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Introduction - Risk Factors for Sun Exposure
UV light is a major risk factor that affects an individual's chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Through run rays, skin cancer is caused and thus. The risk of sun exposure to Australian farmers is more as compared to other populations. This is because of various factors. Australia has hotter and longer heat waves thus increasing the risk of skin cancer. Further, main work of farmers is carried out in the day between 12-4 pm and thus sun rays affect them the most. (Jeffery, C. A and et. al., 2014). Though use of sunscreen cream has been found to be an effective intervention for reducing the risk of skin cancer caused due to exposure to sun. But, it can be critically evaluated that farmers are not likely to use sun screen cream. Moreover, there is also low level of re-application of sunscreen. This is because considering the daily schedule of farmers, applying sun screen creams and re-applying them after every two hours is not feasible. This indicates the lack of adoption of protective behaviour by the farming population.
Another risk factor is that there are certain characteristics of farms which make it difficult for the farmers to adopt protective practices. As workplaces, farms are independent, small and geographically spread. Hence, there is difficulty in implementing workplace policies that could reduce the exposure of farmers to sun. Moreover, it also become unfeasible to target a health campaign to farms.
Here, nurses play a significant role in delivering health care services to people in rural and remote areas of Australia so that farmers can be protected from prevailing health issue i.e. skin problems. Health promotion needs to be targeted to Australian farmers living in rural and remote areas so that they can understand the ill effects of sun exposure and skin protection that impacts the health of farmers (Hegney, 2012). Proper health campaign needs to be launched so that information regarding adoption of healthy behaviours could be provided to people in regard to assessing the risk factors for sun exposure within Australian farmer population and its impact on health outcomes. Considering the impact of sun exposure, emphasis should be laid on educating the farmers working in remote and rural areas of Australia so that their health needs could be fulfilled. (Abdoli and Abdoli, 2015).
Sun damage among farmers is due to prolonged exposure to solar radiation and is considered as serious problem for farmers. Various risk factors hampering farmers due to sun damage includes long time duration to the exposure of its rays, clothes are wore less or the white skin which is burn easily. However, agricultural work also increases the risk of cancer mainly due to exposure of sunlight (Chuenkongkaew, and et. al., 2016). Thus, rural and remote nurses and doctors are required to focus upon such health issue that helps in overcoming the risk in regard to deliver best care and support services to farmers.
Books and Journals
Abdoli, S., & Abdoli, S. (2015). Quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes living in rural and remote areas, Iran. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, 35(2), 290-297,
Boehm, J., Franklin, R. C., & King, J. C. (2014). Falls in rural and remote community dwelling older adults: a review of the literature. Australian journal of rural health, 22(4), 146-155,
Chuenkongkaew, W. L. & et. al., (2016). Attitude towards working in rural area and self-assessment of competencies in last year medical students: A survey of five countries in Asia. BMC Medical Education, 16(1), 238.
Hegney, D. (2012). Rural and remote area nursing: An Australian perspective. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 3(1), 5-7,
Jeffery, C. A. & et. al., (2014). The value of best-practice guidelines for OSCEs in a postgraduate program in an Australian remote area setting. Rural and remote health, 14(3), 2469-1,
Sato, M. & et. al., (2015). Committed to working for the community: Experiences of a public health nurse in a remote area during the Great East Japan Earthquake. Health care for women international, 36(11), 1224-1238,
Smit-Kronor & Brumby (2015). Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaignsL AN Australian perspective. Preventative Medicine Reports, 2, 602-607,