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Introduction - Assessment 1: case study assessment

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Task 1

Topic 1: Development and use of tools to support educators

According to Ellis & Rowe (2020), “learning tool encourages teachers to recognise and act on a broad range of evidence regarding learners and students” and also “design their teaching and literacy curriculum to this evidence”. In these modern days, children in poverty are also helpless to pedagogies that confuse rigour and rigidity. Using the learning tool teacher of Alice was able to judge her development record as she made as per the literacy curriculum. According to this paper “The Strathclyde Three Domains Tool” combines with literacy learning which is helpful for a set of cognitive skills and knowledge. It explains that achieving knowledge about her surrounding is important and also promotes good habits of mind as a reader and changes the internal conversations with teachers. Importance of social context in supporting and shaping language development

According to Hoff (2006), “every normal child learns to talk only in suitable environments” and at every point in development, “children differ in the complexity of the structures they produce and also differ in the size of the vocabularies they command”. In some cultures, children love to talk a great deal with others and typically observe conversations with adults such as their parents, teachers and in others. Observing Alice's cognitive engagement it has been observed that she has a high level of interest in most learning material, books and animals.

Supporting and shaping language development is necessary for children to observe cognitive behaviour is a key part. As per the case study, she is a little bit shy while communicating but communicates in a good manner to others. Moreover, she takes time to understand the concept while teaching needs support to step out of the process. This way, as a teacher in the course of early language development cultural differences in the type of children's early language experiences are needed. Conceptually, “socioeconomic status (SES) is a mixture variable, usually aligned with occupational prestige, income, education level”, which together construct “different simple conditions of life at several levels of the social order”. Using this status Alice's negative point can be easily solved and can improve her further career in high-level study.

Topic 2: Review of the teaching of early education

Creating opportunity and achieving excellence for a child's education and skill is one of the important parts. As per Jim (2006), “developing children's positive attitudes to educational skills, in the broadcast sense from the earliest period is necessary”. For example, Alice is a very kind and helpful child and due for this reason she has so many friends and which shows her positive nature but at the same time she has lack confidence and is easily distracted, for this reason, a teacher can adopt the above-mentioned tool and system. It is necessary to develop a “coherent reading programme” for this problem. Early education has a significant need to convey rapid growth for the child up to eight years of age. 75% of brain development covers the initial five years of a child and the maximum development of this is completely within the first three years of a child. The case study shows that Alice has a distraction in the learning process and diverts her mind from different angles. However, she has good strength in playing and reading comic books in maximum time. In addition, the issue is present in motivation and guidance factors, as she requires both to continue her learning process. Early education is required to continue the later development of physical and social in a child and therefore, parents and teachers need to focus more on her to continue effective learning. Data from local and international research shows that early education helps to develop child’s health, social well-being and learning in their career. Another research delivers early learning provides a transition to the education sector for a child with ease and this can develop the success rate of school and can expand life chances for a child.

Parents also have a significant role to continue early learning and covering the achievement of a child. Delivering proper behaviours and positive attitudes can support a child to attend school in a continuous manner and this can help a child to develop their knowledge, skills and results. In addition, continuous engagement in early education can offer an interest in completing the secondary or higher education process of the child. Parents can continue encouragement through monitoring, discussing and supporting their kids in the learning process and helping them to set career goals.

Topic 3: Children's reading difficulties, language, and reflections

As talented peruses, this normally fumbles easy and cognizance streams normally as teachers read onwards. The Straightforward Perspective on perusing (Gough and Tunmer, 1986; Hoover and Gough, 1990) richly detects the significance of these circumstances by expressing that perusing appreciation is the impact of two arrangements of “abilities, translating and semantic perception”. Apart from that, Alice is also facing some issues in reading and language. Alice has made some mistakes in the skills test and reading comprehension, which are difficult tasks that mainly rely on a range of linguistic and cognitive processes. As per the straightforward view of a lesson, teachers must help the students mainly capture the complexity of the products relevant to linguistic and decoding comprehensions.

Alice must slowly gather orthographic understanding through the reading experience because, this is also a procedure of creating expertise via which Alice must harness her remembering skills, control of perception and vocabulary to generalise and memorise (Nation, 2019). Apart from that, there are different perspectives on reading disorders and Alice might face poor decoding and bad comprehensive skills, so teachers must help her to improve her skills in these sectors by providing tasks related to decoding on regular basis.

Topic 4: Implications for the Assessment of Phonological Awareness

As per the teacher review, Alice must consolidate on a cognitive approach that will assist her to grow her essence for the estimation of phonological understanding. Teachers must highlight the major concept of phonological awareness in songs, stories and rhymes to enhance better understanding of the lesson. For example, they must find patterns of jingles and match images to another image. Apart from that, “Speech-language pathologists (SLPs)” usually utilise phonological understanding tasks in various ways. As letter, recognition nourishes information to the prediction reading. “Phonological awareness assessment” nourishes knowledge about reading in schools but it fails predictive power in higher classes.

Apart from that, “Speech-language pathologists” are vigorously implicated in the growth of literacy abilities and in the rectification of literacy difficulties. This also plays a crucial part in the task of phonological attention because of their understanding of phonological and phonetics disruptions (Hogan, Catts & Little, 2005). This kind of awareness at schools mainly nourishes essential senses into the abilities that Alice utilises to understand and read. Organised management and effective leadership in a school can develop a comprehensive and continuous approach to learning and this can provide support in early education to the higher learning process. A proper plan needs to develop in the school and the entire hierarchy such as the principal, management and teachers need to follow through with the plan to deliver quality and systematic learning processes to the students. Strategies, monitoring and reviewing can deliver effective support in early education as this can find out learning gaps and needed development in this education process. The entire hierarchy of a school needs to follow this to develop every child’s interest in education and can grow the overall literacy rate in the school. In addition, the learning process needs a standard literacy rate in teaching to develop cognitive skills and social values in a child and can help in maintaining the educational level in the learning process.

Phonemic awareness is an important activity to develop a child’s knowledge as meta-analyses delivered sound manipulation in the learning process can help a child to develop hearing and reading power of a child. In addition, PA instruction can deliver positive impacts on pseudo-reading and read in the learning process. This can help a child to translate novel words and develop remembering of the process of reading such words in the learning process. Systematic phonics can provide effective support in learning as this instruction delivers graphemes and phonemes in written and spoken language respectively. This can be systematic if a high level of grapheme and phonemes is included in the teaching process. According to the case study, Alice has issues in this part and this can be solved by devouring quality monitoring and guidance to Alice during the teaching process. Therefore, this awareness and instruction need to carry forward in Alice’s learning process to develop her learning abilities and interest in the learning process. If questioned to deliver the foremost sound in the term “dog”, they are probably to express the "Woof-woof!" sound. Phoneme mindfulness works with development in printed term acknowledgement.

Topic 5: The Role of Direct/Explicit Teaching Reading & writing quarterly

Directly/explicitly teaching perusing mainly implies granting recent data to understudies through effective educator-student collaborations and instructor supervision of understudy understanding. In this procedure, the educator evidently pushes the educating educational experience. At the core of direct guidance, and strategy is an absolute clarification, exhibiting or illustrating, and supervised practice (Rupley, Blair & Nichols, 2009). Apart from that, Direct/explicit guidance requirements are a necessary piece of understanding the consequential substance strands of the understanding cycle including phonemic mindfulness, intimacy, phonics, language skills, and perception. According to Rosenshine and Stevens (1995), they recognised six instructional procedures for instructing well-structure intent that mainly compose the inner essence of suggested measures for explicit and direct pedagogy.

  • Present latest material
  • Nourish corrections and feedback
  • Check and review earlier work
  • Nourish guided practice
  • Deliver independent practice
  • Deliver feedback and reviews of the outcomes on a weekly and monthly basis.

The solution to direct or explicit pedagogy is the dynamic transmission and relations between educator and learner. This technique of pedagogy may be sufficiently structured or undersized structured in temperament. Convincing trainers mainly deliver various, consequential techniques to secure student aptitude and transfer abilities to additional significant reading conditions (Villaume & Brabham, 2003). Mediated instruction involves providing guidance to a student in learning a particular skill. During practice, the amount of guidance is great at the beginning; it then declines to little or none.

Task 3

Elements of reading and their symbiotic relationship

The case study delivers information regarding Alice through a profile and this included that Alice is six years old as of May 31st and she is one of the youngest students in her class. This child's profile mentions that she has a great interest in playing indoors and outdoors both and is active in reading animal and cosmic books. However, the child has the issue with ADHD, faces struggles with time management and time concentration, and mentions that the child has diverted his attention easily to a different object. The child study part includes that Alice is a shy person but she is friendly in nature. This part includes oral language skills and reading books as her strength and provides limitations of understanding skills, distraction nature, self-confidence and self-evaluation.

After analysis of Alice’s assessment result, this can be included that similarity is present in various characteristics in most of the children. In other words, children show distractions most of the time due to their nature and therefore, the teacher needs to support them in studying by following some strategies in the learning process to develop their cognitive skills. Reading elements are segmented into six types such as oral language, phonics, comprehension, phonological awareness, fluency and vocabulary (, 2022). These elements are known as the “big six” for the early years of the learning process. Oral language is an important element in reading comprehension and this helps to determine ideas, perspective taking, reminder capacity and complex reasoning ability in a child (Altun, 2018). Alice has a good level of oral language skills but her shy type nature restricts her from communicating. Therefore, the teacher needs to invest more time with her and need to provide more external stimulation resources to her to build Alice's communication that is more effective and language skills.

According to the letters and sounds case study, language, communication and literacy field impacts the early learning process. These provide support in aligning letters and sounds as per their occurring manner in words. This can develop the personal communication, emotional and social development of a child. This case study also uses music as a key object that can develop a child’s language (, 2022). Various areas can impact on early learning process of a child such as personal and emotional development, creative development, communication, literacy and language development, physical development, problem-solving and reasoning, understanding and knowledge. These all can deliver effectiveness to recovering Alice’s health issue and can provide motivation to Alice to focus on her learning. Daily speaking and hearing activities can deliver effective support in the development of a child’s ability. The teacher needs to communicate more with children to identify and rectify the learning gaps and this communication can increase the interest in learning a child. Therefore, the teacher can include more awareness activities such as developing concepts through songs, poems, nursery rhymes and stories to develop the cognitive skills of a child (, 2022). In addition, a teacher can include an audio-visual learning process to make a concept more understandable and visual presentation can increase the attention power of a child in to study.

Phonics is an element that has interrelation with phonological awareness and this can be developed by developing the phonological awareness of a child. Fluency activity delivers accuracy and expression rate of a child in reading, speaking and learning. Alice needs to develop this skill to perform better in the learning process and this can increase attention power in learning.

Vocabulary and comprehension elements determine the understanding level of a child and this measures alternative learning parameters such as stock of words and solving process (Altun, 2018). The teacher can develop these skills by delivering a set of vocabulary options while teaching a child. Alice can grow her ability in these two parts and can develop her Sperformance. Flint's theory can deliver effective strategies to develop Alice’s career as this theory delivers transformational options to develop one’s personality. Bottom-up approaches include initialising from specific elements and continuing the journey through general concepts. This can deliver satisfaction measurements of a child by delivering self-report. Top-down approaches include reverse phenomenon as this point out the journey from general concepts to specific outcomes. This approach focuses on hypotheses-driven and focusing on top mental processes of values, beliefs, expectations and values (, 2022). Therefore, the teacher can take these two approaches in learning to develop Alice’s interpersonal skills and learning ability.

Social and cognitive processes of reading

Teaching processes such as time-centric, thinking, learning scope and opportunity can deliver a standard level in the learning process. The oral language of a child can be promoted through encouragement in conversation, modeling of syntactic structure, developing eye contact, increasing speaking power, summarising power and delicacies of tone. Alice and other children in the classroom can develop their oral language through this process and the teacher needs to motivate students more in the communication process to develop their oral skills. Assessments and observation can help a teacher to rectify gaps in a child in the learning process and this can help a teacher to develop a plan for progress in skill development in the early learning process of a child. Phonic awareness can develop a child’s strength in hearing and reading activities and can increase the knowledge and learning abilities of a child. Therefore, the teacher needs to observe and motivate Alice in learning and needs to provide support in phonic awareness to develop Alice’s ability of reading, hear and skills in the early learning process.

The social process can also develop by delivering a wide range of communicating ideas, remembering power and information-centric communication skills. In addition, cognition skills can progress through following basic mental steps such as sensation, perception and attention in the learning process and can reach a higher level by following complex mental parameters such as usage of language, learning, problem solving, memory, intelligence and decision-making activities in the learning process (Smith & Kelly, 2015). Therefore, the above-mentioned parameters and activities can develop the social and cognitive skills of reading in Alice and the teacher needs to invest more attention, encouraging activities and individual focus in teaching to strengthen oral language skills.

Theories of the teaching of reading

Behavioural learning theory can be effective in developing phonics, phonological awareness and decoding skills in a child. This theory includes the behaviour development process of a child and mentions that this can be earned through interactions with the environment in the learning system (refer to appendix 1). Therefore, a teacher can develop a learning environment in the class to increase the phonics skills of a child. Emergent literacy theory includes reading and writing skills in the early stages and this mention basic knowledge of comprehension and writing abilities before a child enters into learning activities. This can provide support to a teacher and parents to measure and develop the emergent literacy of a child. The top-down theory includes the hypotheses-driven development of mental parameters such as values, beliefs, expectations, influences and social in a child (, 2022). This theory also can support a teacher to develop the learning and reading capabilities of early ages children in a school.



  • Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6–10.
  • Hoover, W. A., & Gough, P. B. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading and Writing, 2(2), 127–160
  • Rosenshine, B., & Stevens, R. (1995). Functions for teaching well-structured tasks. Journal of Educational Research, 88, 262–268
  • Villaume, S. K., & Brabham, E. G. (2003). Phonics instruction: Beyond the debate. The Reading Teacher, 56, 478–482


  • Altun, D. (2018). The efficacy of multimedia stories in preschoolers’ explicit and implicit story comprehension. Early Childhood Education Journal46(6), 629-642. Retrieved on: 30/09/2022. From:
  • Ellis, S., & Rowe, A. (2020). Literacy, social justice and inclusion: a large?scale design experiment to narrow the attainment gap linked to poverty. Support for Learning35(4), 418-439. DOI:
  • Hoff, E. (2006). How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental review26(1), 55-88. DOI
  • Hogan, T. P., Catts, H. W., & Little, T. D. (2005). The relationship between phonological awareness and reading. DOI: 10.1044/0161-1461(2005/029)
  • Nation, K. (2019). Children’s reading difficulties, language, and reflections on the simple view of reading. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 24(1), 47-73. DOI: 10.1080/19404158.2019.1609272
  • Rupley, W. H., Blair, T. R., & Nichols, W. D. (2009). Effective reading instruction for struggling readers: The role of direct/explicit teaching. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2-3), 125-138. DOI: 10.1080/10573560802683523
  • Smith, A. D., & Kelly, A. (2015). Cognitive Processes. The Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging, 1–4. DOI:10.1002/9781118521373.wbeaa213


  •,2022. Examples to promote phonological awareness Retrieved on: 30/09/2022. From:
  •, 2022. The Big Six of Literacy: a guide for families Retrieved on: 30/09/2022. From:
  •, 2022. Top-Down Processing | Simply Psychology Retrieved on: 30/09/2022. From:,beliefs%2C%20values%20and%20social%20influences.
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