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Introduction: Cross Cultural Management & Leadership
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1. Considering the above article, analyse the influence culture had on the organisation and the way
It works as a whole.
- Employee behaviour is driven by national culture.
- National culture is comprised of 6 factors.
- Chrysler have American culture
- Daimler has German culture (Hofstede-insights.com, 2022)
The cultural elements have a diversified impact on the organization in terms of the management of operations. The behaviour and psychological approach of the employee of an organization has been driven by factors of national culture. It has been observed that national culture has been comprised of 6 significant factors. Those factors are the "Power Distance Index" (PDI), IDV, Masculinity, "Uncertainty Avoidance Index", LTO and Indulgence. The engineers of Chrysler belong to America thus a behaviour pursuit of American national culture has been noticed and similarly, an employee of Daimler has a national culture of Germany. The power distance of employees in Germany has been enriched with a high level of a decentralised approach and employees of American origin have accepted unequal distribution of power. Therefore a psychological barrier among the employees of both region have been noticed and an issue of adjustment have been noticed.
- Chrysler employees have Ethnocentrism (Hofstede-insights.com, 2022).
- Ethnocentrism leads to communication issues
- Cross-cultural outcomes affected by Ethnocentrism
- Stereotypical nature projects inflexible statements
Ethnocentrism has been noticed across the employees of Chrysler thus a perception of superiors has been observed among the American employees. It has been explored that ethnocentrism has led to a major issue of communication along with the employees of Daimler. As a result of this scenario, the work quality and performance across the cross-cultural team have been raised. A high level of attitude has been brought into practice due to the ethnocentrism and undervaluing of other cultures can be noticed. On the other hand, the cross-cultural team also have been enriched with the stereotypical nature of employees. Therefore, the practice of inflexible statements regarding any particular group of individuals can be noticed. Due to the concenred type of practice, any individual or group of individuals can hurt the sentiment or spirit of work. As a result of this scenario, an organization can heavily suffer with less productivity and a lack of quality.
- Language acts as a cross-cultural barrier (Sertel et al. 2022).
- Chrysler and Daimler share different linguistics
- The difference in communication behaviour
- Organizational outcome influenced by language barriers
The barrier of language also has a critical role in terms of influencing the performance or operation of an organization due to the cross-cultural. In contrast to the scenario, a huge gap or barrier between Chrysler and Daimler have noticed due to different linguistic features. Therefore, there has a significant chance of occurring myriad misunderstandings have been noticed among cross-cultural teams. It has been obevred that individuals who spoke English and german languages share a high degree of difference in terms of communication behaviour. Hence, it can be stated that organizational outcomes have been majorly influenced by language barriers with respect to cross-cultural teams.
2. Do you think the solution was the correct one? What is your reasoning?
- Cross-cultural issues mitigated with leadership
- American leaders have fast decision-making approach.
- Transformational Leadership" (Lee et al. 2022).
- Leaders maintain the spirit of employees
The barriers or issues of cross-cultural teams are nowadays common factors in terms of managing global ventures by organizations. However, it has been observed that such issues can be effectively addressed and concisely mitigated with a needful practice of leadership. American leaders have been enriched with a fast approach to decision-making and implementation of decisions. On the other hand, German leaders are much more focused in terms of decision making and they prefer to think deeply that takes time comparatively than American traits. This type of approach by the different nations can be observed due to their national culture. However, "Transformational Leadership" have been composed of critical characteristics that give the right to adopt needful changes with respect to the need of the operations of the organization. The leaders of the cross-cultural teams have been entitled to a huge critical responsibility of retaining the spirit of different cultural employees together.
- The fair practice of working culture.
- Leaders develop working culture (Shi et al. 2022).
- Leaders maintain harmony in the team.
- Professional Development of employees.
Besides that, an organizational culture built based on the foundation of global aspects also have a major role in terms of the fair practice of working culture. Thus, no such Ethnocentrism, stereotyping and discrimination practice can not be performed by employees of a different culture. This type of environment in an organization can be maintained by the leaders through ethical and fair work culture prospects. The leaders of the coss-culture team can address the issues of the team and can make interventions with needful transformation and regulation in order to proclaim the harmony of the team. Along with that leaders of the organization have another significant role with respect to the professional development of employees. The cultural barriers of the employees in an organization can be profoundly mitigated through the professional development and grooming of employees. Hence, it can be stated that behaviour pursuits driven by the culture can be mitigated through professional development and organizational performance will be increased.
- "Cross-Cultural Leadership" (Du et al. 2022)
- Leaders have interpersonal Skills.
- Leaders have knowledge of cross-culture
- Leaders focus on employee engagement.
The major traits of cross-cultural leaders have been enriched with interpersonal Skills, Language Skills, cultural Awareness, "Cross-cultural Schema" and "Cognitive Complexity". Thus, leaders are too aware of issues of cross-culture and they have expertise in the mitigation of communication issues Leaders also formulate professional regulations to avoid discrimination. The leaders make a concrete focus on employee engagement in a cross-cultural team and motivate the employees to overcome cultural barriers. However, the cultural impacts on the organization have be mitigated through two major approaches such as "Cross-Cultural Leadership" and professional development.
3. How might the Integrated Cross-Cultural Model of Leadership help a manager in a similar situation?
- "Cross-Cultural Model of Leadership"
- Embracement of diversity (Sertel et al. 2022)
- Detection of prejudice factors
- Psychological feature influence communication.
Cross-cultural management has been featured in leading, employing and supporting employees of an organization from distinct cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the "Cross-Cultural Model of Leadership" has a major significance with respect to the managers of a cross-cultural organization. The embracement of diversity in an organization starts with the managers thus a fair practice of employment, leading and supporting can be noticed. In contrast to team management, the detection of prejudice factors has a critical role in terms of balancing the morale of employees. The leadership model of Cross-Cultural has a major psychological feature that states understanding the communication approach of employees. This feature helps the managers in order to measure the behaviour prospects of the employees in terms of balancing the work culture.
- "Implicit Leadership Theory"
- Recognising employee perceptions
- The moral development of employees
- A greater team collaboration (Thapliyal et al. 2022)
It has been observed that managers or the leaders of the cross-cultural organization have a critical role in terms of understanding "Implicit Leadership Theory". This helps through the underlying different perceptions of employees such as stereotypes, assumptions, and beliefs with respect to an organization. The moral development of employees in terms of cope up with the cross-culture team relied upon support and encouragement delivered by the leaders or managers. As a result, of this scenario, a positive and professional transformation in the characteristics of employees can be noticed leading to greater team collaboration.
- "Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions"
- Knowledge of different cultures (Eilders et al. 2022)
- Recognise needful leadership style.
Besides that, "Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions" have played a critical role in terms of understanding the different factors of culture. Thus, a prominent and impactful concept of diversified culture has been retained by the managers or leaders of any organization. That helps the individual in terms of respecting the cultural diversity of others thus a drive of motivation can be observed among the employees. On the other hand, the cultural dimension also helps to assess and recognise the needful leadership style in terms of managing any cross-culture team.
- Development of cultural sensitivity
- The magnitude of self-reflection (Zegers and Auron, 2022).
- Promotes the characteristics of flexibility
- Retaining curiosity and Persistence by managers
It has been observed that the leadership models associated with cross-culture have a critical role in terms of the development of cultural sensitivity among managers. The leadership models deliver a huge magnitude of self-reflection derived from the self-understanding of cultural operations. That promotes the characteristics of flexibility and open-mindedness across the managers thus issues of cross-cultural employees can be accurately addressed. On the other hand, it has been explored that a high level of curiosity and Persistence trait has been infused among cross-cultural leaders. That encompasses professional attributes across the employees and organizational outcomes have been increasing with quality.
- Du, N., Yang, X.J. and Robert, L., 2022. A Cross-cultural Investigation of the Effects of Explanations on Drivers’ Trust, Preference, and Anxiety in Highly Automated Vehicles.
- Eilders, C. and Porten-Cheé, P., 2022. Effects of online user comments on public opinion perception, personal opinion, and willingness to speak out: A cross-cultural comparison between Germany and South Korea. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, pp.1-15.
- Hofstede-insights.com (2022). COUNTRY COMPARISON. Available from https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/germany,the-usa/. Accessed On 19.12.2022
- Hofstede-insights.com (2022). NATIONAL CULTURE. Available from https://www.hofstede-insights.com/models/national-culture/. Accessed On 19.12.2022
- Lee, J.H., Hsiao, R., Tseng, W.C., Storti, K., Tseng, K.W. and Alman, R., A Cross Cultural Study of Emotional Intelligence and Preferred Coaching Leadership in Collegiate Student-Athletes.
- Sertel, G., Karadag, E. and Ergin-Kocatürk, H., 2022. Effects of leadership on performance: A cross-cultural meta-analysis. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 22(1), pp.59-82.
- Shi, G., Xie, Z., Niu, Y., Tang, J. and Pang, H., 2022. Benevolent Leadership and Employee Task Performance: Chain Intermediary Role of Personal Initiative and Work Engagement in Crosscultural Management. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 50(6), pp.49-61.
- Thapliyal, K. and Joshi, M., 2022. Cross-Cultural Management: Opportunities and Challenges. Integrating New Technologies In International Business, pp.31-53.
- Zegers, C. and Auron, M., 2022. Addressing the Challenges of Cross-Cultural Communication. Medical Clinics, 106(4), pp.577-588.