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Assessment on Pop Health

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Health issue (of the scenario)

Type 2 Diabetes is the condition at hand in the case study. Mark, a 58-year-old male truck driver in Adelaide, South Australia, has recently been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes as a result of his symptoms, which include weariness and impaired vision (Tan, 2023). High blood sugar levels brought on by insulin resistance or the body's ineffective utilization of insulin characterize Type 2 Diabetes, a chronic illness.

Associated population health measures

  1. Prevalence: In Australia, Type 2 Diabetes is very prevalent and is on the increase. About 1.2 million Australians were diagnosed with diabetes in 2017–2018, with Type 2 Diabetes making up the bulk of cases, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
  2. Incidence: Age, genetics, lifestyle, socioeconomic level, and others all have an impact on the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes. People over 40, those with a family history of diabetes, those who are large or lead sedentary lives, and members of some ethnic groups, such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, are more likely to have it diagnosed.
  3. Quality of life: A person's quality of life may be greatly impacted by type 2 diabetes. It necessitates constant management and lifestyle adjustments, which can be difficult for people like Mark who find it difficult to make these adjustments because of the demands of their jobs and habits like drinking alcohol.
  4. Life expectancy: According to Ali, 2022 people with type 2 diabetes, often have shorter life expectancies than the general population. (p.10)

Determinants of health (of the scenario)

  1. Biological determinants: Mark’s age is a biological factor since having type 2 diabetes becomes more likely as people age. His family’s history of diabetes and genetic predisposition may also have increased risk of developing the disease.
  2. Behavioural determinants: the onset and treatment of type 2 diabetes are significantly influenced by Mark’s lifestyle decisions, particularlyhis use of alcohol and difficulties adopting new habits. To achieve improved health results, he must address his behaviours, including his use of alcohol and his sedentary routines.
  3. Social determinants: The nature of Mark's profession as a truck driver and his occupation might be a factor in his health problems (Ma, 2023). He may find it more difficult to successfully manage his diabetes if he spends a lot of time sitting, has erratic eating habits, and has limited access to healthy food alternatives when traveling.
  4. Environmental determinants: The surroundings Mark works and lives in may also have an impact on his health. His capacity to control his diabetes and adopt healthy lifestyle adjustments can be impacted by elements including the accessibility of nutritious food alternatives, ease of access to healthcare facilities, and the presence of encouraging social networks.

Analysis of services:

Addressing the social and environmental determinants of health for people like Mark is crucial to fostering better integrated patient-centered treatment. Key areas of attention ought to be:

  1. Social determinants: enhancing type 2 diabetes support system and resources, such as by offering counseling and education to encourage good lifestyle choices and self-management. Creating programs specifically suited to the requirements of truck drivers and those in related occupations might entail working in partnership with employers, community organizations, and healthcare specialists (as cited by Lattie, 2022, p.97).
  2. Environmental determinants: enhancing truck drivers' access to nutritious food alternatives and chances for exercise, both on the road and during rest stops. This might entail actions like promoting healthy food options at truck stops, designating exercise spaces, and fostering collaborations with regional communities to offer wellness services and programs.

Australian health services (relating to scenario)

The location of Adelaide, South Australia, offers a variety of medical and social supports to help manage the health problem of Type 2 Diabetes in the scenario. These services are situated within the hierarchy of the Australian healthcare system, which is made up of the federal, state, and local levels as well as the public and private sectors.

  1. Public health services: For controlling Type 2 Diabetes, the public healthcare system in Australia offers a number of services.
  2. Primary care services: General practitioners (GPs) are essential to the community's management of Type 2 Diabetes.
  3. Private health services: Services for managing diabetes are also provided by private healthcare providers, such as private hospitals, specialists, and allied health professionals (Folbre, 2023, p. 89). If someone has private health insurance or prefers to go to a certain doctor or facility, they could choose private healthcare like Mark.
  4. Diabetes education programs: Both public and private channels provide diabetes education programs in Adelaide.
  5. Community support services: Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes in Adelaide may get help and information from a variety of local organizations.

Health services addressing determinants (social and environmental)

The accessible services are essential in addressing the scenario's recognised social and environmental determinants of health (Kirwan,, 2022, p. 1581). By offering knowledge, direction, and social support to people like Mark, diabetes education programmes and community support services can help address behavioural factors by aiding them in making lifestyle adjustments and effectively managing their disease.

It is crucial to remember that these programs’ success in addressing the determinants of health might vary. Even if public hospitals and primary care services are widely available, factors like wait times and budget limitations may have an influence on the level of care and its continuity.


Recommendations to deal with social and environmental factors and deliver efficient patient-centered healthcare for people with Type 2 Diabetes like Mark are:

  1. Workplace interventions: Work with employers and transportation firms to put workplace initiatives that support employee wellness into place.
  2. Community partnership: Encourage collaborations with local health departments, diabetic support organizations, and community organizations to deliver comprehensive diabetes management programs.
  3. Telehealth services: Increase the usage of telehealth services to help people in distant or underdeveloped regions get access to better healthcare.
  4. Policy support: Encourage the adoption of policies that support wholesome living conditions.
  5. Multidisciplinary care teams: To offer comprehensive and coordinated treatment, create multidisciplinary care teams with medical experts like nutritionists, and diabetes educators (Butt, 2022).


  • Ali, M. K., Pearson-Stuttard, J., Selvin, E., & Gregg, E. W. (2022). Interpreting global trends in type 2 diabetes complications and mortality. Diabetologia65(1), 3-13.
  • Butt, S. M. (2022). Management and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. International Journal of Computations, Information and Manufacturing (IJCIM)2(1).
  • Folbre, N., Gautham, L., & Smith, K. (2023). Gender inequality, bargaining, and pay in care services in the United States. ILR Review76(1), 86-111.
  • Kirwan, J. P., Courcoulas, A. P., Cummings, D. E., Goldfine, A. B., Kashyap, S. R., Simonson, D. C., ... & Schauer, P. R. (2022). Diabetes remission in the alliance of randomized trials of medicine versus metabolic surgery in type 2 diabetes (ARMMS-T2D). Diabetes Care45(7), 1574-1583.
  • Lattie, E. G., Stiles-Shields, C., & Graham, A. K. (2022). An overview of and recommendations for more accessible digital mental health services. Nature Reviews Psychology1(2), 87-100.
  • Ma, W., & Shen, Z. (2023). Impact of community care services on the health of older adults: evidence from China. Frontiers in Public Health11.
  • Tan, R. K. J., Tang, W., & Tucker, J. D. (2023). Public health services and intersectional stigma: a social sciences perspective with implications for HIV service design and delivery. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS18(1), 18-26.
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