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In the subsequent section of the report a thorough analysis regarding the frequently encountered difficulties and impediments to successful communication and effective techniques for circumventing communication barriers will be done.

Assessment 1

1.1 Common Challenges and Barriers to Effective Communication

Several issues are-

  • Language Barriers

Language is one of the primary impediments to good communication. The UK is the amalgamation of international people. Though English is the main language many people do not understand the language (Rosen et al., 2021). It was a bit hectic for them when the notices regarding the vaccine reach out to them in a language that they could not perceive. 

  • Psychological Obstacles

People were afraid and did not have faith in the vaccine since it was new and had received little testing, and they were concerned that they would become ill as a result. The people were concerned about going to the vaccine center since they wanted to avoid coming into contact with other individuals.

  • Communication Barriers on a Physical Level

These are the most readily apparent impediments to good communication. A large segment of people in the UK was unaware of how to schedule a vaccine appointment, and they believed that vaccine testing centres are too far away and difficult to visit.

  • Communication Barriers on a Cultural Level

Many people in the United Kingdom lack confidence in their English abilities, but the majority of information on the vaccine is available only in English, and the majority of nurses administering the vaccine only know English (Rosen et al., 2021). 

  • Barriers of Attitude

Certain individuals are introverts or are not particularly social. Both of these scenarios created a communication barrier. Certain individuals struggle with attitude issues, these adversely affected the vaccination 

  • <pBarriers to Perception

Different people have varied perceptions of the same object or incident (Trifunovi? et al., 2021). Pursuing this the UK govt. changed the mode of communication and made it simple and unambiguous. 

  • Information barriers

There was initially very little information available about the vaccination’s effects, and many were unsure which vaccine to use. Media coverage of the situation has been overwhelmingly negative. That is why the people could not rely upon the vaccination agenda and the UK govt had to combat this situation with professional skills.

1.2 Effective Strategies for Overcoming Communication Barriers

UK govt took a bunch of strategies to combat the issues of communication barriers that were preventing the occurrence of vaccination. The government has launched several new national campaigns to encourage people (Steinert et al., 2021). Television advertisements highlighted the collaborative effort of the greatest vaccination program in British history. As part of the promotion, the vaccine program’s first-ever television commercial featured some of the tens of thousands of health and care workers and volunteers who have been involved in the vaccine’s roll-out across the UK, as well as people who have received the vaccine (Saso, Skirrow and Kampmann, 2020). Additionally, the advertisement aired on radio, multicultural media, social media, and out-of-home media such as billboards on major sites.

The campaigns promoted and arranged by the UK govt targeted people to take both the first and second dose of vaccine (Mohd Hanafiah, Ng and Wan, 2021). Matt Hancock, the Secretary of Health and Social Care, stated that the immunizations program in the United Kingdom will go down in history as a magnum opus of a national effort in the fight against COVID-19. The campaigns are a wonderful and emotional reminder of everything the UK has been through and everything the people of the UK have ahead of them - the relentless work of volunteers, NHS heroes, and the British people are also worth mentioning in channelizing the campaigns (Reisdorf et al., 2021).

Assessment 2

2.1 Discussion of Some General Theories of Organisational Communication

Organizational Communication: An Introduction

The field of organisational communication has expanded tremendously in scope and complexity during the last few decades (Pratama, 2019). Concurrent with the advent of the corporate and the managerial mode of operation, it has become customary for management theorists to specify how what, and why an organisation should be structured the way it is. As a result, numerous management practitioners have advanced their perspectives and suggested ideas on management theory. Among them are Max Weber, Philip Tompkins, and George Cheney, who together with Stanley Deetz established the area of organisational communication studies. 

 It is worth noting that organizational communication is indeed essential and critical for firms worldwide, as communication determines the raison d’être of organisations and decides their success or failure.

A few of the theories are as follows-

  1. Weber’s Classic Organizational Theory of Fixed Structures

Max Weber, a highly regarded management thinker, might be considered the founder of organisational studies. His idea of bureaucratic organisations is the first attempt to define organisational structure and to give meaning to organisational communication processes.

According to Weberian philosophy, companies have well-defined roles and duties, and as a result, communication is hierarchical, structured, and transparent (Haveman and Wetts, 2019). There is no room for ambiguity in the messages given from the top, and hence organisations have inflexible machine-like structures with defined and unambiguous duties and responsibilities for each individual.

Undeniably, Weberian analysis places a premium on merit, and organisations function by allocating work based on established notions of talents and seniority.

  1. Organizational Control Theory of Tompkins and Cheney

Tompkins and Cheney’s organisational control theory is a development of Weberian theory for organisations that have moved beyond the bureaucratic mode but have not yet achieved complete amorphousness. According to this idea, four distinct types of control govern how corporations exert power internally: simple, technical, bureaucratic, and concerted.

In some ways, these four types of control are defined by the organization’s progression from very simple organisational models to pure bureaucracies to overly technical organisations, and finally to an organisation where everyone understands what is expected of them and has the organization’s mission and vision etched into their minds (Zink, 2017). The idea is that Tompkins and Cheney provide a model in which control and communication are both more and less than Weber imagined and less than postmodern thinkers assert about organisational control and communication.

  1. Deetz’s Managerialism Theory

The evolution of organisational structure and models over time has spawned theories that reflect changing organisational norms, and Stanley Deetz’s Managerialism Theory is one such attempt to define how organisational communication and control occur in businesses, where classical concepts are replaced by an acknowledgement of political and economic interests.

The strength of this theory is that Deetz transcends preconceived concepts of organisations and instead proposes a picture of organisations that takes into account both the democratic interests of the public and the organization’s power centres. This combination of realising that meaning is found in people, not their words, and determining the interests that underpin these meanings is a significant step forward from Weber’s faceless and nameless bureaucratic model and Tompkins and Cheney’s marginally improved control theory.

The point here is that Deetz’s theory evolved naturally out of the need to acknowledge the managerial class’s pre-eminence as a force to be reckoned with in organisations during the latter part of the twentieth century, and thus symbolises the natural evolution of organisational control and communication theory (Tracy and Town, 2020). The critical element about these theories is that they are both representations of reality as perceived by their proponents and also reflect the thinkers’ utopian ideals. 

2.2 Evaluation of The Barriers of Communication Preventing People from Getting the Vaccine

Multiple impediments exist in the communication process. The intended communication is frequently disrupted and misunderstood, resulting in a state of confusion and communication breakdown. The impediments to efficient communication can be physical, emotional cultural, linguistic, psychological or in nature. Regarding the eradication of the barriers of communication, the UK govt. took up many strategies so that people facing several barriers of communication which bred the negative views concerning vaccines and apprehension or refusal to accept immunizations of the COVID-19 vaccination can mitigate issues and get the vaccination. 

The impact of communication barrier in the UK regarding the COVID-19-factors created three negative vaccine attitudes, that are as follows-

  • Mistrust of vaccine benefit,

  • Wrong information regarding unintended consequences spread via social media, and

  • False rumour about commercial profiteering (Trifunovi? et al., 2021)

Many expressed a high level of mistrust toward vaccines in one or more domains as they did not find a proper link to collect data from. People from ethnic minority backgrounds were more distrustful of vaccination, as were those with lower education, lower annual income, limited awareness of COVID-19, and lack of compliance with government COVID-19 requirements. In all, several people answered an unwillingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine as they were not provided with the correct information regarding the vaccine due to the lack of communication, while a segment of the people expressed uncertainty (Sonawane, Troisi and Deshmukh, 2021). 

Low-income groups (£16,000 per year) were the strongest predictors of both COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and refusal, as were not receiving a flu vaccine the previous year, poor compliance to COVID-19 government requirements, female gender, and living with children. Among vaccine attitudes, the most significant predictors of both uncertainty and reluctance to vaccinate against COVID-19 were moderate to high levels of disbelief in vaccine benefit and fears about possible unanticipated side effects. The elements of barriers of communication such as the linguistic, cultural, emotional, educational and economic barriers adversely contributed to the growth of issues regarding the vaccination.

In the United Kingdom, negative attitudes against vaccines constitute a major public health hazard. A general distrust of vaccinations and, in particular, fears about future adverse effects will act as impediments to acquiring immunization rates to COVID-19 by vaccination. Public health messaging must be tailored to tackle these issues, particularly among women, minority populations, and low-income individuals.

2.3 The Government Strategies to Overcome the Barriers

While the rapid advancement of COVID vaccines19 is remarkable, successfully vaccinating the entire population faces numerous hurdles, ranging from manufacture to distribution, deployment, and, most crucially, acceptance (Michie et al., 2021). Trust in vaccinations is crucial, and it is significantly dependent on governments’ capacity to convey the advantages of immunization and to safely and effectively deliver vaccines (Mohd Hanafiah, Ng and Wan, 2021). Hesitation with COVID19 immunizations is seen in the UK, recognizing the extraordinary scale of the required vaccination campaigns, government initiatives to build confidence will be critical to their success and the formation of more robust societies following the catastrophe.

UK govt took up several initiatives and implemented some strategies to eradicate the communication barriers and to make the vaccine-related information clear to the population for a corona free UK. The UK govt demonstrates that no quality or safety requirements have been sacrificed in the name of expedited development and approval processes and made significant investments in research and development as well as industrial capability. While addressing the challenges posed by covid-19, the UK govt. provides a chance to demonstrate to the public that pharmacovigilance systems work (Steinert et al., 2021). They ensure that communication about potential safety signals is transparent and handled with care. The UK govt. implements balanced and contextualized communication to express clearly what is and is not known and to avoid reinforcing reluctant people’s cognitive biases.

Additionally, the campaigns arranged by the UK govt to inform the populace regarding the benefits of the vaccine encourage the public to obtain accurate information on vaccines from reputable sources such as NHS. Numerous organizations from a variety of industries, including hospitality, media, retail, manufacturing, and construction, lend their support to the campaign (Garst et al., 2021). Google and YouTube also promote vaccine messaging on their platforms, while LinkedIn will offer free advertising space to assist spread the vaccine message to UK people.

Since the outbreak of the COVID crisis, the UK government has adopted numerous unanticipated actions to safeguard vulnerable areas. To preserve public health and assure the continuity of public services, the UK government has made public procurement a top priority in planning their solutions to the COVID19 problem. The UK govt is continuously enhancing public communication transparency and coherence to combat misinformation and the ‘infodemic’. Since the COVID19 pandemic began, it has been accompanied by an ‘infodemic’ – an excess of knowledge, whether accurate or not, addressing it tenaciously is also critical for building trust (Reisdorf et al., 2021). UK government is being candid about lingering uncertainties when communicating, since omitting critical pieces of information might create public suspicion when fresh data becomes available (Evans and French, 2021).


UK govt should take many more measures to enhance the communication channelization so that it can educate its people regarding the benefits and emergency of getting vaccinated. And for that it must take up several strategies like feedback of the vaccinated people and then advertising the positive effects of the vaccinations, send personalized mails to the people who are in doubt, better services from doctors too can aid in this case. Miniating the consistency can also pave the path. The organizations or the institutions to which the non-vaccinated or semi vaccinated people are associated too can also help encouraging since these have the record of the innate data regarding the people which might help in motivating them (Smith et al., 2021). The Govt. must provide the people with all the provision to reach out to the help centers and fetching necessary help so that theses can work like a channel to build a communication hub between the UK govt and its people.


The preceding section of the report conceived a thorough investigation of encountered problems and impediments to efficient communication, as well as effective ways for circumventing communication barriers.


Evans, W.D. and French, J., 2021. Demand Creation for COVID-19 Vaccination: Overcoming Vaccine Hesitancy through Social Marketing. Vaccines, 9(4), p.319.

Garst, B., Dubin, A., Bunke, C., Schellpfeffer, N., Gaslin, T., Ambrose, M. and Hashikawa, A., 2021. Barriers impacting organizational immunization policy implementation in US and Canadian summer camps. Children’s Health Care, 50(2), pp.207-219.

Haveman, H.A. and Wetts, R., 2019. Organizational theory: From classical sociology to the 1970s. Sociology Compass, 13(3), p.e12627.

Michie, S., West, R., Pidgeon, N., Reicher, S., Amlôt, R. and Bear, L., 2021. Staying ‘Covid?safe’: Proposals for embedding behaviours that protect against Covid?19 transmission in the UK. British Journal of Health Psychology.

Mohd Hanafiah, K., Ng, C. and Wan, A.M., 2021. Effective Communication at Different Phases of COVID-19 Prevention: Roles, Enablers and Barriers. Viruses, 13(6), p.1058.

Pratama, S., 2019. Effect of Organizational Communication and Job Satisfaction on Employee Achievement at Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) Binjai City.

Reisdorf, B.C., Blank, G., Cotten, S.R., Knittel, M. and Bauer, J.M., 2021. OVERCOMING COVID-19 VACCINE HESITANCY.

Rosen, B., Waitzberg, R., Israeli, A., Hartal, M. and Davidovitch, N., 2021. Addressing vaccine hesitancy and access barriers to achieve persistent progress in Israel’s COVID-19 vaccination program. Israel journal of health policy research, 10(1), pp.1-20.

Saso, A., Skirrow, H. and Kampmann, B., 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on immunization services for maternal and infant vaccines: results of a survey conducted by imprint—the immunising pregnant women and infants network. Vaccines, 8(3), p.556.

Smith, L., Tresh, M., Wilkinson, D. and Surenthiran, S.S., 2021. Living with a vestibular disorder during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Sonawane, K., Troisi, C.L. and Deshmukh, A.A., 2021. COVID-19 vaccination in the UK: Addressing vaccine hesitancy. The Lancet Regional Health-Europe, 1.

Steinert, J., Sternberg, H., Prince, H., Fasolo, B., Galizzi, M., Büthe, T. and Veltri, G., 2021. COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Eight European Countries: Prevalence, Determinants and Heterogeneity.

Tracy, S.J. and Town, S., 2020. Real, fake, and crystallized identities. The Oxford Handbook of Identities in Organizations, pp.391-407.

Trifunovi?, V., Bach Habersaat, K., Tepav?evi?, D.K., Jovanovi?, V., Kanazir, M., Lon?arevi?, G. and Jackson, C., 2021. Understanding vaccination communication between health workers and parents: a Tailoring Immunization Programmes (TIP) qualitative study in Serbia. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, pp.1-8.

Zink, J., 2017. Management theory and organizational communication. Organizational Communication.

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