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Evaluation Of Practice

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Task 1

Dental hygiene is a specific practice of clinical setup which comprises "Assessment", "Dental Hygiene Diagnosis", "Planning", and "Implementation and evaluation" phases. The different phases have each different component for the overall treatment of any individual. The "Assessment Phase" is the particular phase where the overall data has been collected (Patelet al.2021). Regular basis of dental hygiene or oral practice should be done by using daily brushing and keeping the bacteria under control. However, if there is no proper dental hygiene, the bacteria could reach a level of certain infections causing decay of teeth and several gum diseases (Boydet al.2020). Maintaining good oral hygiene is very necessary for maintaining the overall physical and emotional well stay of an individual for his entire life.

Although Dental care is one of the major clinical practices in any individual's life, people, nurses, and dentists have different opinions which may vary from each other. A survey was done to see their responses of them, and it was found that, out of all the participating dentists, "86%", of them had done dental care for the residents of the nursing home, but the majority of the dental care was found to be completed in the offices of the dentists (Chanthavisouket al.2023). It was found that the "Three-Quarters" of dentists were not interested in the nursing method of home dentistry.

Task 2

  1. a) The PICO question has been formed in the research that can extract the specific question regarding the topic of interest. In that situation the topic has been highlighted with the inclusion of dental hygiene and the targeted population is the adolescents that often forget to take care of their dental hygiene.

PICO Question: Will chlorhexidine wash using daily help in better dental hygiene practices of adolescents?

Population (P)

Intervention (I)

Control (C)


Adolescents that have bad dental conditions

Using the chlorhexidine wash daily

The population that has decent dental conditions

Removing dental cavities, and discarding bad odour

Table 1: PICO framework

(Source: Self-Evaluated)

  1. b) During the search for the topic the “Boolean operators” have been incorporated in the study that has the operations such as “AND”, “OR”, “NOT”, “FOR”, “WITH”, and “AND NOT”. With the help of the “Boolean operators”, the narrowing down of the search can be done which can provide direction to the research (Espitia et al. 2019). In that situation, the exact topic and headings can be extracted from the database.

The database that has been included in the risk is “Google Scholar”, “ProQuest”, “PubMed” and the “National Institute of Health” (NIH). The keywords have also been incorporated in the study that highlights the topic that has been important in the research. In this case, the keywords have been “dental hygiene”, “Chlorhexidine”, “adolescents”, “dental cavities” and “bad odour”.


Boolean Operators

Search keywords


Google Scholar


Dental cavities of the adolescents AND effect of Chlorhexidine NOT older adults




Adolescents AND younger population WITH dental cavities AND bad odour




Chlorhexidine FOR dental hygiene care AND adolescents


National Institute of Health


Dental Hygiene, WITH removal of cavities FOR adolescents


Table 2: Inclusion of the Boolean operators and the keywords in the research

(Source: Self-Evaluated)

Based on the levels of evidence the different levels can be incorporated in the study that can help in searching for the topic of research from the database and Level I in the situation is the evidence from the systematic review of the relevant randomised control trial. On the other hand, Level II is the evidence from the metal analysis from the RCTs (Guides.library.stonybrook, 2021). In addition to that Level III is the evidence of the summaries that can be extracted from the systematic reviews. Furthermore, Level IV includes the guy dances from the systematic reviews while Level V includes the metal synthesis of the descriptive qualitative studies. Level VI extracts the evidence summaries from the individual studies and Level VII includes the properly designed RCT.

  1. c)




Search strategy


Zhou et al. 2019

“Efficacy of caries and gingivitis prevention strategies among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta?analysis.”

Randomised and non-randomised controlled

Trials have been taken.

The PICO framework has been included in the research and 1455 articles have been included and metal analysis has been done

The efficacy of chlorhexidine is not subtle in the case of dental cavities, yet the bad odour can be removed with additional freshness in the mouth

Vadhana et al. 2019

“Effect of sesame oil, ozonated sesame oil, and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the oral health status of adolescents: A randomised controlled pilot trial”

Randomised control trial has been included in the research

75 adolescents aged between 12-14 years have been included in the research where the three groups were chosen and n=25 and group I had sesame oil and group II had ozonated sesame oil and group III had Chlorhexidine. SPSS has been done in the process.

The oil-pulling method with the sesame oil has been significant where chlorhexidine has merely any cavity protection capacity.

Al-Abdullah et al. 2022

“The effect of aloe vera and chlorhexidine as disinfectants on the success of selective caries removal technique: A randomised controlled trial.”

The randomised control trial has been included in the research.

A total of 60 participants have been included in the research. n=20 were the experiments and n=40 is the control group.

It has been seen that Cholroghexidien has a definite effect on the oral health of adolescents.

Table 3: The selected articles from the database and the selected methods in the research

(Source: Self-Evaluated)

  1. d) The research process has included the Boolean operators while searching from the database and the keywords were taken into consideration. In that situation, the journals have been collected from the database that has the topic-specific notion. 3 different journals have been chosen and the methods have been scrutinised in the research which gave rise to the concept of the outcome in those results (Guides.library.stonybrook, 2021). According to the level of evidence, the first journal fits to the criterion of level III while rest two journals in Level II.

Task 3

Certainly, there are several levels for evidence-based dentistry ly- a)Guidelines based on clinical practice b) Systematic Reviews by using Meta-Analyses procedures c) Studies based on randomized Control d) Cohort Studies e) Studies based on Case-control. The recommendation which is A-level has been based on a consistent and patient that has good quality evidence. A recommendation that is B-level based or has been inconsistent has certain evidence which is patient-oriented based. The C-level recommendation is based on "consensus", and normal practice, further opinions and evidence that are disease-oriented are used for the case studies and the studies needed for the dental practice.

An activity such as “evidence-based dentistry” has been found to increase in this century, and more practitioners and team members are joining in this field. "(EBD)" which is further endorsed by the profession of dentists, would include the community of research which would certainly help in influencing the extent of the values of the society for dental research. The evidence-based practice mainly chooses the gap between the research of the clinical world and also the practices of dental hygiene, which helps the dentist by providing powerful tools for interpreting the findings of the research work (de Leonet al.2020). In the field of dentistry, the movement for evidence-based practice has been in the early stage of development. Although the change in the dentists is not understandable, the clinical practices would be achieved very less (Rederieneet al.2020). Thus it could be said that it is very difficult and crucial for implementing the evidence which is research-based into clinical practices. By doing this, the EBD could be said to be practical and very professionally relevant to dentists and their practices.

There are certain steps for the clinical practices of mental care which include- - Conversion of the information which is clinically based, and the need for them to be answered. The use of databases that are electronically available for finding the available evidence. Appraising the evidence is critically available and is important and valid. Also, the evaluation is done based on the performance of their own (Artimet al.2020). Although certain resources are considerable are spent based on clinical research and its evidence. EBP is a concept with which every dentist is not familiar (DeBiase et al. 2020). Also, the increase in the pressure of the consumers and their presence in the economy could help to bring the change which are political and which demands certain necessary changes that principles are evidence-based and could be implemented.

The best evidence-based practice could be accessed by the practitioners and the database is bibliographical available like "MEDLINE" whether online or Internet which could be according to the format of the "CD-ROM" (DeBiase et al. 2020). "PubMed" is a freely accessible database that helps in providing the highly authoritative part of the data available in the clinical set-up. "PubMed", helps in providing access to "MEDLINE", "NLMs" and their databases works. With certain advantages found certain barriers are found to face many obstacles (Kersbergenet al.2020). The environmental factor is due to the practices and mechanisms of the organization. Certain educational activities are there agree the practitioners would not receive proper incentives or may be failing to get better practice opportunities (DeBiase et al. 2020). In certain healthcare cases, the resources may financially independent. Also the social influence could be the reason for the patient and their care. The current factor and their impact on evidence-based practice are "5.1" and have been updated in this year 2023.

Task 4

Barriers to EBP in the dental clinical setup include the parameters like time, inadequate training, and the lack of relevant evidence and practices by the dentists. The uptake of evidence could be the improvement in the production of the guidelines to the practices which are evidence-based (Smallidgeet al.2019). Also, access to the articles for getting proper research and review of the results is mostly not available either or may be absent. Difficulties faced and the lack of scientific evidence for the journals in the regular practices of the clinical site up is very important.

Strategies for promoting EBP in clinical settings could be the change in regular oral practices, by brushing the teeth, gums, and tongue. The use of dental floss and mouthwash and the treatment by fluoride also helps in avoiding foods and drinks which are harmful. Dentists should be visited regularly (DeBiaseet al.2020). Taking proper care of dental health is very important for any individual to maintain their well-being and help them to avoid certain diseases which are fatal related to dental health like scurvy or gum diseases.


Selected Journals

  • Al-Abdullah, A., Edris, S., Abu Hasna, A., de Carvalho, L.S. and Al-Nahlawi, T., 2022. The effect of aloe vera and chlorhexidine as disinfectants on the success of selective caries removal technique: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Dentistry, 2022.
  • Vadhana, V.C., Sharath, A., Geethapriya, P.R. and Vijayasankari, V., 2019. Effect of sesame oil, ozonated sesame oil, and chlorhexidine mouthwash on oral health status of adolescents: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 37(4), pp.365-371.
  • Zhou, N., Wong, H.M., Wen, Y.F. and McGrath, C., 2019. Efficacy of caries and gingivitis prevention strategies among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta?analysis. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 63(6), pp.507-518.


  • Artim, D.E., Smallidge, D., Boyd, L.D., August, J.N. and Vineyard, J., 2020. Attributes of effective clinical teachers in dental hygiene education.Journal of Dental Education,84(3), pp.308-315.
  • Boyd, L.D., Mallonee, L.F., Wyche, C.J. and Halaris, J.F., 2020.Wilkins' Clinical practice of the dental hygienist. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  • Chanthavisouk, P., Arnett, M., Seyffer, D. and Paulson, D.R., 2023. Existing evidence for dental hygiene and dental therapy interventions: A determination of distinct patient populations.Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice,23(1), p.101785.
  • de Leon, M.L., 2020. Barriers to environmentally sustainable initiatives in oral health care clinical settings.Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene,54(3), p.156.
  • DeBiase, C., Giblin-Scanlon, L., Boyd, L.D. and Vineyard, J., 2020. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Dental Hygienists Regarding Diabetes Risk Assessments and Screenings.American Dental Hygienists' Association,94(2), pp.37-44.
  • Espitia, H., Soriano, J., Machón, I. and López, H., 2019. Design methodology for the implementation of fuzzy inference systems based on boolean relations. Electronics, 8(11), p.1243.
  • Kersbergen, M.J., Creugers, N.H., Hollaar, V.R. and Laurant, M.G., 2020. Perceptions of interprofessional collaboration in education of dentists and dental hygienists and the impact on dental practice in the Netherlands: A qualitative study.European Journal of Dental Education,24(1), pp.145-153.
  • Patel, B.M., Boyd, L.D., Vineyard, J. and LaSpina, L., 2021. Job satisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave among dental hygienists in clinical practice.American Dental Hygienists' Association,95(2), pp.28-35.
  • Rederiene, G., Aidukaite, G., Berlin, V., Buunk?Werkhoven, Y.A. and Puriene, A., 2020. Practice characteristics and views of dental hygienists in Lithuania.International Journal of Dental Hygiene,18(4), pp.432-438.
  • Smallidge, D.L., Puglisi, N., Patenaude, K., Boyd, L.D. and Vineyard, J., 2019. Emotional intelligence as a predictor of dental hygiene clinical teaching effectiveness.Journal of Dental Education,83(3), pp.359-366.


  • Guides.library.stonybrook, 2021. Evidence-based medicine. Available at: [Accessed on: 13th May 2023]
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