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Effects Of Spaceflight And Stimulated Microgravity On The Human Brain Activity Assignment Sample

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Introduction - Effects Of Spaceflight And Stimulated Microgravity On The Human Brain Activity

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Emerging plans for travelling to deep space tours and destinations make it critical for all to understand spaceflight's effect as well as simulated microgravity on human brain activity. The main aim of this research is to critically review the major impacts that have on the brain and behaviour of humans. It is known that brain reconstructing mostly occurs as an informative response to some altered given responses. The main objective of this research is to collect short and informative communications and contribute to the many factors related to spaceflight and microgravity.

Over the past few decades, it has been observed that co-occurring patterns of spaceflight impact the brain and behaviour of humans in two ways and these are adaptive and dysfunctional plasticity. Spaceflight refers to a mission management provider and a premier launch service which offer cost-effective service to space and that help in innovative a celestial perspective of space and can explore beyond the planet too. However, microgravity is a condition that holds a low gravity and that refers to when anything seems to be weightless. Long-term exposure to microgravity and spaceflight causes a wide number of biochemical and physical changes.

The human body has adapted and developed under some impactful gravity due to sending astronauts on a space missions. Demonstrating the overall understanding of what are the ways the brain reacts as well as behaves in microgravity is an important and signifincial approach. However, as the duration of space missions increases, day by day and detrimental effects of the space field are also getting clearer. Microgravity and spaceflight hold some variation or modification in structural and cortical functions for different types of reasons. At present, there is not enough knowledge on the exact effect of simulated microgravity and spaceflight on human body function.

Main body

The current state of knowledge for the topic

Following Barden et al. (2020), Earth has a magnetic field at the same time space exists beyond the magnetic field where only microgravity works which holds more than zero gravity that refers to very less gravity. At the time of spaceflight, most astronauts choose a successful and well-international space station which experiences some unique environmental factors that hold atmospheric parameters, microgravity and radiation exposure. It is very important to understand all the impacts that they can face on their health and it is vital for them as well as more opportunities to become feasible. However, according to Hupfeld et al. (2021), past work of astronauts suggests the environment regarding spaceflight needs to include some adaptive neutral effects as well as neutral compensation. Currently, there is no detailed knowledge of the overall effect microgravity that has on the human brain. That needs to ensure safety as well as health that allows measuring technologies involved within it. There is no selected direction that can measure adequate spaceflight alternatives and lack of support against the body is some of the major problems that they may face. At the time of parabolic flight, mostly tragically spaceflight is carried out and microgravity phases at the same time are also experienced.

Physiological effects on humans due to spaceflight and microgravity

Understanding all about the major impact of spaceflight on human brain activity and health is necessary. According to Barden et al. (2020), it can be held that there are no technologies that can measure the effects of spaceflight as well as the concept of microgravity on human health. Before implementing technology to understand human brain activity it needs to ensure all about the concept of physiology that can affect them. Microgravity has a large effect on the space flight environment and all the organs affected in that case on the well-being of astronauts. However, as per Lin et al. (2020), microgravity is a selected state that holds gravitational force that acts in a single direction and that is completely negligible. Physiological processes consist of tissue homeostasis and embryonic development that mostly astronauts face during or after spaceflight. Psychosocial effects such as urinary or faecal problems due to an increase in calcium loss and reduced vitamin D production lead to bone demineralisation. Some emotional effects, stress problems, anxiety and depression problems are some other psychological impacts that lead to immune dysregulation. The biological function involves cell adhesion and that includes angiogenesis as well as vascular remodelling. Minimize these risks. It needs countermeasures for astronauts before and after spaceflight. Controlling human behaviour and health during long and short duration they need to exercise daily and also need to hold a negative pressure suit to lower the body. At the same time, while using post-spaceflight, they can use midodrine that controls intolerance.

Implementation of motor threshold in microgravity

Extensive research documented all about various examples of extreme physiology that are integrated into some biological systems related to pharmacology. Implementation of motor threshold in microgravity plays an important role to develop measuring plans and can derive a wide amount of knowledge whether their mind changes or not. TMS technology is helpful in measuring electromagnetic pulses in the brain while in spaceflight also and that also captures some acute central nervous changes. The above figure shows the overall comparison in reduction of motor threshold technology for pre-flight, post-flight as well as zero gravity.

Techniques Involved in understanding the effects of spaceflight and microgravity

As per Romanella et al. (2020), MRI is a visualising technology or technique that can allow measuring vascular effect, brain structure, health activity and structural as well as functional connectivity. It is a medical technique that brings in a medical field for accessing computer-generated radio waves as well as a magnetic field for creating a wide amount of knowledge of different organs and tissue by image formation. Before spaceflight, during spaceflight and post spaceflight it can be easily introduced for determining their behaviour regarding health and mental condition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive and portable method that can be used for measuring pulses of the brain by electromagnetic technique.

Exploration of hypothesis

Adopting the views it can be stated that there is some necessity to completely study the major effects of spaceflight as well as microgravity on bone demineralisation and loss of mass. According to Barden et al. (2020), the major things that have been adopted in the previous literature are relevant to the topic whereas there are some key points that the topic does not involve in their part to completely provide information about the relevant topic. The previous study did not include microgravity in their article and that was completely based on zero gravity which is not relevant to the topic. The current study is all about microgravity which refers to less gravity and what are the main impacts of spaceflight on human health and mental behaviour.

The previous study involves TMS for measuring human health and brain activities whereas the current study by Romanella et al. (2020), holds MRI technology to calculate human activities during flight, before the flight and post space flight. The present and current state of knowledge provides all about the psychological effects that astronauts can face while using spaceflight. The present study also elaborates all about risk measures that can be used by astronauts for controlling psychological effects. This way, it can be said that the chosen journals were correct and authentic and all the information provided by them is completely correct and up to date. All the materials which are discussed in this chapter for measuring the effects of human brain activities are relevant and in context with the hypothesis.

Conclusion

Currently, there is not enough knowledge of how microgravity and spaceflight affect human behaviour. After analysing the entire study it has been analysed that it is not an easy step for getting the way of understand how the brain behaves and reacts in microgravity. As is earlier discussed that microgravity refers to the condition which holds less gravity and in that situation, it is very important for spaceflight to take some crucial steps.

As astronauts do not work their brains at a difficult time while landing in space it will be more difficult for them and that can be dangerous for their safety as well as the overall mission goal. With the prospect of understanding this chapter, it has been analysed that gravity plays an important role. Overall performances and due to that circumstance and situation it needs spaceflight to hold their nerve at that time and handle the situation effectively. Furthermore, there are some techniques as well that can observe human brain activity which is affected by stimulated microgravity and spaceflight. Magnetic resonance imaging is an innovative technology which allows the investigation of functional connectivity, brain activity and other activities of humans which is necessary for going to spaceflight and accessing microgravity. As a result, researchers found that having a detailed knowledge of microgravity can cause some physical and mental disorders as well that may put pressure on their health and can create long-term issues.

References

Journals

Badran, B. W., Caulfield, K. A., Cox, C., Lopez, J. W., Borckardt, J. J., DeVries, W. H., Summers, P., Kerns, S., Hanlon, C. A., McTeague, L. M., George, M. S., & Roberts, D. R. (2020). Brain stimulation in zero gravity: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor threshold decreases during zero gravity induced by parabolic flight. Npj Microgravity, 6(1)

Hupfeld, K.E., McGregor, H.R., Reuter-Lorenz, P.A. and Seidler, R.D., 2021. Microgravity effects on the human brain and behavior: dysfunction and adaptive plasticity. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews122, pp.176-189.

Lin, X., Zhang, K., Wei, D., Tian, Y., Gao, Y., Chen, Z. and Qian, A., 2020. The impact of spaceflight and simulated microgravity on cell adhesion. International Journal of Molecular Sciences21(9), p.3031.

Romanella, S.M., Sprugnoli, G., Ruffini, G., Seyedmadani, K., Rossi, S. and Santarnecchi, E., 2020. Noninvasive brain stimulation & space exploration: Opportunities and challenges. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews119, pp.294-319.

Bibliography

Dinatolo, M.F. and Cohen, L.Y., 2022. Monitoring the Impact of Spaceflight on the Human Brain. Life12(7), p.1060.

Green, M.J., Aylott, J.W., Williams, P., Ghaemmaghami, A.M. and Williams, P.M., 2021. Immunity in space: Prokaryote adaptations and immune response in microgravity. Life11(2), p.112.

Han, Y., Zeger, L., Tripathi, R., Egli, M., Ille, F., Lockowandt, C., Florin, G., Atic, E., Redwan, I.N., Fredriksson, R. and Kozlova, E.N., 2021. Molecular genetic analysis of neural stem cells after space flight and simulated microgravity on earth. Biotechnology and Bioengineering118(10), pp.3832-3846.

Ly, V., Velichala, S.R. and Hargens, A.R., 2022. Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, and Ocular Health in Space. Life12(2), p.268.

Naeem, K., Zulfaqar, H., Gulzar, H., Sehar, R., Iqbal, J., Rafiq, M., Rehman, A., Ashfaq, M. and Hasan, M., 2018. Simulated Microgravity Mediated Hypothalamus Response and Differential Expression of Key Proteins: A Review on Current Knowledge. Current Proteomics15(3), pp.201-207.

Proshchina, A., Gulimova, V., Kharlamova, A., Krivova, Y., Barabanov, V. and Saveliev, S., 2022. Cytoskeleton Markers in the Spinal Cord and Mechanoreceptors of Thick-Toed Geckos after Prolonged Space Flights. Life12(1), p.100.

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