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Research Design Proposal Assignment 2
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Chapter 1 Literature Review
Literature review is the content of the scholarly paper which consist of current information and knowledge and includes the substantive findings, theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. In simple words it can be said that it is the secondary sources from where the data and information is being collected by the researcher for the particular subject (Hall and Brewer, 2017). It is mostly liked with the academic oriented literature for example different reviews which are collected from the different Journal and books which is being published in the same publication. It is the basis at which the investigation is being made by the scholar. Other than that it can be said that on the basis of literature review, whole investigation is being dependent (Noar and Ribisl, 2017).
It is the part of researcher which consist of presentation of the thesis, dissertation, journal or article. It is also being very common in the research proposal. It is the document which is being made to collect the approval in order to conduct the whole dissertation. It plays very significant part when the researcher is conducting any investigation (Francis and Brewer, 2017). This is because it helps the scholar to collect the relevant data which serve as basis for the further study. Before conducting ant literature review, different themes have been made by the scholar and on the basis of that themes, secondary data is being collected. In this literature review the key aim of investigator is to analyse the impact of cigarette packing pictorial and warning labels on the people (Mansour and Bakhsh, 2017). It is going to cover the concept of cigarette packing pictorial and warning labels, factors affecting consumer behaviour and influence of cigarette packing pictorial and warning labels on the people who consume cigarette.
Chapter 2 Literature review main body
Concept of cigarette packing pictorial and warning labels
According to the view of Byrne and Niederdeppe, (2017) packaging is one of the most important component when the organisation is marketing their products and services. Packing helps the customers to identify the brand, this is because there are large number of firm who are dealing products and services and it becomes difficult for the customers to identify the brand. This is the because firm focus on effective packing so that customers can identify their brand. On the other hand packaging plays very significant role in the products like cigarette which serve the high degree of the social visibility. As compare to the other products, cigarette packages are being displayed each time by the customer whenever they are consuming it. Organisation need to make their cigarette packaging unique, this is because customer used to carry out it whole day and it has become the part of their clothing and dressing. There are different heath warning that are given on the package of the cigarette. The most warning that have been recall by the people who consume, not consume or have left the smoking is that smoking can kill the people, smoking reduces the male fertility, it can cause cancer, heart disease, need not to smoke while pregnancy as well as it is harmful to those people who are around the smokers.
In the contradicting view of Lochbuehler and Strasser, (2017) warning pictorials plays very significant role on the cigarette packages because they need to communicate to the smokers that it is not good for the heath and cause several different diseases such as cancer, death etc. There are several reasons for which warning pictorials have been given on the cigarette packets. Primary reason for which warning pictorials is made is that organisation wants to enhance the knowledge of the people regarding the different harms of the tobacco. Other than that the other reason are they want to prevent from the relapse in the former smokers, discourage adults and youth for the consumption of cigarette, discourage youth and adults to consume the cigarette when they are about to have one, enhance the smoker's attention in order to create the attempts to quit the cigarette, decrease the appeal for the cigarette packages etc.
Factors affecting consumer behaviour
According to the view of Mangat and Singh, (2017) there are several factors that are included in the influencing factors of customer behaviour. Cultural factors are the most significant factor which have great impact over the behaviour of the customers. Cultural factors consist of Culture, Subculture, Social Class etc. Culture is the major cause on which different organisation focus when they are producing and packaging their products. It is being known that every individual have their own culture which they belong and consist of language, tradition etc. other than that sub culture consist of their religions, nationalities, geographical regions, racial, etc. Social culture is also one of the important factor which consist of their wealth, education, occupation etc.
In the contradicting view of Morgan and Brewer, (2017) social, personal and psychological factors also plays significant role in influencing the behaviour of the customers. When it comes to the social factors, it consists of Reference groups, Family, Roles and Status etc. On the other hand personal factors consist of age, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle and personality. And psychological factors includes motivation, perception, beliefs and attitudes. Such as when the young boy is going to buy the cloths then he would purchase trendy one and if the old man is going to buy the cloths then he will purchase those cloths in which he feels comfortable.
According to the view of Mutti-Packer and Hammond, (2017) there are several other factors that have impact over the consumer behaviour. Such as marketing campaigns, economic conditions, purchasing power, packing and labelling etc. When it comes to the marketing campaigns, there are different ways by which organisation can market their products and services and influence the behaviour of the customers. It is being known that emotional advertisement have direct impact over the emotions of the people and can change the perception of people and ultimately have impacted on the buying behaviour of them. On the other hand there are different sales promotion made by the venture such as discounts, coupons etc. if the firm is selling their products with the discounts then it can happen that customers will purchase more products. Thus, it can be stated that marketing campaigns have great impact over the buying behaviour of the customers.
In the contradicting view of Ophir and Cappella, (2017) Economic Conditions such as spending of customers towards the different products and services. Customer spending have been direct impacted by the economic situation of the country. If the country is at recession stage, at that time customers do not have huge amount to spend so it impacts on the buying behaviour of the customers.
Impact of cigarette packing pictorial and warning labels on the people who consume cigarette
According to the view of Hall and Brewer, (2017) cigarette package in most of the counties have carried a heath warning. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the Article 11 Guidelines have stated that there should be proper pictures on the tobacco package which shows that it is not good for the heath of people and can cause the different disease to the human being. Heath warning labels on the tobacco products is being very much effective to communicate that it can cause the different health risk to the people. In many countries, more smokers report getting information about the health risks of smoking from warning labels than any other source except television.
In the contradicting view of Noar and Ribisl, (2017) the most common warning which being given on the tobacco is that â€œ Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your healthâ€. It has been identified that most of the countries have made the several efforts to create the awareness about the heath hazards of smoking. It has been identified that warning labels is very much effective strategy to communicate the different heath hazards such as heart disease, cancer etc. warning labels have been used to promote the interest of quieting the smoking and educate the smokers about the heath effects of the tobacco. Other than that it also provide the information about leaving the smoking so that they can not harm their health.
According to the view of Francis and Brewer, (2017) it has been identified that message which is being based on the picture are the most effective way by which heath warning labels on the different tobacco products. It is being known that labels covers the at least 50 % of the packages surface with that text should be very much large so that it can be visible to the consumers. It should be at the front panel of the product or at the upper portion of the pack. Other than that it should be made at the large founts and there should be proper colour of the text which can attract the attention of the customers and he or she can read the message before consuming the product.
In the contradicting view of Mansour and Bakhsh, (2017) when it comes to the message content, then message should portray the different risk of the tobacco use and the different negative impacts over the health are to be appeal with the emotion of the ear and capture the attention of the customers. Other that labels should be given properly such as any coping information for quieting the resources which is being used by the smokers. It should contain the fear and threatening based information in order to communicate the effectiveness of the warnings. Message should be pre-tested on the customers who are consuming the tobacco.
According to the view of Byrne and Niederdeppe, (2017) it can be sated that warning sings and pictorials have very great impact over the purchase and consumption of product like cigarette. Such as when the customer is taking cigarette at the first time, after watching the labels on the cigarette, he or she will think for the several times to consume it and can happen he or she will not able to consume it. Or when the customers who is consuming cigarette regularly can think to quit it.
Chapter 3 Literature review conclusion
It can be concluded from the above literature review which is on the subject â€œ to analyse the impact of cigarette packing pictorial and warning labels on the peopleâ€ that different warning message and pictures have great impact over the consumption of cigarette by the people. There are different reason for which these warning message and images are being shown on the packet of cigarette, where primary reason is to communicate the information about the different hazards which can occur from the consumption of the cigarette such as cancer, heart disease, death etc. other than that the other reason is to motivate people that they can quit the smoking.
Other than that it is being concluded that these cigarettes packing pictorial and warning labels have great impact over the consumption of cigarettes. Such as when the person is consuming cigarette for the first time, will think for the several times before consuming it. Other than that the person who is consuming at the daily basis can think to quit it or will not buy whole package.
Books and Journal
- Byrne, S. and Niederdeppe, J., 2017. Effects of Varying Color, Imagery, and Text of Cigarette Package Warning Labels among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Middle School Youth and Adult Smokers. Health communication, pp.1-11.
- Elton-Marshall, T. and Hammond, D., 2017. Disparities in knowledge about the health effects of smoking among adolescents following the release of new pictorial health warning labels. Preventive medicine.
- Evans, A. T. and Tusler, M., 2018. Cigarette graphic warning labels increase both risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement. Psychology & health, 33(2), pp.213-234.
- Fleischer, N. L. and Levy, D. T., 2017. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico. Global public health, 12(7), pp.830-845.
- Francis, D. B. and Brewer, N. T., 2017. Systematic Review of Measures Used in Pictorial Cigarette Pack Warning Experiments. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, p.ntx082.
- Hall, M. G. and Brewer, N. T., 2017. Negative affect, message reactance and perceived risk: how do pictorial cigarette pack warnings change quit intentions?. Tobacco control, pp.tobaccocontrol-2017.
- Lochbuehler, K. and Strasser, A. A., 2017. Effect of message congruency on attention and recall in pictorial health warning labels. Tobacco Control, pp.tobaccocontrol-2016.
- Mangat, D. S. and Singh, K., 2017. IMPACT OF PICTORIAL HEALTH WARNING LABELS ON PEOPLE CONSUMING TOBACCO PRODUCTS IN SMOKING FORM. Journal of Advanced Medical and Dental Sciences Research| Vol, 5(4).
- Mansour, A. Y. and Bakhsh, Z., 2017. Factors Affecting the Perceived Effectiveness of Pictorial Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Gulf Countries: A Cross-sectional Study. Tobacco use insights, 10.
- Morgan, J. C. and Brewer, N. T., 2017. How people think about the chemicals in cigarette smoke: a systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, pp.1-12.
- Mutti-Packer, S. and Hammond, D., 2017. The role of negative affect and message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco health warning labels in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh: A moderated-mediation analysis. Addictive Behaviors, 73, pp.22-29.
- Noar, S. M and Ribisl, K. M., 2017. Effects of strengthening cigarette pack warnings on attention and message processing: A systematic review. Journalism & mass communication quarterly, 94(2), pp.416-442.
- Ophir, Y. and Cappella, J. N., 2017. The Effects of Graphic Warning Labelsâ€™ Vividness on Message Engagement and Intentions to Quit Smoking. Communication Research, p.0093650217700226.