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Introduction - Destination Reputation Management

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1.1 The Background of the Study

“Consumer behaviour” is a relatively new topic of study that aims to understand customers’ where, when, and why, as well as how their behaviour may be impacted. Also known as consumer psychology, this branch of applied psychology emerged in the mid-twentieth century and has evolved and adapted through time, incorporating components from sociology, philosophy, anthropology, and other social sciences concerned with human behavior (Kock, Josiassen and Assaf, 2018). In the context of tourism, tourist behaviour can be defined as the observable and unobservable processes that a tourist goes through when planning and participating in tourism (Rebollo, 2018). It is the interaction of affect and cognition with marketing and environmental cues, as well as biological and cultural variables. “Destination reputation management” is a field that entails the coordination and integration of the numerous factors that comprise a destination’s destination mix (Widjaja, Khalifa and Abuelhassan, 2019). The role of “destination reputation management” is critical in the development of sustainable tourism. However, it is critical to recognise that efficient destination marketing plays an equally critical part in determining the tourist sector’s success.

The constituents that comprise the destination mix are comparable to those that comprise the destination product. These are tangible goods, individuals, packages, and programmes. When combined, these aspects form a destination’s attractions, activities, amenities, transportation, hospitality, and infrastructure (Hassan and Soliman, 2021). Additionally, it incorporates the entirety of destination marketing. Destination reputation management includes all branding, marketing, and communication operations associated with a particular destination, as well as promoting its offerings to tourists. The proposed research work will therefore attempt to delve into the essential nuances of the two mentioned aspects of the tourism industry, and also determine the importance of taking them into account for the tourism organizations, in the process of formulating their business strategies.

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Research

The chief aim of the proposed research is to conduct a comprehensive study of the concepts of “tourist behaviour” and “destination reputation management”, in order to determine the significance of taking them into account for the organisations operating in the tourism sector.

The primary objectives to be accomplished through this research work are as follows:

  • To identify the new trends in tourist behavior,

  • To determine the importance of tourist destination reputation development and protection

  • To understand the different systems of public sentiment monitoring,

  • To explore the various ways and importance of reputational risk management,

  • To critically analyse the concept of “well-being” in tourism with emphasis on “vulnerable groups”

1.3 Significance of the Research

The proposed research seeks to bring to the fore the necessity and importance of seriously considering the behavioural trends of tourists and managing the reputation of the tourist destinations for the tourism companies in the process of crafting their business strategies and attaining considerable financial success. The information is likely to help the tourism organisations to achieve financial success and hence enhance their contribution to the economies of their respective countries. Herein lies the significance of the proposed research work.

1.4 Research Questions

Q.1) What are the latest trends in tourist behavior?

Q.2) How important is a tourist destination’s reputation for development and protection?

Q.3) What are the different systems of monitoring public sentiment?

Q. 4) What are the various ways of reputational risk management?

Q.5) What is the level of importance of reputational risk management?

Q.6) What are the implications of the concept of “well-being” in tourism?

Q.7) What are the ways of ensuring the well being of “vulnerable groups” of tourists?

2. Literature Review

2.1 The Importance of the Study of Tourist Behavior

The major indicator or predictor of future tourist behaviour is past tourist behaviour. Considering the social role of tourists, an individual’s behaviour can also be used as a barometer for the behaviour of others. Through their actions, tourists develop social norms of behaviour in the tourism industry, as per Fong, Law and Ye (2020). Other clients, both those who do not engage in travel or tourism activities as well as those who do, follow these guidelines. Tourist behaviour refers to the context within which consumers act when purchasing, using, and discarding tourist services. Services are more difficult to advertise because they are considered intangible. They’re additionally complicated by the fact that they’re frequently located away from regions where people shop. Understanding visitor behaviour is essential for evaluating the work of past tourism planners and suppliers, as well as planning and executing tourist services in the future. Tourist behaviour is also crucial to the effective development of tourism services; hence, a complete understanding and awareness of tourist behaviour is an essential component of tourism development. Hong et al. (2020) state that all tourism stakeholders benefit from understanding tourist behavior.

Typically, tourism service providers are interested in data regarding visitor behaviour since knowing behaviour aids in the development of business strategies and the design of tourist products, as per theviews of Reyes-Menendez, Saura and Filipe (2019). Data on visitor behaviour is used by the public sector, notably tourism agencies and organisations, to plan destination and tourist region development and marketing campaigns. Tourist behaviour information is also useful to the broader travelling public (i.e. tourists), as it improves holiday planning, particularly in locations where visitor behaviour is unique and problematic. The use of both typical and uncommon products and services outside of one’s normal area is referred to as tourist behaviour. Han, Yu and Kim (2018) opine that it is vital to differentiate the critical qualities that distinguish tourist behaviour from behaviour in the normal world in order to get an objective, trustworthy, and valuable understanding of tourist behaviour.

2.2 Important Elements in the Study of Tourist Behavior

Some of the most important elements which are involved in the study of tourist behaviour will be discussed ahead.

A tourist’s “decision-making” process is multifaceted, encompassing planned, unplanned, and impulse purchases. Decision-making is included as one of the earliest steps of the purchasing process in certain models, and some researchers even include it as a major component of their model of tourist behavior, according to Kawanaka et al. (2020).

According to Majeed et al. (2020), “motivation” has long been a source of debate among tourism researchers, owing to its importance in marketing decisions such as “segmentation”, “product development”, “advertising”, and “positioning”.

Many academics have looked at the influence on the image, location selection, travel plans and personality of a “self-concept” subset. Personality plays an important part in decision-making, changing attitudes, perceiving innovation and taking risks.

“Expectations” could be fulfilled, exceeded or not met. Andrei and Diana10 (2019) hold that they will always remain with a superb touristic experience that meets or exceeds their expectations. Previous experiences, personal (mouthword) and impersonal (publishing) sources, individual qualities (gender, ethnicity) and motivation are used for expectations.

The term “attitude” is occasionally used in research to refer to the relationship between an object’s essential properties (e.g., the characteristics of a tourist destination might contribute to the destination’s image), or more broadly, to a general attitude, point out Yang et al. (2017). It is difficult to measure tourist attitudes towards the services, destinations and trade marks of tourism providers, because visitor mood and emotions also have to be taken into account during measurement.

The element of “perception” is one of marketing’s most fascinating. Tourist perception studies focus mostly on danger and impression of security, including perception of criminality, terrorism, and specific disease outbreaks.

“Satisfaction” and consumer satisfaction data are critical pieces of information. According to Arenas-Gaitán, Sanz-Altamira and Ramírez-Correa (2019), pleasure is actually tied to the evaluation of a purchase or to the evaluation of individual components of a buy.

2.3. The Concept and Significance of Destination Reputation Management

If the components of the destination mix are fully understood, the value of destination reputation management in tourism may be better recognised. Physical products refer to concrete items such as local attractions, transportation, and other infrastructure in the destination mix. While tourist attractions are the major reason for visiting a certain location, transportation and other amenities provide additional reasons for people to come and stay. Hassan and Soliman (2021) are of te opinion that individuals play an important role in successful destination management. Locals provide both as hosts and as personal service providers with the necessary hospitality resources. It is very important to treat locals as stakeholders of industry and to educate them about the various benefits of tourism. This will urge people to act responsibly and so contribute to tourism’s long-term development.

Destination marketing is a high-priority job for DMCs, claim Widjaja, Khalifa and Abuelhassan (2019). Destination reputation management will be ineffective unless destination marketing is treated seriously. Destination marketing must be directed by strategically planned DMPs, drawing inspiration and input from destination management principles. Due to the fact that marketing activities, particularly promotions, can be highly costly, it is critical for DMCs to approach them with precision. As per the remarks of Eliasson (2019), destination marketing must be a deliberate endeavour guided by professionalism and a clearly defined mission and vision. Once a DMP has been properly strategized, it will assure the success of both destination marketing and destination management.

While destination marketing assists in promoting a location as an attractive brand, Iglesias-Sánchez, Correia and Jambrino-Maldonado (2019) mention that destination reputation management is responsible for ensuring the destination’s viability over time. To preserve a tourism destination’s attractiveness, it is critical for DMCs to include both of these notions within their organisational activities.

3. Research Methodology

3.1 Research Approach

The main difference between deductive and inductive techniques is the relevance of hypotheses to the survey. The validity of assumptions (or theories/hypotheses) is determined through deductive reasoning, whilst new ideas and generalisations are generated by inductive thinking. In contrast, abductive research begins with “surprising facts” or “puzzles” and explores the whole process of the investigation (Mohajan, 2018). The inductive approach, which is sometimes called inductive reasoning, begins with observations and ends with the formation of theories following observations. Patterns, likenesses and regularities of experience (premises) are observed to reach conclusions (or to generate theory). This is the research strategy employed for the proposed research.

3.2 Research Philosophy

It is a conviction in the way that evidence of a phenomenon should be collected, assessed and used that is known as research philosophy. Instead of using the term doxology (what is believed to be true), epistemology is used to refer to the different research methodologies that are produced over time (Nayak and Singh, 2021). The suggested study will be conducted using an interpretative research methodology based on the premise that the researcher has a special function to play in observing a social reality.

3.3 Research Design

The design of the research is the framework of market research methods and procedures selected by a researcher. The design picked by the researchers enables them to use the methodologies best suitable for their study and to effectively launch their research in the future. A research design known as exploratory research is used to investigate a research problem when the researcher does not have any previous data or only a few studies to refer to (Ragab and Arisha, 2018). It is used as a preliminary research technique to provide a hypothetical or theoretical understanding of the study problem at the beginning research phase. Therefore, the researcher will choose this particular design in the proposed study.

3.4 Method of Data Collection

In order to achieve the set objectives of the proposed study, the researcher will make use of secondary qualitative data which will be gathered from different authentic sources such as: academic books (both hard cover and e-book formats), journal articles, reliable website contents, etc. by eminent writers of the past who have contributed to the field of investigation in similar (if not the same) areas of study.

3.5 Method of Data Analysis

For the sake of analysing the amassed secondary qualitative data, the technique of content analysis will be implemented by the researcher. The primary advantage of secondary data is that it might be more cost-effective. Because someone else has already gathered the data, the researcher will save money, time, energy, and resources by skipping this portion of the investigation (Ragab and Arisha, 2018).


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  • Eliasson, E., 2019. När ryktet avgör: En kvalitativ fallstudie om online reputation management i svenska destinationsbolag.
  • Fong, L.H.N., Law, R. and Ye, B.H., 2020. Outlook of tourism recovery amid an epidemic: Importance of outbreak control by the government. Annals of tourism research.
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