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Introduction : Terrorism As A Threat To The State

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There is neither a scholastic nor a global legitimate agreement with respect to the appropriate meaning of "psychological oppression or terrorism". Some academics believe that "terrorism" can be applied to government actions(United Nations 2018). Paul James and Jonathan Friedman distinguish between state terrorism against non-combatants, including "shock and awe tactics," and state terrorism against combatants, using the term "terrorism" to refer to violent acts carried out with the primary intention of causing terror. Notwithstanding, others, including legislatures, worldwide associations, confidential foundations, and researchers, trust the expression "terrorism" is relevant just to the activities of brutal non-state entertainers. An "actor-centric" definition of this approach places an emphasis on the characteristics of terrorist organizations or individuals; whereas act-centric definitions emphasize the distinction between terrorism and other violent acts(Williamson, M. 2016). The state and its citizens face a serious threat from terrorism. It entails a number of risks, including death, destruction of infrastructure, economic disruption, and a decline in public confidence and security. Apart from the mentioned instances, there have been numerous examples of terrorism creating a serious breach of national and state security. Instances of such occurring have occurred vehemently and aggressively throughout the past decade(Ruby 2022). This essay will be focussing on recent occurrences of terrorism that have been the reason for extreme safety and security breach in different nation-states. This essay will be analysing such situations with the help of real case studies. 

Main Body 

DRC and the Great Lakes 

According to a report published by the United Nations, the Security Council heard today that the Democratic Republic of the Congo's security crisis could thwart positively changes in the Great Lakes region as a whole. Members of the council praised the country's recent admission to the East African Community and emphasized the need to stop the illegal trade in natural resources, which continues to fuel conflict. The Council was first briefed on the Secretary-General's most recent report on the implementation of the peace, security, and cooperation framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the wider region by Xia Huang, Special Envoy for the Great Lakes region. He noted that there have been encouraging trends in dialogue, cooperation, and integration in the Great Lakes region; however, security and humanitarian crises in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo have thrown off this positive trend. While the Allied Democratic Forces and other local armed groups continue to commit atrocities against civilians, the 23 March Movement (M23) has resumed military operations. "Each of these lets us know that harmony in the Popularity based Republic of the Congo stays delicate," he said. The exercises of nearby and unfamiliar equipped gatherings have brought about the uprooting of a huge number of individuals, he added, while trust among Rwanda and the Majority rule Republic of the Congo is by all accounts at its least ebb. He emphasized the significance of regional peace initiatives, such as the Luanda process and the Nairobi process, and urged the international community to support any and all efforts to ease tensions(UN Press 2023). 

Needless to say, that the overall security breaches due to these happenings are extremely overwhelming for the state; Political strife, ethnic strife, resource disputes, and a variety of other factors have contributed to the DRC's internal instability. This unsteadiness makes a rich ground for psychological oppressor gatherings to work and flourish. Numerous armed rebel groups have used the eastern DRC, particularly the North and South Kivu provinces, as a stronghold. These organizations, which include the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), and a variety of Mai-Mai militias, have committed terrorist acts, such as kidnappings, looting, and attacks on civilians; The DRC's problem with terrorism has regional ramifications. Armed groups have launched attacks across the borders and sought refuge in neighbouring territories in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania, among other bordering nations. This threatens the stability and security of the region. Millions of people have been forced to flee their homes and need assistance as a result of the ongoing security issues in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Extremism and radicalization thrive in an environment where people are dispersed, governance structures fall apart, and basic services are lacking. State institutions' capacity to maintain law and order is harmed by the persistence of terrorism and insecurity in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Great Lakes region(Relief Web 2023). It hinders efforts to establish efficient governance and security structures, erodes public trust, and undermines the authority of the government.

The Sahel 

Terrorism has presented significant challenges to the Africa-based Sahel region in recent years. The Sahel alludes to a belt of nations extending across the mainland from the Atlantic Sea to the Red Ocean, including Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Chad, and Sudan. The Sahel region is home to a number of extremist and terrorist organizations, including Boko Haram, Ansaroul Islam, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), and Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS). To gain power and carry out their activities, these groups take advantage of the region's social, economic, and political weaknesses, such as poverty, poor governance, and tensions between the communities. Establishing Islamic states, undermining the authority of national governments, and pursuing international interests are the primary objectives of these terrorist organizations in the Sahel. Smuggling, extortion, kidnapping, and attacks on military and civilian targets are just a few of their many activities. In recent years, there have been more terrorist attacks and violent incidents in the Sahel. Attacks on civilians, security forces, and international peacekeeping missions have been carried out by insurgent groups, particularly in Mali and Burkina Faso(Global Conflict Tracker 2023) . The attacks frequently result in population displacement, which exacerbates the region's humanitarian crisis. Regional and international efforts have been underway to combat the terrorism threat in the Sahel. The G5 Sahel Joint Force was established by Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger to improve security coordination and carry out joint military operations against terrorist groups. Regional governments benefit from the assistance provided by the French-led Operation Barkhane and the Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) of the United Nations.

However, the Sahel region continues to face significant security issues despite these efforts. To combat terrorism in the Sahel, a multifaceted strategy necessitates not only military actions but also efforts to combat extremism's underlying causes, such as poverty, inequality, and governance issues(Dieng, A. 2021). Also, global collaboration and backing are significant in giving assets, preparing, and limiting work to the impacted nations in their battle against psychological oppression.


Pakistan has been managing critical difficulties connected with psychological oppression and issues of state security for a long time. Numerous acts of terrorism, committed by both domestic and international extremist groups, have wreaked havoc on the country's populace, economy, and stability as a whole. The Islamic State (IS), Al-Qaeda, and the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) are just a few terrorist groups that have posed a threat to Pakistan. These gatherings have completed assaults focusing on regular citizens, strict minorities, security powers, government organizations, and public spots. Militant organizations have sought refuge in Pakistan's border regions, particularly along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. Security forces have struggled to effectively combat terrorism in these areas due to the rough terrain and porous borders. The presence of safe havens and encouraging groups of people have permitted psychological oppressors to plan, train, and send off assaults from these locales. Despite this, the government of Pakistan has taken a number of steps to combat terrorism and improve state security. These endeavors remember military activities for the ancestral regions, insight drove tasks, designated killings of high-profile fear-based oppressors, and measures to check psychological oppressor support and publicity(Bush 2023).

In the fight against terrorism, the Islamic nation has steadfastly cooperated with the international community, particularly the United States and other regional powers. Concerns about the use of drones and intelligence operations on Pakistani soil, allegations of support for militant groups, and divergent interests have all contributed to the relationship's complexity. In Pakistan, sectarian violence has also occurred, primarily between Shia and Sunni Muslim communities. Extremist organizations, such as Pakistan's Lashkar-e-Jhangvi and Sipah-e-Sahaba, have targeted religious gatherings, mosques, and individuals of opposing sects(Adil, K., 2021). Pakistan has struggled with radicalization as a result of extremist ideologies and certain madrassas (religious schools) encouraging violence and intolerance. While promoting inclusive and moderate Islam, the government has taken steps to regulate and reform these institutions.

Notwithstanding psychological warfare, Pakistan faces other security challenges, remembering dissenter developments for Balochistan, line questions with India, and cross-line assaults. To maintain stability, these issues necessitate a variety of strategies that put the country's security apparatus under additional strain(Bilal, F. E., Abbas, R., & Rashid, M. A. 2022). A comprehensive strategy that incorporates border management, countering extremist ideologies, socioeconomic development, regional cooperation, and military operations is necessary to address these issues. It is essential to keep in mind that Pakistan's security situation is complicated and constantly changing and that efforts to combat terrorism and ensure state security necessitate ongoing commitment and international cooperation.


To conclude one can, say that religious dogmatism and political radicalism as well as extreme inefficiency of the working governments of particular nation-states can be cumulatively considered responsible for the vehement increase in terrorism in the mentioned case studies. The aspect of weak governments is one of the main reasons why terrorism has a greater and a more profuse impact on some nation-states in comparison to others. However, even in the modernized world of present times, it cannot be disregarded that religion promotes major aspects of psychological oppression especially in areas where there are limited opportunities of education and social awareness and extreme forms of gender discrimination which is an inorganic outcome of third world countries such as the ones mentioned.     


  • Adil, K., 2021. Policing extremism and terrorism in Pakistan. Global Village Space.
  • Bilal, F. E., Abbas, R., & Rashid, M. A. (2022). Terrorism in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis. Pakistan Languages and Humanities Review, 6(2), 1003-1013.
  • Bush, G. W. (2023, April 29). The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.
  • Democratic Republic of Congo Crisis Thwarting Gains in Great Lakes Region, Speakers Tell Security Council, Stressing Need to End Illicit Natural Resources Trade | UN Press. (n.d.).
  • Dieng, A. (2021). The Sahel: Challenges and opportunities. International Review of the Red Cross, 103(918), 765-779.
  • Global Community Must Bolster Efforts to Decrease Tensions in Great Lakes Region, Special Envoy Tells Security Council, Highlighting Role of Regional Peace Plans - Democratic Republic of the Congo | ReliefWeb. (2023, April 19).
  • Ruby, C. L. (2022). The definition of terrorism. Analyses of social issues and public policy, 2(1), 9-14.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2018). Introduction to International Terrorism. [online] Available at:
  • Violent Extremism in the Sahel. (n.d.). Global Conflict Tracker. Retrieved May 17, 2023, from
  • Williamson, M. (2016). Terrorism, war and international law: the legality of the use of force against Afghanistan in 2001. Routledge.
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