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Person-centered approach assessment: evidence-based review Assignment Sample

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Introduction Person-centered approach assessment: evidence-based review

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1. Executive summary

The study sheds light on the person-oriented approach in the two areas which are the importance of diagnosis and early intervention and the importance of teaching communication skills. These two topics were evaluated with some major important points in the investigation part in which brief detail was delivered. Description of these two areas evaluated in the further part. The importance of a diagnosis and early intervention has a need to maintain healthy levels in persons and evaluated in the evaluation part. The last part is all about self-reflection on those two identified areas.

This study reflects on two major selected areas and based on which evidence-based review needs to be done. This study is prescribed by using a person-centered approach to ensure research-based practices and to support autistic individuals as well as their families across a variety of settings. The importance of diagnosis and early intervention and the significance of teaching communication skills are two identified areas in which the entire study has been described. Best-practice contemporary strategies for supporting learning for Autistic individuals are demonstrated in the evaluation part as per the described areas. Recognizing the challenges with being an autistic individual carer including stigma and prejudice while examining and those are reflected in the description part.

2. Investigation

Importance of a Diagnosis and Early Intervention

Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of autism

The “diagnosis of autism” poses particular types of challenges for all healthcare worker as there are no biomarkers used in the clinical practice. “Autistic adults” have more health issue as compared to their same-aged amount peers and poor health results are made frequently documented. Person diagnosis is completely independent of visualizing the social which is based human behaviors which are not to implement necessary characteristics of an individual under an assessment but emerge from two-way social context and person social relationships (Hayes et al. 2018). It is known that lower social-economic states with status increased parent-reported when deciding how to get on ASD in the best ways. Observing the potential challenges for the diagnosis of “autismclinical practical guidelines”plays a key role in informing health care professionals of best practices. In addition to the CGPs UK government help to provide evidence-based recommendations to deliver all the action and strategic plan. Some of the healthcare studies show that social factors like availability of resources, and individual patient preferences can shape perfect diagnosis practices of autism for example heart disease. Cultural and socio-economic factors are a great amount deal of make research that provide human biomarkers which could be used in “autism diagnosis”. However, it has been argued at the same time a longitudinal UK cohort study with autistic traits held constant which were significantly less likely to take a diagnosis in adolescence mothers or “mothers of first-born children”diagnosed with ASD.

Interventions to address health outcomes among autistic adults

Community perceptions of autism have found that most individual has a low level of understanding and for many families; the lack of accessibility to diagnosis services always remains a barrier to care (Jones et al. 2021). For those coming for a lack of high-quality independent evidence base, there are three major tools for supporting best practices and contemporary strategies for autistic individuals. Autism Diagnostic interview revised, childhood Autism relating scale and Autism diagnostics observation schedule had strong evidence-based tools which are helpful in interventions to address health outcomes of those children. Guidelines of the diagnosis acknowledged that there is an increasing demand for diagnosis services which is likely to lead to a rise in people to the concept of ASD. A notable behavioral treatment for people who have ASD also needs applied behavior analysis tools for addressing health outcomes and improving a variety of skills.

This figure briefly describes factors contributing to poor mental health during the pandemic highlighting groups of children who are especially at risk and barriers while assessing adolescent and child mental health care.

The Importance of Teaching Communication Skills

Significance of the communication skills

Good communication skills are always essential for all individuals as they allow us to understand the information more quickly and accurately. However, many people struggle in their life just because they do not have better communication skills. Many students do not realize the need for learning and developing communication skills as a part of their course but being a teacher it is important for them to realize very well the importance of communication skills while teaching. For example, in the health care sector, effective communication between a doctor and nurses as well as the patient is necessary for better treatment compliance (Nayak &Kadeangadi, 2019). Teaching communication in a health care sector also needs better health outcomes and higher satisfaction for both health practitioners and patients.

The above figure states that in a workplace between a manager and all employees who are working within an organisation high-level communication skills are required in fostering career progression quickly.

Impact of communication skills

In this modern world, teaching communication skills plays a critical role and an individual must have mastery of these skills among all the language skills for communicating in an effective way. There are numerous impacts on all individuals in contributing to the delivery of the result and promoting team member reality is one of the impact on a student or other individual in delivering loyalty between two people. Speaking is one of the most difficult skills that a learner needs to face because the speaker needs to produce a sentence and also spur the moment for it. Since speaking skills play a dominant role in communication an individual always tries to learn these skills in order to communicate in an effective way. Therefore, inactive speaking situations are most useful for both the speaker as well as the listener as they can understand their matter without any further doubts (Rao, 2019). In the healthcare sector communication skills in a corrective way has positive effects on patients which consist of improving vital signs like better participation of patients in treatments program. It positively affects both health practitioners and patients in clarifying information and reducing waste time.

3. Description

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that challenges professionals and families to find effective mediation that can improve the lives of individuals with “Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)”. For example, each adult or child with autism is unique and based on the problems, strategies or programs must be chosen. Based on the chosen content which is the importance of diagnosis and early intervention the research complies with children with Asperger Syndrome in which they do not show general defacement in overall cognitive development, although social language, visual-motor skills and pragmatic skills are common (Ucedd.uihc.org, 2022). In Iowa, more than 6500 children may have ASD and the lifetime cost of caring for those patients ranges from $3.5 million to $5 million. Repetitive use of language, lack of interest in other children and delay in spoken language are some symptoms of having this disorder. This way, identifying effective behavioural as well as medical treatments based on a solid foundation needs to be required using effective strategies or programs. “Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA)” and “Discrete Trial Training (DTT)” are chosen strategies which supported the effectiveness of interventions. 

Positives and negatives of each strategy

A significant intervention was provided to the physical and social environment that elicits and maintains behaviour with children between 2-8 years of age using the ABA program. There is some ongoing debate as well that shows the negative point that ABA is only being applied to comprehensive educational programs. In contrast, DTT is a learning theory programme in which stimulus is present to the children's response and then that patient receives a reward based on their response (Journals.sagepub.com, 2022). This is one of the positives of this program at the same time DTT often incorporates the use of modelling, reinforcement, correction, and shaping to encourage skill acquisition. After analysing the negatives of this strategy program evaluated that it is pretty much costly and not all families can afford it.

Recommendation

The intervention might use with all ages and ABA principles and DTT learning theory are often effective with all ages and might reduce social communication and behavioural problems with all ages, especially in children with ASD. “Teleconsultation” is proven to be an effective strategy in mitigating such disease from the perspective of the family community, and autistic individuals setting in especially urban areas (Ucedd.uihc.org, 2022). Talking about the repercussion of supportive communicative development, show some wide differences in natural play inb the communication behaviour with other developmental communications. 

Both these programs are completely safe across the whole autistic community having such serious health conditions as they deliver 2-3 hour per week training to parents and that can effectively reduce problems. Moreover, special training is included in the DTT hiring and interventions programme in which 20-30 hours per week training program are provided to such communities. 

Identified two strategies or programs have their individual characteristics and using those strategies powerful behavioural outcomes in the area of academics, education, language, reduction of self-stimulatory from the patient side evaluated and intervention provided to them. ABA is delivered through 1 hour per week of parent training and is not that much costly as well and it also has an intensive intervention programme as well for this reason the strategies required at least 4 out of 5 ratings. In contrast, research indicates that DTT can easily indicate behavioural outcomes from the patient but it requires long-term therapy and therapy per week can be expensive too. For this reason, the theory-connected program gets 2 out of 5 stars. 

Effective clinical practice depends on the number of tools which are helpful in guiding the development of self-awareness and learn them to how to live well. Recognising the challenges associated with being an autistic individual strategy is important which can hinder development based on the person-centred approach. There are many topics have been covered but the chosen two topics are very important for advancing the skills and knowledge of using the best practice strategy.

The first topic is important for demonstrating the research for post-graduate level in which evidence-based diagnostic process while identifying a person-centred approach for an autistic individual. There has been rapid increased interest in early screening process as well as intervention for adolescence children with an autism spectrum disorder. “Existing reviews of early treatment for ASD”also focuses on applied behaviour analysis which focuses on children who have especially anxiety problem. It is noted that an examine group differences in the “SPAI outcomes” research employs ANOVA in order to examine all the gender control mothers and fathers on differences based on AG scores and SPAI (Kuusikko-gauffinet al. 2013). In this way, deciding the significant gender bases included factors that are based on the process of diagnosis itself underlying the biological problems.

The next topic is teaching communication skills and is chosen for conducting the research process as it is significant in these modern days. In all fields assessing communication skills is essential for all learners to enhance their career and are useful for professionals as well to build their career. With the essence of regular practice in a workplace, ELLs can immensely develop speaking skills and can give presentations on their own by leaving all the fears that are moving in their mind. For example, in the field of healthcare if a reputed person does not have good communication skills then they cannot provide their juniors as well as patients a path where they can build their future (Rao, 2019). In this way, these two topics show how it needs for a learner to get over it and understand it in a detailed way.

4. Evaluation

Importance of a Diagnosis and Early Intervention

A compensatory strategy can be useful to support the learning, sensory and social profiles of Autistic individuals. This strategy includes environmental changes and constructing behavioural strategies to reduce persistent impairment in cognitive skills, memory, function and attention. These changes deliver support to achieve proper rehabilitation goals.

Content suitability as a person-centred response

The importance of a diagnosis and early intervention has a need to maintain healthy levels in persons. Diagnosis requires regular or scheduled check-ups to know about health issues in a person. Autistic individuals face issues in communication and social interaction and therefore, lag behind in a mass of the crowd. The scheduling process of health check-ups can deliver the completion of early intervention. Access and engagement are considered notorious issues that occur during the transformation into adulthood. Therefore, continuous caring has a requirement to perform early intervention of any health issues by completing scheduling diagnosis of issues. 

Content accuracy

Interest in early intervention for youth has increased to determine the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (French & Kennedy, 2018). This includes different types of controversies between potential risk factors and the advantages of early detection techniques. This research aims to deliver relevant information regarding the early intervention process in ASD.

Is the content peer-reviewed?

Yes, this journal is a peer-reviewed journal and this was collected from Google Scholar.

Intent

This research program considered the identification of 48 RCTs to collect authentic information about the research. The main purpose of this research is to show the effective impact of early interventions for ASD.

Content establishment

This research delivers current data as this research was published in 2018 and considered recent knowledge while performing the data analysis process. Several risk factors regarding ASD were covered in this research to deliver enough suggestions about this disorder. This also aligned relevant processes to complete early intervention and diagnostic to maintain helath standard in youth.

Relevancy

This strategy provides relevant support as per the purpose of this study as that article included a discussion regarding early intervention for ASD. This program also discusses early intervention and diagnosis importance to maintaining health and shows relevance to the journal.

The virtual learning process can be an effective strategy for improving communication skills. This process offers a teacher to follow every child during the learning process. Audio-visual learning can deliver effective support to children to gain more knowledge and to cover more interaction with teachers through online mode.

Importance of a Diagnosis and Early Intervention

Content suitability as a person-centred response

Autistic people face issues in the communication process and this can affect education purposes also. Teaching in the digital environment (TIDE) can deliver suggestions to students to develop their solutions and communication activities through this learning process (Claro et al. 2018). This is a person-centred process as this defines the ability of teachers and students to develop performance and communication skills in the learning process.

Content accuracy

This content provides important information about the TIDE process to measure a teacher’s ability to develop a student's skills and to enable the communication skills of the students.

Is the content peer-reviewed?

This research is a peer-reviewed journal and experts reviewed this article.

Intent

This research considered a sampling process by taking 848 teachers in Chile and delivering them different questionnaires about the teaching process and student communication. This survey showed a result that only one-third of teachers had the ability to develop information and communication skills for autistic individuals, children or students.

Content establishment

This delivers information regarding TIDE and completed the data analysis process to deliver important information regarding the content.

Relevancy

This strategy has relevance with content as the virtual learning process helps to increase children's abilities in the communication process. Therefore, this skill also provides support in teaching skills and benefits students to learn more by increasing communication skills.

5. Recommendation

This study recommended that contemporary strategies can be effective to maintain health standards and can cure autistic individuals through early interventions and the diagnosis processes. The virtual learning process can deliver important support to develop communication skills and teaching capabilities in students and teachers respectively.

6. Reflection

In relation to the person-centred approach and implications two best practice strategies were discovered through autistic individual as well as their family member. Incorporation of a high degree of structure clear physical boundaries as well a visual activity schedule organised that is considered an effective consideration for all the families. Concerning autistic individuals and their families, I realised that this analysis uses pharmacological treatments for symptoms of ASD in a challenging manner. The mediation process is also used with the help of these two strategies and those are good for supporting the stimulants with a patient.

Based on the treatment planning I considered that empirical support or risk for harm is required for both children and adults in the intervention programs. The first strategy is ABA which is suitable for all patients it also took less time for getting proper treatment and having less cost makes it more effective. In contrast, Discrete Trail Training incorporates the use of correction and reinforcement and produces behavioural outcomes for those as well. In this program, there is a clear warning of therapy per week can be expensive and not affordable for all patients. The first therapy is worth both time and money as it took only one day a week for therapy and requires at least 7-week treatment whereas money might be affordable for the entire patient. In contrast, the reduction of aggressive behaviours and emotional expression cannot be considered easily and for this reason, DTT therapists provide more than 25-hour of therapy and divided it into weeks which might be so costly. 

Conclusion

After analysing the entire study while completing the assessment I have learnt several things which might beneficial for my personal journey. First of all, personal communication skills are one of the important parts of delivering the research strategy and programs while the intervention process. Differences are found in underpinning philosophies and some of the approaches are more instrumental-based approach and those are the major areas where I faced challenges. Utilising the functional communication training more I will apply my strategies to further research. After completing the research, I achieved some knowledge in a professional setting. It needs special education or skill and some professional learning is also necessary for mitigating disruptive behaviour. Each intervention individualized based on improving cognitive development and that might only be possible if one have professional learning knowledge. 

References

Journals

Benevides, T. W., Shore, S. M., Andresen, M. L., Caplan, R., Cook, B., Gassner, D. L., ... & Wittig, K. (2020). Interventions to address health outcomes among autistic adults: A systematic review. Autism24(6), 1345-1359. +. Retreive on 26.09.2022 from : https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1362361320913664

Claro, M., Salinas, Á., Cabello-Hutt, T., San Martín, E., Preiss, D. D., Valenzuela, S., &Jara, I. (2018). Teaching in a Digital Environment (TIDE): Defining and measuring teachers' capacity to develop students' digital information and communication skills. Computers & Education121, 162-174.Retreive on 26.09.2022 from : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.001

French, L., & Kennedy, E. M. (2018). Annual Research Review: Early intervention for infants and young children with, or at?risk of, autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Journal of Child Psychology and psychiatry59(4), 444-456. +. Retreive on 26.09.2022 from : https://acamh.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcpp.12828

French, L., & Kennedy, E. M. (2018). Annual Research Review: Early intervention for infants and young children with, or at?risk of, autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Journal of Child Psychology and psychiatry59(4), 444-456.Retreive on 26.09.2022 from : https://acamh.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/jcpp.12828

Hayes, J., Ford, T., Rafeeque, H. and Russell, G., 2018. Clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in adults and children in the UK: a narrative review. BMC psychiatry, 18(1), pp.1-25.

Jones, S. C., Akram, M., Gordon, C. S., Murphy, N., & Sharkie, F. (2021). Autism in Australia: Community Knowledge and Autistic People's Experiences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51(10), 3677+. Retreive on 26.09.2022 from : https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A676610119/PPNU?u=think&sid=bookmark-PPNU&xid=29ae834e

Kuluski, K., Reid, R. J., & Baker, G. R. (2021). Applying the principles of adaptive leadership to person?centred care for people with complex care needs: Considerations for care providers, patients, caregivers and organizations. Health Expectations24(2), 175-181. +. Retreive on 26.09.2022 from : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/hex.13174

Kuusikko-gauffin, S., Pollock-wurman, R., Mattila, M., Jussila, K., Ebeling, H., Pauls, D., &Moilanen, I. (2013). Social anxiety in parents of high-functioning children with autism and asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(3), 521-9. +. Retreive on 26.09.2022 from : https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-012-1581-1

Nayak, R. K., &Kadeangadi, D. M. (2019). Effect of teaching communication skills to medical undergraduate students: An exploratory study. Indian Journal of Community and Family Medicine5(2), 108.+. Retreive on 26.09.2022 from : https://www.ijcfm.org/article.asp?issn=2395-2113;year=2019;volume=5;issue=2;spage=108;epage=113;aulast=Nayak

Rao, P.S., 2019. The importance of speaking skills in English classrooms. Alford Council of International English & Literature Journal (ACIELJ), 2(2), pp.6-18.

Websites

Ucedd.uihc.org, 2022. Evidence-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders (online) Available at: https://ucedd.uihc.org//sites/uihc.org.ucedd/files/Evidence-Based%20Interventions%20for%20Autism%20Spectrum%20Disorders.pdf [Accessed on: 13/10/2022]

Journals.sagepub.com, 2022. Autism & Developmental Language Impairments (online) Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/23969415211015840 [Accessed on: 13/10/2022]

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