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Australian History Timeline Assignment Sample

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Introduction: Australian History Timeline

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia include different groups of people and these people have their histories, languages and cultural traditions. This community is found in Sydney, Queensland and other different parts of the country. This essay includes two different events in two different periods such as pre-1967 and post 1967 to analyse the historical analysis of the country before and after the referendum. The pre-1967 event is the introduction of an act d the Aborigines protection act 1909 and the post-1967 event considers the racial discrimination act 1975 to develop equality in the country. This essay considers three parts and among these three parts, A includes a history of these two events. This part includes the goals of every event, the process of positioning the indigenous community in Australia, differences and similarities present in evidence of goals and the relationship between indigenous communities and other communities in Australia. Part B of this essay includes institutions and shows reproducing reinforcement in different sectors of the country to capture the target of these two acts. This includes norms associated with the events, the impact of racialised power in influencing contemporary and historical structures of Australian society and the role of racialisation to identify standpoints of an indigenous and non-indigenous community of the country. Part C of this report includes self-reflection by showing the influence of these events, understandings of institutional, historical and social influences and the influence of self standpoint. In addition, this essay aims to deliver an understanding of those events and the impact of events on continuing equality in the country.

Part A: HISTORY

The 1967 memorandum brought two significant changes in the constitution of Australia regarding the Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal peoples About 90% of the people were in favour of bringing such a change in the constitution. The majority of the citizens of Australia voted for counting the population of indigenous society in the national census. During the year 1962, the indigenous people were given the right to vote in the elections related to the commonwealth and gave the power to the commonwealth government to make laws for them (Mehra et al. 2021). There are different events that take place before the memorandum takes place in 1967 in relation to indigenous tribes of Australia. There were numerous acts that were made to discard the Aborigines from the main population of Australia and there were also some acts that were made in favour of Aboriginals later for their betterment in society. The main event that led to the protection of indigenous people from Australian towns is the act that passed in the year 1909 known as the 'Aborigines Protection Act'. The objectives of this act are to remove the Aboriginals from the towns, the neglected Aboriginal children removed from their families and placed for public service and prevent non-Aboriginal people from aboriginal ones from accessing reserves or associating with them.

 Aboriginals are the people that migrate from Central Asia and South East Asia and have been residing in Australia for the last 50000 years (FitzGerald and Hirsch, 2022). This act was taken to safeguard the interest of the indigenous society of Australia and gave the Board of this act to control their living that includes their residence, employment, and every aspect of life such as marriage and social. Later in 1936, The of the act was amended to 'Native Administration Act ' with a change in title from Chief Protector to the Commissioner for Native Affairs. Indigenous Australians are able to build strong connections with their language, family, culture and land for their economic, social and individual well-being. The history of Aboriginals reflects that after the introduction of the Protection Act, they have their own education, spiritual and resource development.

 The immediate event that occurs after the 1967 memorandum was the establishment of the Commonwealth Office for Affairs related to Aboriginals in the year 1968. The federal council so established for the Aboriginals aims to be self-reliant, self-supporting, members of the community. Another major act that was introduced in 1975 for the prevention of discrimination based on race by the government was the Racial Discrimination Act in the year 1975 (Gallagher et al.2021). It helps the indigenous citizens of Australia to protect their rights from being discriminated against in political and social matters on the basis of their race, language, religion or culture. This help to mix the original citizens of Australia with the aboriginal's ones and share their resources and culture with them. The Indigenous society was also given the power to make decisions on political matters like the wider Australian society.

PART B: INSTITUTIONS

The culture of the indigenous people in Australia is significantly different in their language, living standard, economic life, social interaction, food, worship and other cultural aspects. The cultural value of modern Australia is that they value their work with utmost sincerity and authenticity like the indigenous society of Australia. The colonization of Australia led to the removal of traditional culture and the denial of citizenship rights by the settlers of Europe countries. The Indigenous people unlike the wider Australian society have self-developed ethics such as self-determination, leadership, impact with sustainability and accountability to living standards (Moggridge and Betterridge and Thompson,2019). Power distance helps to measure that the individuals are not all in the society, although it seems that Australia has low power distance as the hierarchy is managed and the communication between the people is direct, informal and participative.

Individualism scores high in The Australian culture as both the indigenous and wider Australian culture takes care of their families and their work developing self-reliant qualities. Australia scores 61 percent in Masculine, as the country is proud of its achievements and success as it develops decision-making powers among the both indigenous and widened thinking society of the country. The uncertainty of avoidance deals with the future of the country about the happenings and the country scores 51 in this dimension. The indigenous people of Australia have their past culture in the form of three hundred languages with numerous practices and ceremonies. Rituals and corroborees are ceremonies that include mythological stories about their ancient lives and today's generation of indigenous people compare it with the present and future life. The Indigenous people are bound to their traditional customs like the wider Australians and so Australia has a normative culture with scores of 21 on the long-term orientation dimension.

Australians are found to enjoy their desires without any hesitation and make their children socialise in every aspect with a score of 71 in indulgence. They are found with positive attitudes and optimism towards the mother country and nature. The Aboriginals of Australia still become the victims of discrimination, lack of modern cultural understanding of Australia and racism as they have different thinking, views social interactions. Indigenous adults are found more victims of racism than their counterparts enabling social and lifestyle risk factors among the tribal people (Rojo et al.2020). The Indigenous society was deprived of their rights and opportunities to participate in Australian culture before the racial discrimination Act, in contrast, today the tribes have the opportunity to participate in the different matters of the country as equal citizens. The 2010 reconciliation barometer displays that 91 percent of indigenous and 64 per cent of non-indigenous people are found the victim of racial discrimination that raise several disadvantages to the upliftment of the society. Direct racial discrimination faced by the indigenous society during renting of homes. job, bar and food shop, and other grounds of racial discrimination in practice. Indirect racial discrimination happens due to the incompatibility of the particular tribe to comply with the particular rule proposed by the government. 

Part C: SELF

The Aborigines protection act of 1909 includes the authority of the government to protect indigenous children and people in the country. This process considers residence regulation, employment, daily life, marriage and the social life of people in developing equality and opportunities for every citizen in the country. The purpose of this act was to remove any aborigines’ child for any reason at any time. This act delivered power to the board to measure and control employment, movement and living conditions of the indigenous communities, removes children from this community, and placed the children in non-indigenous communities (Nma.gov.au, 2023). This act was focused to break the social and cultural structures of these two communities and was considered to decrease the disadvantages and discrimination against indigenous communities in the country. The issues of this act were the forced removal of the children from their families, capturing of Aboriginal communities' land, the introduction of institutionalised discrimination, the presence of limited opportunities, and the lack of quality in health and well-being part of the Aboriginal community of the country. The advantage of this act was its consideration of the development of the Aboriginal generation by shifting them towards a non-indigenous community and delivering facilities to develop their career. I want to implement the purpose of this act in the organisation to develop opportunities for people in completing their development activities. This implementation can support the development of the health and well-being part of people in the country. 

The racial discrimination act of 1975 considers decreasing discrimination due to differences present in colour, race, national origin, sex and descent. Discrimination was present in Australian society as the indigenous community faced discrimination due to having a difference in race, colour, ethnic group, language, descent and sex. The presence of barriers to opportunities occurred in this community and the government of Australia focused to decrease this barrier in society. This act delivers equal opportunities to every people including Aboriginal people in Australia and focuses to deliver overall growth for the entire population in the country (Legislation.gov.au, 2023). I want to continue non-discrimination activities in the organisation to allow every different ethnic group people in getting employment opportunities and complete their daily activities. This can contribute to developing opportunities to develop their career and transformation in culture and status of backward classes people can develop. This can deliver effective support in continuing the sustainable development of the organisation. 

CONCLUSION

Discrimination and inequality include fewer development opportunities for people in the country and consider advantages for one group of people. These two events supported transforming cultural factors of the indigenous community and delivered equal opportunities to these people in the country. These two acts focused to develop the culture and status of the indigenous community to develop their lifestyle and contributed to developing the overall economic status of the country. The continuation of non-discrimination and equality can contribute to transforming the behaviour and activities of people from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities. People and government need to support both communities and continue the purpose of this act to develop the overall standards of the country. This essay concludes that the continuation of these activities can deliver effective support in continuing the sustainable development of the country. In addition, this essay aims to deliver future scope for further development of this research. 

References

  • FitzGerald, D. S., & Hirsch, A. (2022). Norm-busting: rightist challenges in US and Australian immigration and refugee policies. Third World Quarterly, 43(7), 1587-1606.https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2021.2008237
  • Gallagher, R. V., Allen, S., Mackenzie, B. D., Yates, C. J., Gosper, C. R., Keith, D. A., ... & Auld, T. D. (2021). High fire frequency and the impact of the 2019–2020 megafires on Australian plant diversity. Diversity and Distributions, 27(7), 1166-1179.https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.13265
  • Legislation.gov.au, 2023. Racial Discrimination Act 1975 Retrieved on: 25/04/2023. From: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2016C00089
  • Mehra,S., Chang, A. B., Lam, C. K., Campbell, S., Mingi, J. J., Thomas, I., ... & Heraganahally, S. (2021). Bronchiectasis among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients in the regional and remote population of the Northern Territory of Australia. Rural Remote Health, 21(2), 6390.https://doi.org/10.22605/RRH6390
  • Moggridge, B. J., Betterridge, L., & Thompson, R. M. (2019). Integrating Aboriginal cultural values into water planning: a case study from New South Wales, Australia. Australasian journal of environmental management, 26(3), 273-286.https://doi.org/10.1080/14486563.2019.1650837
  • Nma.gov.au, 2023. Aborigines Protection Act Retrieved on: 25/04/2023. From: https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/aborigines-protection-act#:~:text=The%201915%20amendments%20to%20the,time%20and%20for%20any%20reason.
  • Rojo, J., Everett, B., Ramjan, L. M., Hunt, L., & Salamonson, Y. (2020). Hofstede's cultural dimensions as the explanatory framework for performance issues during clinical placementmixed methods study. Nurse education today, 94,104581.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104581
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