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Introduction: Understanding Business Environment

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  • The impact of taxes on consumer and industrial welfare, total supply and demand, as well as public health consequences is critical to the operation of economies.
  • For governments, corporations and individuals, it is crucial to comprehend how taxes affect these factors.
  • The presentation will look at how taxes affect buyer and seller welfare, as well as macroeconomic factors like aggregated supply and demand, and speculate on the long-term advantages of a tax designed to promote public health (Jumelet, al. 2022).
  • The presentation will also go through how empirical econometric models may be used to evaluate the effects of a particular tax, specifically the "fat tax," on both health and economic development.
  • This will also learn more about the consequences for the company's environment and help shape policy by looking at these connected aspects (Chungyalpa, 2019).

Notes: For governments, corporations, and individuals, it is crucial to comprehend how taxes affect these factors. This will evaluate at how taxes affect buyer and seller welfare, as well as macroeconomic factors like aggregated supply and demand, and speculate on the long-term advantages of a tax designed to promote public health. The presenation will also go through how empirical econometric models may be used to evaluate the effects of a particular tax, specifically the "fat tax," on both health and economic development. We may learn more about the consequences for the company's environment and help shape policy by looking at these connected aspects. A levy on unhealthy foods and drinks might deter people from consuming them and encourage better options (Bawack and Ahmad, 2021). Long-term, this may result in better health outcomes, lower healthcare expenditures, and more productivity. From a macroeconomic standpoint, a healthier population may contribute to higher labor force participation, more rapid accumulation of human capital, and steady economic growth. The 'fat tax'' tax proceeds can also be used to fund public health programmes, which would increase their potential economic advantages. To assess the tax's efficacy and any potential unintended repercussions, it is crucial to analyse the precise design and execution of the measure.

Show consumer and producer surplus and taxes impact consumer and producer welfare

The advantages obtained by both consumers and manufacturers in a marketplace transaction are measured using the economic concepts of surplus to consumers and surplus to producers.

  • Consumer Surplus: A consumer's excess is the distinction between the price they would be willing to pay and the price they actually pay for a good or service. It stands for the added value that customers get from an item or service in addition to the price they pay for it. When a market price is less than the highest price a customer is prepared to pay, there is a consumer surplus. It may be represented as the region above the market price and below the demand curve.
  • Producer Surplus: The difference among the asking price a producer is ready to accept for a good or service & the amount they actually receive is known as the producer surplus. It stands for the excess value that manufacturers realize from the sale of a products or service in addition to their manufacturing costs (Bocken, al. 2019). If the marketplace price is more than the lowest price that producers are ready to sell, there is a producer surplus. It can be visualize as the area above the supply curve and under the market price.

Notes: The entire financial surplus in a marketplace, which is an indicator of the whole advantage brought about by the transaction, is comprised of both consumer surplus as well as producer surplus. Market factors including supply, demand, and pricing have an impact on how surplus is divided between consumers and producers.


  1. A consumer's surplus for instance, would be $20 if a buyer was prepared to spend $50 for the item but could buy it for $30 (Adachi and Fabinger, 2022). This suggests that by paying less compared to their utmost willingness to pay, the customer has received an additional $20 in value.
  2. The producer surplus, for instance, would be $20 if a manufacturer was ready to offer an item for $40 but could sell it for $60. This indicates that the producer has received an additional $20 in value since they were paid more than they would have been prepared to accept (Javaid, al. 2022).

The Deadweight loss (DWL)

  • For efficient Resource Allocation, DWL analysis aids economists in spotting when a market's allocation of resources is inefficient.
  • To better allocate resources for economic growth and rising living standards, policymakers need to have a firm grasp on DWL.
  • Distortions and Externalities in the Market DWL analysis can be used to determine the extent to which taxes, subsidies, price restrictions and regulations are distorting the market.
  • Economists can evaluate the economic impact of DWL and recommend corrective actions by quantifying the extent of DWL.
  • Externalities, such as pollution or congestion, are considered in DWL analysis since they have an effect on market outcomes and can be reduced by policy changes.
  • To solve market failures or achieve societal goals, governments frequently enact policies and regulations, which then must be evaluated.
  • By analyzing the effects on welfare and possible losses, DWL analysis provides a framework for judging the efficacy of such measures.
  • DWL analysis provides policymakers with a tool for evaluating policy alternatives and making more informed decisions.
  • Examining how taxation affects economic well-being lends itself particularly well to DWL analysis.
  • The deadweight loss of taxation provides a metric for economists to use in assessing the effectiveness and fairness of various taxation models.
  • Policymakers can use the results of this research to influence the creation of tax systems that reduce DWL while still bringing in the required funds.
  • Opportunities in the Workforce having a firm grasp on DWL and economic analysis is an excellent springboard into many fields within the economics discipline.
  • Many public policy, consulting and academic economists use DWL analysis to guide their work.
  • Gaining expertise in DWL analysis might improve employment opportunities in sectors like as government, think tanks, universities, and non-profits.

Note: Deadweight Loss (DWL) means a tax's inefficiency and reduction in general welfare in a market are referred to as "deadweight loss." The decline in overall economic surplus on consumer surplus as well as production surplus represents this. Taxes induce an incorrect allocation of resources and market incentives, which results in deadweight loss.

Taxes impact on each party

  • The effect on consumer welfare relies on how responsive demand is to price changes. Price increases will significantly lower consumer welfare if demand is somewhat elastic (sensitive to price fluctuations) (Bulturbayevich, 2022).
  • In contrast, the decline in consumer welfare would be less significant if demand is more rigid (insensitive to price fluctuations). Furthermore, the tax burden can be partially carried on to the customer, raising the cost and lowering consumer welfare.
  • The elasticity of prices of demand and supply determines how much of the burden is transferred to consumers.
  • The effect on producer satisfaction depends on the supply's price elasticity, just like it does for consumer welfare.
  • Manufacturers will find it simpler to change their output levels and maybe shift a lower amount of taxation to consumers if the supply is reasonably elastic.
  • Contrarily, producers will have more difficulty altering their output levels if supply is more inelastic, and paying taxes would have a higher negative impact on their well-being.

Notes: Due to the increased price brought on by the tax, some prospective buyers and sellers that were prepared to trade at the before taxes price of equilibrium no longer found it advantageous. A loss in total welfare results from the absence of interactions that would have proved mutually beneficial in the absence of the tax (Dong and Wang, 2021). The size of the deadweight loss depends on the price elasticity’s of demand and supply. The further elastic both demand and supply are, the superior the deadweight loss, as there is a greater potential for forgone mutually beneficial transactions.

Taxes lessen both customer and producer welfare in a market due to the increase in prices and the distortion of incentives. Deadweight loss represent the inadequacy and loss of welfare caused by taxes, highlighting the significance of cautiously considering the trade-offs and unintentional consequences of tax policies.

The macro economy by showing how taxes generally impact aggregate demand and aggregate supply (AD-AS)

Taxes have an important impact on the macro economy by influence both aggregate demand (AD) and aggregate supply (AS). To explore how taxes affect these macroeconomic variables and their implication for the overall economy following criteria should be followed:

  1. Aggregate Demand (AD): The entire quantity of goods and services required in an economy at a specific price level is referred to as aggregate demand (AD) (Lahtinen and Rhodin, 2021). Taxes can affect total demand in a number of ways:
  2. Disposable income, or the money left over for household consumption after taxes, is decreased by taxation. Tax increases reduce the amount of money available to families for consumption, which lowers consumer expenditure. Since consumer expenditures make up a sizable portion of aggregate demand, this decrease in spending directly impacts AD.
  3. Investment, another element of aggregate demand, can be impacted by taxes as well (Hines Jr, 2020). Higher corporation or capital gains taxes lower the after-tax return on investments, which deters both firms and individuals from making investments.
  4. Taxation and Government Spending: The government can fund public spending by collecting taxes. Government expenditure, which is a part of aggregate demand, has an impact on AD. Taxes allow the government to fund its spending plans, which, according on how the administration distributes the tax collected, can either increase or decrease aggregate demand.
  5. Aggregate Supply (AS): The entire production of goods and services generated in an economy at various price levels is represented by aggregate supply (Abbink, et. al. 2022). Taxes have a variety of effects on the overall supply:
  6. Manufacturing expenses: Taxes can push up a company's manufacturing expenses. Taxes on inputs like labor or raw materials, for instance, might increase the cost of manufacturing. Higher expenses make businesses less profitable, which lowers overall supply. Taxes on corporate earnings can also reduce the incentives for businesses to invest in R&D or enlarge their operations, so reducing the ability for aggregate supply to rise.
  7. Labor supply and work Incentives: Taxes have an effect on the labor market's supply. Increased taxes on earnings and salaries lower workers' take-home money, which may lessen their motivation to work or look for other jobs (Naidu and Naicker, 2020). This may result in a decline in the labor pool, which would be bad for the overall supply.
  8. Tax incentives for initiative and innovation: These two factors, which are essential for sustained economic expansion and aggregate supply, can be influenced by taxes. Higher taxes on wealth or capital gains may lessen the incentives for innovation and entrepreneurship, which might slow down the economy's growth and restrict the expansion of the total supply.

Key consideration of taxes 

The combined result of taxes on both aggregate demand and aggregate supply determine their overall impact on the macro economy. Some key consideration:

  1. Short-term effects: In the short run, change in taxes can have important effects on aggregate demand.
  2. Long-term effects: In the long run, the impact of taxes on aggregate supply becomes more well-known (Pieroni, 2023). Higher taxes on manufacture inputs and profits can delay businesses' ability to expand and invest, potentially limiting the growth of aggregate supply.
  3. Deadweight Loss: The obligation of taxes can also lead to deadweight loss in the macro economy. As mention earlier, deadweight loss represents the loss of economic competence and wellbeing due to market distortions caused by taxes.

Notes: If taxes are condensed, households and businesses have more disposable income, leading to enlarged consumption and investment, thus boosting aggregate demand. On the other hand, if taxes are increased, consumer spending and investment can refuse, leading to a reduction in aggregate demand. Tax policies that incentivize investment, entrepreneurship, and innovation can improve long-term aggregate supply by fostering efficiency and economic development (Nath, 2020). When taxes decrease incentives for work, investment, or production, they can generate inefficiencies, resultant in deadweight loss and a suboptimal allotment of resources.

Characteristics of the tax system

It is significant to note that the overall impact of taxes on aggregate demand and aggregate supply depends on the exact characteristics of the tax system, including the structure, tax rates, and how tax income is utilized.

  1. Tax rates and structure: The extent of tax rates plays a crucial role in influential their impact on the macro economy. Higher tax rates be inclined to have a larger negative effect on aggregate demand and aggregate supply, as they decrease disposable income and add to production costs to a greater degree. Furthermore, the structure of the tax system matters (Makin and Layton, 2021). Diverse types of taxes, such as consumption taxes, income taxes, or property taxes, can have unstable effects on diverse economic agents; potentially influence their behavior and affecting aggregate demand and aggregate supply in a different way.
  2. Use of tax revenue: The consumption of tax revenue by the government can also outline the impact of taxes on the macro economy. If tax revenue is use for productive public expenditures, such as investments in infrastructure, or research and development, education, it can kindle aggregate demand and improve long-term aggregate supply. On the other hand, if tax revenue is inadequately owed or used for unproductive spending, the general impact on the macro economy may be partial.
  3. Economic conditions and policy objectives: The impact of taxes on the macro economy can also be prejudiced by the prevailing economic conditions and policy objectives (McKay and Wolf, 2023). In times of recession or economic recession, tax cuts may be implementing to rouse cumulative demand and increase economic activity. On the contrary, during periods of inflation, tax hikes may be working to cool down the economy and control inflationary pressures. This includes promoting income equality, environmental sustainability, or fiscal consolidation, can also form tax policies and their impact on the macro economy.

Notes: taxes have major implications for both aggregate demand and aggregate supply in the macro economy. Changes in taxes can control consumer spending, investment, labor supply, production costs, and incentives for entrepreneurship and innovation. The largely impact of taxes on the macro economy depends on a range of factors, including structure, tax rates, utilization of tax revenue, and the prevailing economic conditions (Lanchimba, et. al. 2020). Careful design and implementation of tax policies are necessary to strike a balance between generating essential revenue for public purposes and minimize potential adverse effects on customer and producer welfare, and also on overall economic competence and growth.

Reflect on whether a tax that improves people’s health could have any potential long-term benefits for the economy?

  1. Aggregate Demand (AD):
  2. Lower Healthcare Expenditures:
  • Over time, improved population health may result in lower healthcare costs.
  • There is a decline in the incidence of chronic illnesses and the requirement for medical interventions when people adopt healthier behaviors and achieve better health outcomes.
  • As a consequence, healthcare expenses for people, businesses, and the government are reduced.
  • The resources saved can be redistributed to other parts of aggregate demand, like higher consumption or investment.
  1. Increased Disposable Income:
  • Improved health can lead to higher productivity and lower absenteeism in the workplace, which can enhance disposable income (Skott, 2020).
  • Healthy people are inclined to participate in the labour market more frequently and miss fewer days of work owing to illness.
  • They are able to earn larger salaries as a consequence, which increases their discretionary money.
  1. Long-term Economic Growth:
  • Population health improvements may contribute to long-term economic growth.
  • A more productive population that is healthier can lead to more labour force participation, greater human capital buildup, and reduced healthcare expenses.
  • These elements raise the economy's potential production, which promotes steady economic expansion.
  • Improved medical results can also draw investments since companies’ value having employees who are healthy and access to quality healthcare, which furthers economic growth (Henley, 2021).
  1. Aggregate Supply (AS):
  2. Higher labor productivity:
  • Better health promotes higher labor productivity.
  • People who are healthy often have more energy, better cognitive abilities, and lower rates of impairment.
  • These elements increase productivity per worker, which has a favorable effect on total supply.
  • Increased economic production from better labor productivity has the potential to raise real GDP levels.
  1. Lower healthcare expenditures:
  • Both people and companies may experience lower healthcare expenditures as a result of a tax policy targeted at promoting health (Svetalekth and Phonsumlissakul, 2022).
  • The prevalence of chronic illnesses and the necessity for expensive medical interventions decline as people adopt better behaviors.
  • This lessens the financial load on organizations, enabling them to devote resources to more fruitful pursuits like capital, technological, or R&D initiatives.
  • The ability of businesses to compete is increased by lower manufacturing costs, which also help to boost overall supply.
  1. Improved innovation and entrepreneurship:
  • Enhanced creativity and entrepreneurial spirit can be sparked by better health outcomes.
  • Healthy people are more prone to take chances, engage in profitable endeavors, actively participate in the workforce, and explore their own business initiatives.
  • A population that is healthier can promote an atmosphere that is conducive to technological development, the emergence of new businesses, and economic dynamism.
  • Through the creation and use of new technology, goods, and services, this can result in an increase in the overall supply (Vasilyeva, al. 2019).

Note: There is a potential long-term benefit for the economy from a tax that improves people's health.

Potential long-term benefits for the economy

  • A tax plan that boosts people's health can have a significant positive impact on the economy over time.
  • By lowering healthcare costs, raising disposable income and promoting long-term economic growth, it can increase aggregate demand.
  • Additionally, it can have a beneficial effect on aggregate supply through increased labour productivity, decreased healthcare costs, and the encouragement of entrepreneurship and innovation (González Aguirre and Del Villar, 2022).

Notes: It is important to remember that the scope and length of these advantages are influenced by a number of variables, including the success of the tax policy, the degree of public knowledge and participation in health-promoting behaviors, and the larger socioeconomic environment. The potential long-term advantages for both health outcomes and the economy can be maximized by implementing a comprehensive strategy that combines tax incentives with public health programmes and tailored treatments.

The empirical econometric model to assess the health and economic growth consequences of a ‘fat tax’

A particular kind of tax called a "fat tax" is intended to deter people from consuming unhealthily high-calorie meals and drinks.

  1. Data collection: Information on multiple factors relating to health outcomes, financial indicators, and taxation is needed in order to undertake an empirical study. This contains details on population health indicators including death rates, the frequency of illnesses linked to food, and obesity rates. Additionally, information on economic factors including GDP expansion, consumer trends, and tax receipts must be gathered (Naoui and Kasraoui, 2020). Government surveys, health data bases, statistical agencies, and research projects are some of the places where these data may be found.
  2. Econometric Model: The next step is to define an econometric model that accounts for the connection among the 'fat tax,' health effects, and economic development. Other pertinent variables that might affect the results of this model, such demographic traits, socioeconomic variables, and policy actions, should be taken into account. An strategy that is frequently used to account for person and time-specific effects is panel data analysis, which mixes cross-sectional and time-series data.
  3. Selecting the Right Variables: The Model Should Contain Important Variables Like the 'Fat Tax' Rate, Health Indications (Example: Obesity Rates), and Economic Indications (Example: GDP Growth). To account for their possible impact on health and economic growth outcomes, additional factors, such as per capita income, levels of education, healthcare spending, and demographic characteristics, might be added as control variables (Braga, al. 2020). It's crucial to choose variables that accurately reflect the fundamental processes and relevant connections.
  4. Estimation and Analysis: Once the model is defined and the variables are chosen, estimation of the relationships may be done using econometric approaches such fixed effects models or ordinary least squares (OLS). The estimation's coefficients can shed light on how the 'fat tax' affects both health results and economic growth. The dependability of the results can be increased by robustness testing, such as sensitivity analyses or alternate model specifications.
  5. Consequences for health: The econometric model may assess how the 'fat tax' affects health outcomes. The model can shed light on the efficacy of the tax in lowering these health issues by examining the link between the "fat tax" rate and obesity rates or the incidence of diet-related disorders. It can estimate the size of the effect and establish if the 'fat tax' contributed to better health outcomes as a result of decreased obesity rates, decreased occurrence of associated illnesses, or increased population health in general.
  6. Economic Growth Effects: The econometric model may also look at how the "fat tax" would affect economic growth. The model can offer insight on the economic impacts of the tax by examining the link between the "fat tax" rate and economic indices like GDP growth, spending habits, or tax collections (Dzigbede and Pathak, 2020). It can determine if the 'fat tax' has affected consumer behaviour, shifted purchasing patterns towards healthier options, or altered economic activity in associated industries. The tax's effect on tax receipts and any prospective fiscal repercussions may also be examined using the model.
  7. Policy Evaluation: The econometric model's findings can help policymakers understand if the 'fat tax' is accomplishing its stated goals for economic growth and public health. Policymakers might use the findings to advocate the continuance or growth of the tax if they show beneficial outcomes. If the findings point to limited or unfavorable consequences, policymakers might want to rethink the 'fat tax’s design or execution or think of other ways to deal with public health issues and promote economic growth.

Notes: Evaluating the effects of a "fat tax" on health and economic growth by using an empirical econometric model, organization may learn more about the effects of the tax by gathering pertinent data, defining an econometric model, choosing suitable variables, estimating the correlations, and evaluating the outcomes.

'fat tax' rate and health indicators

  • The association between the 'fat tax' rate and health indicators like obesity rates, the prevalence of diet-related illnesses, or death rates is examined using the econometric model to aid in assessing the health effects.
  • The tax's impacts may be quantified by the model, which can also show if the tax has improved population health (Malliet, al. 2020).
  • For instance, it can determine if higher 'fat tax' rates are linked to lower obesity rates or a decline in the incidence of illnesses caused by food.

Examine how this model effect economic development

  • The model also enables to examine how the "fat tax" will affect economic development.
  • This may comprehend the economic repercussions by looking into the link among the tax rate with economic indicators such GDP growth, consumption trends, or tax collections.
  • The model can shed light on shifting consumer preferences, adjustments in consumption towards healthier options, and potential effects on associated sector economic activity.
  • The impact of the tax on tax receipts and its financial ramifications may also be assessed.

Policymakers’ point of view

  • Policymakers can decide on the "fat tax" in an educated manner in light of the findings.
  • The maintenance or growth of the tax can be supported by favorable outcomes pointing towards better health outcomes and favourable economic benefits.
  • It could be an indication that the tax was successful in changing consumer habits, lowering the consumption of harmful foods, and improving both health and economic development.
  • Policymakers may also think about funding public health programmes or promoting healthier food alternatives with the tax income (Kurowski, al. 2021).
  • The "fat tax’s concept or execution may need to be reevaluated by policymakers if the findings point to limited or unfavorable consequences.
  • To increase the efficacy of the tax in reaching health and economic goals, they might look into different policy interventions or changes.
  • It is crucial to take into account variables including as unintended repercussions, fairness issues, and the overall context surrounding the tax policy.

Notes: Using a real-world econometric model enables a rigorous assessment of the effects of a "fat tax" on health and economic growth. It gives decision-makers access to evidence-based insights that can help them reconcile the interests of advancing public health and fostering economic development.


  • The presentation is concluded with giving emphasis on taxes that have a significant impact on consumer and producer welfare, and also macroeconomic variables such as aggregate demand and supply.
  • When taxes are forced, consumer welfare is condensed through decreased purchasing power, while producer wellbeing is affected by reduced profits.
  • In addition, taxes can make deadweight loss, indicating an incompetent allocation of resources. At the macroeconomic level, taxes power aggregate demand and supply, affecting consumption and investment decisions.
  • As a result, understanding the effects of taxes is vital for policymakers and businesses operating in the dynamic business environment.
  • In addition, a tax aimed at improving public health, such as a 'fat tax,' has the potential for long-term profit for the economy.
  • By dispiriting the consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages, the tax can add to improved health outcomes, abridged healthcare costs, and increased productivity.
  • This can improve the overall well-being of the populace and add to sustained economic development.

Notes: To review the health and economic expansion consequences of a 'fat tax,' empirical econometric models offer a valuable tool. These models permit for a quantitative analysis of the relationships between the health outcomes, tax rate, and economic indicators. By utilize relevant data; policymakers can add evidence-based insights into the impact of the tax on prevalence of diet-related diseases, obesity rates, GDP growth, consumption patterns, and tax revenues. This empirical analysis enables informed decision-making, guiding policymakers towards efficient policy interventions.


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