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Intoduction : Sustainable Tourism Development
“Travel and experience are education in themselves.”- Euripides. Tourism is one of the important industries for any country around the world. It can provide many benefits, such as creating job opportunities and contribute to GDP. This can only be possible only when this sector is being managed properly with planning. In this report, different approaches to develop and plan the tourism sector in Qatar will be discussed. The role of stakeholders in planning of tourism development will be elaborated briefly. In addition, the major advantages and disadvantages of both private and public sector tourism and PPP model have been included. Moreover, an analysis of tourism development planning at different stages have been incorporated here. Different tourism development processes and planning systems have been mentioned along with some current examples. Sustainability is very crucial aspect and to be integrated with the tourism sector. Therefore, a discussion on sustainable tourism has been included here.
LO1: Understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry
1.1 Discuss how stakeholders can benefit from planning of tourism developments with reference to Qatar.
In this section, the role of stakeholders and how they can be benefitted from the planning and development of tourism sector have been discussed. This leaflet explains
Perks for the Stakeholders: Planning the tourism sectors helps in increasing the economic, social, and environmental returns for every stakeholders (Ayre and Callway, 2013). Planning helps in improving the quality of life of everyone. For the people of Qatar, it is profitable as it takes care of the natural resources. People working in the tourism sector are benefitted by planning as it triggers the job creation process, increase the wages, incentives, and improves the ROI for shareholders and investors. It has long-term benefits for the other businesses associated with the tourism sector(Becken, & Wilson, 2013). It triggers the development process in Qatar. It improves the public-private partnership model by strengthening the bond between the two sectors. It improves the economic conditions of a country by increasing the tax and interest payment. To sum up all, planning in the tourism sector improves the overall performance of every discipline that comes under it.
Here, the benefits of planning in the travel and tourism sector for different stakeholders have been discussed along with their role in the planning process.
Role of Stakeholders:
Implementation and development of the tourism management plan usually depends on the stakeholders. In Qatar, the stakeholder comprises investors, tourists, developers, management, employee, operators, public and private sectors, NGOs, etc. Stakeholders are important in developing the tourism sector in Qatar as they help in achieving the goals of tourism development plan. Stakeholders are impacted by tourism development in different ways. Some may see it as another way of improving the quality of life. To engage the stakeholders effectively is not a cakewalk as there are many challenges like resistance from the stakeholders, ensuring fairness and efficiency, lack of communication, etc.
1.2 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships drawing on a current example
In this section, the meaning of public-private partnership has been explained along with their reason for forming such relationship. The bond has been analyzed thoroughly and its advantages and disadvantages have been elaborated here in this leaflet.
It provides direct benefits to the local people as it work for their betterment.
It increases the pace of the work.
It helps in resolving the issues that hinder the growth of the tourism sector.
It is cost-effective and increases efficiency of the work.
It leads to the better management if the heritage sites.
It gives financial and technological support to the team.
It promotes the integrated and effective use of resources of Qatar, such as heritage, culture, human resources, infrastructure, community, etc.
It helps in formulating the tourism policies that are useful in managing the tourism sector.
Planning the tourism sectors helps in increasing the economic, social, and environmental returns for every stakeholders.
Such relationships often increases the disputes among the shareholders and investors.
These partnerships are subjected to political risks.
Disputes may lead to cancelling the contract between the two parties.
It increases the financial instability in the tourism sector of Qatar.
In this leaflet, the advantages and disadvantages of public-private partnership (PPP) model was discussed in context of the developing countries like Qatar.
Meaning of public and private tourism planning: In context of Qatar, the public-private partnership can be elucidated as the collaboration between the private sector organization and public sector organization in order to achieve certain objectives or goals. Basically, the relationship is formed to develop a particular region of Qatar. Hence, it plays a significant role in the sustainable development of the tourism sector of Qatar(Ghosh, & Siddique, 2017). It assists in achieving the social goals, such as employment opportunity, economic benefits, etc.
LO2: Understand different approaches to tourism planning and development
In this report, a discussion on various approaches to planning and development of tourism in Qatar is done. As a part of it, an analysis of distinct features of tourism development plan at different levels have been done. In addition to this, different methods that can be employed in measuring the impact of tourist on Qatar have been evaluated thoroughly.
.1 Analyse features of tourism development planning at different levels with reference to the Qatar.
In context to Qatar, the tourism development planning is referred as the process of considering the requirements of tourists planning a trip and by making use of those needs, the best program, resources, and activities are determined. Tourism planning is done for the local businesses, residents, and tourists coming to an area. Qatar tourism planning helps in attaining different tourism objectives. The major features of different levels of tourism development plan is elaborated below:-
- International Level:The major areas that have been attended in the tourism planning of Qatar includes, the improvement in the cross-border transportation system. Special tour programmes are promoted on international channels to attract tourist from different countries.
- National Level:It includes formulation of national tourism policies and investmentplans, development plans, development of road network and tourism organisational legislation and structure.
- Regional Level:This focuses on developing the road network, providing funds to local authorities of Qatar, and creating marketing strategies.
- Sub-regional Level: This attends to the sub-regions of Qatar, providing accommodation and other important amenities to tourists.
2.2 Evaluation of the significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism developments in Qatar
As the tourism sector of a country evolves, it brings many challenges to that region and to the local community, such as traffic congestion, development stress, overcrowding, and superstructure. Some of these are the consequences of weak tourism policies and inefficient planning. However, there are countries that do not have the tourism development plan and are reaping benefits from tourism sector(Swarbrooke& Horner, 2012). Majority of the nations have prepared their plans and strategies, but most of them are still partially taken into account due to the absence of interactive planning system.
Earlier planning systems were unclear, used to stick to the defined framework only, and they were irrelevant from the budget aspects. On the other hand, interactive planning is quite collaborative, integrated, co-operative, and ensure stakeholders’ participation. It considers the interest of local community as well. The decision making is based on the participation and involvement of both public and private sector. Interactive planning includes the opinion of the experts and their recommendations(Ghosh, & Siddique, 2017). The structure designed in the interactive planning takes into consideration the local people and civilians who are engaged in the tourism sector for efficient working of the planning process.
Interactive planning is significant from the coordination point of view. It ensures the co-operation between the stakeholders, such as organisations, tourists, and local communities, thereby saving funds by maximizing the potential of Qatar. According to researchers, Qatar is one of those region that has implemented the interactive tourism planning process in the most effective manner. By its resource planning, Qatar has managed its limited natural resources and has achieved its short-term objectives
2.3 Evaluate different methods available to measure tourist impact
There numerous ways to calculate the impact of tourism on any area. It is important to measure the effect of tourism so as to the degradation of cultural, environmental, and social resources and keep the nation attractive for the tourists(Hoffman, 2016). Methods, such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Economic studies, Social studies can be used for the same purpose. These methods are discussed below:-
- Environmental Measures: Many research are being conducted in order to assess the economic impact of tourists on the Qatar. Methods like Cambridge Economic Impact Model helps in measuring the level of tourism (both national and international). EIA provides the local authorities with information about the effects of a particular activity on the region and help them to formulate the policies regarding the same.
- Social Measures:Measuring the socio-economic impacts of tourism is difficult, but there are two indirect methods that can serve the purpose. First method includes surveys and interview, whereas the second method involves collecting data from the public records.
- Economic Measures:Economic impact can be measured by evaluating the change in income of people of Qatar induce by the rise in tourism. The data of average spending of tourist, number of workers employed in the tourism sector, total share in GDP, etc., is gathered and evaluated.
In this report, the impacts of tourism on the lives of the citizens of Qatar were discussed. The proper analysis of advantages and disadvantages was carried out in context of social, economic, and environmental aspects. Later on, a discussion on the methods to measure the impacts of tourism on Qatar was done in brief.
LO3: Understand the need for planning for sustainable tourism
3.1 Justify the introduction of the concept of sustainability in tourism development
Sustainability in the tourism sector keeps a balance between the economic, socio-cultural factor, and environmental factors. The concept is applied in order to minimize the impact on the environment and local communities. In this report, the factors affecting the sustainability planning process. Moreover, various stages involved in implementing the concept of sustainability in tourism sector of Qatar have been explained here in this report.
The concept of sustainability is very important for every sector, especially the travel and tourism sector. It helps in managing the natural and man-made resource that are scarce and expensive, thereby contributes in managing the local ecosystems. It is best justified by a theory called the Triple Bottom Line Theory.
The Triple Bottom Line sustainability concept in context of Qatar assists in improvising the social, economic, and environmental performance. This performance is checked by the level of health facilities,quality of life, education, etc.
- First bottom line talks about environmental dimensions, such as air quality, pollution level, minimization of energy use, etc.
- The second bottom line target various environmental dimensions, such as water quality, energy consumption, optimum usage of natural resources, etc.
- The third bottom line talks about economic dimensions, such as income, taxes, flight rate, business climate, number of persons employed in the tourism sector of Qatar.
3.2 analyse factors that may prevent/hinder sustainable tourism development
Factors affecting or hindering the sustainability are: globalisation, tourism policies, wastage of resources, climate, etc. To elaborate these factors, the level of education hinders the social growth of Qatar affect the social development of Qatar’s tourism industry.
Pollution and wastage of natural resources affect the environmental development. Similarly, human rights violation, irrelevant government policies reduces the tourist influx of Qatar. Globalisation has a huge impact over the tourism sector’s sustainability.
.3 Analyse different stages in planning for sustainability
Sustainability planning in the tourism sector of Qatar consists of different stages. Each stage has its own significance and is important to achieve the overall performance. There are basically four stages that are explained in the given section.
The first stage is all about creating the short and long-term goals for sustainable tourism sector of Qatar. Second stage is determining the different stakeholders of the tourism sector, such as planner, tourist, businesses, etc. Third stage is forming the sub-plans, such as environmental, social, and economic development plan. The second last stage is determining the major challenges and issues& challenging affecting the sustainability process. Then comes the planning and monitoring phase.
In this section, the concept of sustainability was elaborated along with the Triple Bottom Line Theory that justifies the concept. The three pillars of sustainability i.e., social, environment, and economic development were elucidated. Factors hindering the sustainability process were mentioned in here. Different stages of sustainability planning were also elaborated.
LO4: Understand current issues related to tourism development planning
4.1 Evaluate methods of resolving a conflict of interests to ensure the future wellbeing of a developing tourism destination such as Qatar.
4.2 Analyse the implications of balancing supply and demand with reference to Qatar.
4.3 Evaluate the moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism in Qatar.
Current issues related to tourism development planning in Qatar
Date: June 21, 2018
Despite of numerous efforts taken up by the government of Qatar to keep the growth of travel and tourism sector on track, certain issues are still existing in this area. The major problemsare the confronted and polemic behavior towards understanding the meaning of sustainable tourism planning and conflicts among the official bodies working on the tourism projects. In this article, the methods of resolving conflicts in order to make sure the future wellbeing in Qatar. An analysis of implication of creating a balance between supply and demand is done. Moreover, the ethical problems of enclave tourism have also been discussed.
Methods of resolving a conflict of interests
The conflicts in the tourism sector lead to some negative effect on the future wellbeing of Qatar. Since large numbers of stakeholders are associated with this industry, having conflicts between different parties is quite obvious (Swarbrooke& Horner, 2012). There are many ways of resolving them that are given below:-
Promoting healthy relationship among stakeholders
Host-guest interrelationship approach
Implications of balancing supply and demand
The development of tourism sector in Qatar depends on the demand for tourism. The demand depends on the tourism opportunities that are characterised by mix of attractions and tourist places. For travel and tourism of Qatar to grow, it is essential to provide quality services based on the principles of sustainability for tourism development. On the other side, the tourist supply comprises all services, products, and assets that are occasioned during the journeys of travellers. Both demand and supply help in shaping the tourism sector of Qatar. Keeping a balance between the demand and supply is important for the sustainability of the tourism sector of Qatar. The demand and supply can be managed by numerous methods. Factors, such as government restrictions, lack of resources, climate, etc. So planning them can be helpful in managing the demand and supply. Balancing the demand and supply improves the coordination between different conditions and requirement of tourism sector. Forecasting plays a crucial role in managing the future demand of tourist in Qatar. For that purpose Delphi techniques can be a better option. On the other hand, supply can also be tackle by using the available resources in the most optimized manner.
The moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
The tourism industry of Qatar faces many moral and ethical dilemmas, such as corruption, false marketing, fraud, unethical consumer issues, environmental degradation, child labour, drugs, etc. These issues are present in the Qatar and damaging the tourism sector profoundly. Apart from these, Qatar also faces the problem like lack of transportation, terrorism, lack of other amenities. Being a developing nation, Qatar lacks in many areas in terms of providing services to the tourist (both local and international). Talking about the ‘enclave tourism’ in Qatar, it is the debating topic and people have contradicting views about it. The enclave tourism resorts require a large amount of money and space. Sometimes local farmers have to give away their land that affects their livelihood. It takes away the employment from the people and other essential resources. If it is unplanned development, environmental degradation may occur. Apart from this, these kinds of development usually destroy the local businesses and do not contribute in the development of the society which is quite unethical. Therefore, organisation must follow the CSR principle if they are going for enclave tourism in Qatar.
Before the article ends, it is important to understand the sustainability is quintessential for the development of tourism sector. No doubt that this sector has many conflicts between the stakeholders, but these can be resolved efficiently by different methods. The demand and supply and the importance of balancing the two was covered in this section. The article also covered the ethical and moral issues of enclave tourism.
LO5. Understand the socio-cultural, environmental and economic impacts of tourism in developing countries and emerging destinations
The impacts of tourism vary from country to country. The conditions of one nation is different from other and therefore, the environmental, socio-cultural, and economic impacts of tourism are distinct on developing countries and emerging destinations like Qatar. In this report, those effects of tourism is discussed in depth. In addition to this, certain recommendations have also been provided regarding the future development of tourism in emerging destination like Qatar and a developing country like India.
5.1 Compare current issues associated with tourism development in a developing country and an emerging destination where the impacts of tourism are different
Emerging Destination (Qatar)
Developing Country (India)
Tourist Influx (Annual)
2.6 Million (in 2017)
8.8 Million (in 2017)
Issues & Challenges for Tourism Sector
Security concerns and Economic Challenges.
High taxes and hotel rents.
Lack of entertainment places, such as resorts, water cities, etc.
Weaker promotional strategies.
Government regulations lead to bottlenecking for the business and operators.
Women safety is the major issue.
Terrorist attacks lead to safety concerns.
Visa documentation is not a hassle-free process.
To trigger the economic growth, the government has diversified the projects related to FIFA world cup 2022.
Providing the free transit visas to all nationalities for ninety six hours.
e-visa and visa free entry for nationals of 80 nations.
Launching schemes for the development of rural tourism sites.
The special category states are been developed based on the theme-based circuit.
Developing the country based on the eco circuit, wildlife circuit, rural circuit, desert circuit, etc.
5.2 Evaluate with recommendations, the future development of tourism in these chosen destinations.
Talking about the future of travel and tourism industry in Qatar, it anticipates a rapid boom as FIFA world cup 2022 will be organised in the country. The government of Qatar has adopted a multi-pronged strategy for tourism sector to increase the tourist influx. In the Qatar National Tourism Sector Strategy-2030, the governments aims at increasing the tourist influx to about 7 million annually from current 2.6 million. This might triggers the exponential rise in the revenue generation. The World Travel and Tourism council (WTTC) report says that Qatar’s tourism industry may add QAR 66 Billion to the economy before 2025.
Recommendation for Qatar’s Tourism Sector
- Qatar must work on educational tourism by forming ties with some international institutions in order to attract the scholars from different nations.
- Qatar should include the health and wellness attraction in its future tourism goals by building world-class hospitals and healthcare facilities.
- In order to achieve the FIFA world cup target, the nation has to pace up the speed from current 11% per year to 16% per year.
India is a developing country and 7th largest tourism economy where the travel and tourism sector shared 6.9% in the total GDP in 2017. The government of India is planning increase the total investment in tourism sector from INR 2284.9 billion to 4149 billion by 2027. The travel and tourism sector is the fastest growing in the G20 nations. According to WTTC, the major contribution comes from the domestic travel i.e., 88% of the total contribution in the GDP in 2016.
Recommendation for India:-
- Government should make policies that favours the traveller influx from all around the world.
- Formulate new visa regime, allow the private parties to contribute in the travel and tourism sector.
- Apply the PPP model in order to provide infrastructure so as to flourish the businesses associated with the tourism sector.
In this report, the issues that the tourism sector of an emerging destination and the developing country faces were discussed briefly. Since the impacts of tourism vary from country to country, the comparison should be drawn between the two regions. In addition to this, the development plans of the two countries were evaluated and based on that some recommendations were given in this report.
The sustainability is essential for every sector in today’s time. In this report, the applicability of sustainability in the tourism sector of Qatar was talked about. In the first section, the discussion started with reason for planning the tourism sector of Qatar and ended after explaining the pros and cons of public private partnership in the tourism in context of Qatar. In the second section, the analysis of the features of planning in different levels of tourism was done. In addition to this, different models to measure the impacts of tourism were evaluated. In the later part, the need for planning the tourism on the principles of sustainability was discussed. The triple bottom line theory was explained and the factors affecting the sustainability of tourism in Qatar were elaborated. In the end, the social, cultural, economic, and environmental factors influencing the tourism industry of developing nation like India and the emerging destination like Qatar were compared. Moreover, the recommendations for the future development of tourism sectors were also provided.
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