The most important sociological theories can be stated as “structural-functional theory” and “social conflict theory”. The “structural-functional theory” illustrates society as a complex and interconnected system as a whole. In the view of Cockerham & Scambler (2021), the centre of the structural-functional approach is the human body, in which various systems work together to establish a fully functional structure. The theory therefore bly recommends the need for society to merge people with significant differences such as disabled and ageing populations to be fully functional.
Another theoretical perspective in this context can be stated as “social conflict theory”. It is the work of Karl Max and imparts its focus on the role of power and coercion in producing social order (Crossman, 2019). This theory illustrates society as a system that is unequal and generates conflict and change in a constant manner. It is argued by the theory that social order in society is maintained by domination. As inequalities persist within societies, it stigmatises disability and ageing. Around 15% of the global population is currently experiencing disability (Who. int, 2022). The four main categories of disability can be regarded as “mobility, visual, auditory and cognitive”. As opined by the theory, disability is often associated with the ageing process, as increased disability can be seen among people in their ageing process. This increases social exclusion and discrimination against these people in society as mentioned by “social conflict theory”. Thus society needs to increase its inclusion criteria and incorporate the disabled and ageing population without any discrimination.
Identify and critically review two distinct models of disability
The model of disability can be referred to as the tool that assists in illustrating impairment which in turn benefits society and the government to devise strategies to cope with the needs of disabled people. This thereby allows us to examine and think about something which is close to reality (Retief & Letšosa, 2018). A number of models are used in order to illustrate and evaluate the disability. However, the two main models can be stated as “the medical model of disability” and the “social model of disability”. As stated by Hogan (2019), the medical model overviews disability as a consequence generated by the health condition of disease. It evaluates that impairment can be caused by any trauma which disrupts the cognitive and physiological functioning of a person. The medical model majorly focuses on the impairment and diagnoses of an individual, instead of their personal needs.
This concept has been bly opposed by the “social model of disability” and imparts its focus on the barriers faced by disabled people rather than their impairments and deficits. As opined by Riddle (2020), the social model explains that barriers are the consequences of a lack of social organisation. It states that the activities of a person are not limited to their impairment but by environment also. This model argues that the problem lies within the individual and it is required for society to be more accessible and inclusive to increase the participation of disabled people. [Refer to appendix]
Discussion on the implications of applying the two different models of disability in practice
The discussion evidenced that the medical model focuses on the physiological and cognitive impairment of an individual. The implication of applying this model in practice benefits conceptualising disability as a condition which in turn increases emphasis on devising prevention, treatment and healing of the condition of a disabled person (Lawson & Beckett, 2021). This is also useful in providing effective identification and the root cause of the condition to improve treatment procedures for better safety and comfort. This thus assists in narrowing conditions for accurate diagnosis and assists policymakers in devising strategies that can compensate for any misdeed with disabled people. On the other hand, Berghs et al. (2019), states that the implication of applying the social model in practice is that it increases the engagement of people with the social environment and emphasises their participation in society on the basis of equality. In practice, it helps in removing barriers and creating equality in society.
Relationship between society and its institutions, disability, and ageing
A society can be described as a form of social relation whereas an institution is a form of procedure that is recognised as well as accepted by society. Society and institutions are interrelated in the form of social norms provided by society and used by institutions in order to meet the behavioural pattern executed by society (Ajani & Fakunle, 2021). The interrelationship is also present between society and the ageing population. An ageing society can be known to impact the economic growth of the state. It affects the pattern of growth and communities to provide adequate resources (Whitson et al. 2018). Moreover, it also needs higher resources to be allocated for the ageing and disabled population. Society is responsible for the exclusion as well as the inclusion of disabled persons. An inclusive behaviour of the society assists in boosting confidence among these people.
This assignment concludes the various aspects of disability and sociological theories. An explicit discussion on critical disability studies and their key debates have been done. The discussion has been done on “structural-functional theory” and “social conflict theory” sociological theories. The models of disability “the medical model of disability” and the “social model of disability” have been critically reviewed here. The implication of applying these two models in practice has also been stated.
Ajani, A. O., & Fakunle, S. O. (2021). Globalisation and Trends of Changes in Family Institution in Nigerian Society.American International Journal of Supply Chain Management,2(1), 46-54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200907.050
Berghs, M., Atkin, K., Hatton, C., & Thomas, C. (2019). Do disabled people need a ber social model: a social model of human rights?.Disability & Society,34(7-8), 1034-1039. DOI: 10.1080/09687599.2019.1619239
Cockerham, W. C., & Scambler, G. (2021). Medical sociology and sociological theory.The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology, 22-44. https://www.mysocialbliss.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/William-C.-Cockerham-The-New-Blackwell-Companion-to-Medical-Sociology-Blackwell-Companions-to-Sociology-20091.pdf#page=23
Goodley, D., & Lawthom, R. (2019). Critical disability studies, Brexit and Trump: A time of neoliberal–ableism.Rethinking History,23(2), 233-251. DOI: 10.1080/13642529.2019.1607476
Goodley, D., Liddiard, K., & Runswick-Cole, K. (2018). Feeling disability: Theories of affect and critical disability studies.Disability & society,33(2), 197-217. DOI: 10.1080/09687599.2017.1402752
Hogan, A. J. (2019). Moving away from the" medical model": The development and revision of the World Health Organization's Classification of Disability.Bulletin of the History of Medicine,93(2), 241-269. DOI: https://par.nsf.gov/servlets/purl/10127165
Lawson, A., & Beckett, A. E. (2021). The social and human rights models of disability: towards a complementarity thesis.The International Journal of Human Rights,25(2), 348-379. DOI: 10.1080/13642987.2020.1783533
Retief, M., & Letšosa, R. (2018). Models of disability: A brief overview.HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies,74(1).
Riddle, C. A. (2020). Why we do not need a ‘ber’social model of disability.Disability & Society,35(9), 1509-1513. DOI: 10.1080/09687599.2020.1809349
Whitson, H. E., Cronin?Golomb, A., Cruickshanks, K. J., Gilmore, G. C., Owsley, C., Peelle, J. E., ... & Lin, F. R. (2018). American Geriatrics Society and National Institute on Aging bench?to?bedside conference: sensory impairment and cognitive decline in older adults.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society,66(11), 2052-2058. doi:10.1111/jgs.15506