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Introduction - Hypertension
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Rationale of topic
Context of Hypertension
Need of Intervention
Hypertension is a disease that mainly happens due to high pressure in the human body. It is a common condition that happens mainly when the blood pressure increases significantly due to many factors such as overthinking, by consuming high caloric food and so on. In this condition the artery walls in the body face a significant amount of pressure.
Hypertension is not only a common disease of high blood pressure but it also includes many important risk factors such as coronary heart disease, strokes, kidney failure and so on.
Due to the current guidelines the target blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg for the people who are suffering from this disease.
To understand the topic and its various scopes to damage the body is the main intervention of this topic.
Definition of Hypertension
Related terms of hypertension
High blood pressure or hypertension is the common condition of the body that happens due to excess blood pressure on the artery walls. The pressure is high enough to cause many health problems such as sleeping problems, mental disorders, and shortness of breath and so on. The systolic blood pressure of the body remains between 120 mmHg and 129 mmHg. Malignant hypertension is a condition that causes damage to the organs of the body (Burnier, and Egan, 2019). This is the most severe type of hypertension that mainly elevates the blood pressure above 180 mmHg.
Facts and Figures
Results of Hypertension
Hypertension is the main cause of many cardiovascular diseases that causes premature death all around the world. Due to the spread of antihypertensive medications all around the world, the mean blood pressure level all around the world has decreased slightly in the past few decades. The prevalence of this disease has increased especially in the low income countries and middle income countries. As per the research, in the year of 2010, 31.1 % adults of the total population in the world had hypertension (Grillo et al. 2019). The prevalence of this disease in adults was lower in the high income countries than the adults of the low income countries.
Relation with cardiovascular system
Effects of hypertension on the heart
Hypertension may have severe effects on the heart and it may cause several heart diseases that may have different symptoms. Hypertension can cause narrowing of the arteries, thickening of the cardiovascular muscles and so on. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition when blood flow in the arteries gets slow or stops (Rodriguez-Iturbe et al. 2017). It makes it difficult for the heart to work properly. High blood pressure can increase the thickness of the heart muscles that affect the proper functioning of the heart. It reduces the pumping of blood in the main chamber of heart, left ventricle. This condition is known as left ventricular hypertrophy. Both CHD and LVH can cause heart failure, heart attacks, and strokes and so on.
The symptoms include chest pain, fatigue, persistent cough, leg swelling, and shortness of breath and so on.
Definition of pathophysiology
Pathogenesis of Hypertension
Pathophysiology is basically the process in which the organs do not work well. It includes all the ways by which the organs do not function properly.
The pathophysiology of hypertension is highly complex and it consists of multiple factors. Kidney is the main targeted area in hypertension. Hypertension mainly targets the kidney and its surroundings and it makes it difficult for the kidney to work properly (Lippi et al. 2020). Factors that play an important role in the functioning of the kidney are genetics, activation of the neurohormonal systems such as nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and so on. It also increases the dietary intake of salts.
Inequalities in health due to hypertension disease.
Health problems due to Hypertension
High blood pressure is one of the major health problems worldwide that affects public health and every year many people die a premature death due to high blood pressure. It kills nearly 8 million people every year (Humbert et al. 2019). The problem is also growing in a rapid manner. It can cause many complications such as heart attacks or strokes, heart failure, syndrome of the metabolic system, dementia, and memory problems and so on. The blood pressure in the artery walls also increases rapidly that causes this type of complications in the body.
Definition of health and health promotion
Definition of health
Definition of health promotions
According to the World health Organization, health is a state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing due to the absence of a disease. According to them, being healthy is a state in which the person lives without having any disease. Good health comes along with different factors that increase the quality of health. Living freely is one of the major factors that would not bring any disease to the human body.
Health promotion is a complete process by which people can increase their control over things so that they can fight in tough situations and also it includes improving the health of the public (Schiffrin et al. 2020). This can be achieved by creating health related guidelines, creating supportive environments, taking community actions, creating awareness against hypertension, increasing personal development skills and so on.
Effectiveness of health promotion
Positive sides of increasing health promotion
Aspects of health promotion
According to the research and case studies, it has been proven that increasing health promotions can be really effective for health. It can bring changes in personal development of a person, it can change the lifestyle of a person that will have an impact on social development. It will also increase the conditions of the environment and will determine health conditions (Umemura et al. 2019). It improves the status of health of the individuals, families, communities, states and the country. Health promotion improves the life of people of different age groups. It reduces the number of premature deaths every year.
Nursing Associate responsibilities
Responsibilities of the nursing associates
Nursing associates in hypertension
Nursing associates basically work for people of all ages in order to set an environment that is suitable for healthcare and social care. This role mainly contributes to the main work of nursing that frees the registered nurses so that they can take part in more complex cases of clinical care. It’s a role in which the unregistered nurses can go to the graduate level nursing. There is a basic difference between a nurse and a nursing associate (Galiè et al. 2019). Nurses can contribute their work to handle complex cases of healthcare but nursing associates do not handle the complex cases.
Nowadays, the nurses and nurse practitioners take the major role of taking care of the patients. It includes all the aspects of hypertension that starts from detecting the problem and ends with following up with the diagnostics and medication management of hypertension. Also they can be a part of skill building and education.
Role of Nursing Associate
Various jobs of a nursing associates
Difference of nurse and a nursing associate
Nursing associates contribute to most of the aspects of healthcare technologies. They basically associate the nurses in the most complex cases like hypertension. Their job includes monitoring and delivering. They set up social care and health. Nursing associates contribute to the core of nursing. Nowadays, nursing associates have many roles like delivering and monitoring, clinical management, and so on (Simonneau et al. 2019). The role of nursing associates can be really hard and it is not for the faint hearted. The nursing associate programmes are really demanding in terms of their duty.
Overview of the content
Utilization of the topic
Hypertension is a most common disease that can cause neurological disorders like memory problems, severe head pain and so on. Also it degrades the physical health of people. It increases the hair fall and puts down the weight of people. In severe cases hypertension can cause major heart problems resulting in heart attacks or strokes. It also damages the kidneys. In extreme conditions people may die due to having a severe heart attack (Frost et al. 2019). It affects the families, states and the nation.
The main reason for choosing this topic for the research is hypertension has become a real problem for the world as every year nearly 8 million people die due to having a severe heart attack. Research has proven that most of the patients who died due to heart attacks had hypertension.
Aspects to study about hypertension
Importance of the topic
Hypertension has been the most severe disease for the low and medium income countries. Due to the shortage of jobs, shortage of money and for other reasons. As per the study it has been proven that shortage of money and exam pressure has been the main reason to have hypertension in the adults. In the low income countries and in the medium income countries money is the main problem for the people and it has caused many deaths so far.
It is highly recommended that the government should take care of this major problem. The government should create guidelines for the people. Also the communities have to be engaged with the surveys so that the government understands the situation.
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Frost, A., Badesch, D., Gibbs, J.S.R., Gopalan, D., Khanna, D., Manes, A., Oudiz, R., Satoh, T., Torres, F. and Torbicki, A., 2019. Diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. European Respiratory Journal, 53(1).
Galiè, N., McLaughlin, V.V., Rubin, L.J. and Simonneau, G., 2019. An overview of the 6th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension. European Respiratory Journal, 53(1).
Grillo, A., Salvi, L., Coruzzi, P., Salvi, P. and Parati, G., 2019. Sodium intake and hypertension. Nutrients, 11(9), p.1970.
Humbert, M., Guignabert, C., Bonnet, S., Dorfmüller, P., Klinger, J.R., Nicolls, M.R., Olschewski, A.J., Pullamsetti, S.S., Schermuly, R.T., Stenmark, K.R. and Rabinovitch, M., 2019. Pathology and pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension: state of the art and research perspectives. European Respiratory Journal, 53(1).
Lippi, G., Wong, J. and Henry, B.M., 2020. Hypertension and its severity or mortality in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pooled analysis. Pol Arch Intern Med, 130(4), pp.304-309.
Rodriguez-Iturbe, B., Pons, H. and Johnson, R.J., 2017. Role of the immune system in hypertension. Physiological reviews, 97(3), pp.1127-1164.
Schiffrin, E.L., Flack, J.M., Ito, S., Muntner, P. and Webb, R.C., 2020. Hypertension and COVID-19.
Simonneau, G., Montani, D., Celermajer, D.S., Denton, C.P., Gatzoulis, M.A., Krowka, M., Williams, P.G. and Souza, R., 2019. Haemodynamic definitions and updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. European Respiratory Journal, 53(1).
Umemura, S., Arima, H., Arima, S., Asayama, K., Dohi, Y., Hirooka, Y., Horio, T., Hoshide, S., Ikeda, S., Ishimitsu, T. and Ito, M., 2019. The Japanese Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension (JSH 2019). Hypertension Research, 42(9), pp.1235-1481.