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layered architecture lays out the structure in layers, every of which has relevant functions attached. The shortest layers indicate the basic services that seem to be expected to be utilized across the system because each layer delivers functions to the basic layers above this. The layered reference architecture organizes elements into a sedimentary sequence, with each level playing a particular function inside the program.

1. Layered model specifically organized the subsystems

The display, administration, durability, and database elements are the most common layer sorts of layers in layered architectures which is layered. As per the view of Ansu-Kyeremeh and Goosen, (2022), the layered reference architecture doesn't always dictate the amount or kinds of elements that should be incorporated into the design. When the durability logic (such as SQL or MYSQL) is integrated more into the components of the layer which is generally the layer of marketing, the business layer, as well as the persistence layer, may occasionally be unified into an individual business layer. So, while bigger and more complicated enterprise applications might well have 5 or even more numbers of layers, smaller apps may simply have 3 layers.

1.2 Layered model organized the system into a set of layers

Layered architecture engineering comprises a number of elements that are logically grouped according to the features and functions they offer or how they connect with some other factors. As a result, interlayer communication exists among layers that seem to be next to each other. As per the view of Alm et al. (2022), the top part of the structure is occupied by software and the discrete components that interact with consumers directly, followed by services, the system software, as well as components like peripheral devices that interact with the network equipment therefore at the bottom levels.

Additionally, layering can be employed to arrange the parts of a particular product or service. Despite this, the architecture can be employed due to its simplicity as it is simple to understand and utilize for programs that must be developed rapidly. It can also be beneficial when the designers are unsure of which program architecture to adopt or even when they lack an extensive understanding of software structures.

2. All design class diagrams with each subsystem shown as a package with enclosed objects

The cornerstone of every other object-oriented approach is the class diagrams. As per the view of Ruipérez-Valiente (2022), it displays a platform's classes, along with each class's properties, functions, and relationships to other classes. Most modeling tools include three elements to a category. The name is at the head, followed by attributes, then procedures or techniques, and finally, methodologies. Classes are linked together to generate diagrams of the class in a complex system with numerous related categories. An example of such a "class diagram" is shown below.

Class diagrams represent the structural framework of a specific system as well as are crucial to the object model development. Users can utilize a specific class diagram to depict a complete structure, as well as choose a number of sequence diagrams to represent the various parts of the network, based on how complicated the framework is. The design patterns are the network as well as the subsystem's blueprints. The class diagrams are useful for modeling the system's constituent parts, showing the connections among them, as well as describing the services and all the operations that each performs.

3. All Sequence models were clearly and specifically designed and showed the object interactions

It is simple to retrieve the model of sequence during the interpreting session: Record each stage as it happens on a separate page or within a spreadsheet, just like users did mostly during meetings. Instead of simply writing down their observations in preparation, record the procedures as they explain things to the department. As per the view of He et al. (2021), their inquiries will bring up more memories, reveal more motives and breaches, and really convey the events to individuals. Sequence models have made a task's intricate architecture clear.

They demonstrate the task's division into different activities, the purposes for which people are carrying out the task, the various methods they employ, and the discrete phases that constitute the task. A sequence framework illustrates how a specific task is carried out. It consists of the actions, their constituent steps, the corresponding intentions, and discontinuities. These components are all organic building blocks that invite creative ideas. Similar to the Affinities, sequential or primary outcome design concepts are more expansive than phase-level concepts.

3.1 All-State machine models clearly and specifically designed

A model of state machine model is basically a mathematical representation of the entire set of potential system events or states. The evaluation of every feasible system state reveals all potential interactions between individuals and elements. The system has been shown to be robust if each state is protected.

When the specified state and the manner in which it moves from one place to another should be recorded, state machines are typically employed to simulate real-world programs. A basic state machine framework, for instance, can be employed to simulate and evaluate how such an object transitions from a dormant state to an exciting phase that is capable of accepting both inputs as well as output within an object-oriented design.

3.3 Individual objects change their state in response to events

The quantities of the properties that the entity holds at a specific moment in time define the state, which is an extrapolation. As per the view of Wang and Chen, (2018), an entity is located in a position in which some conditions are met, certain actions are taken, or certain occurrences are anticipated for a set amount of time during the item's lifespan. Rounded rectangles are used in transition probability diagrams to depict a phase. An object's input is its usual beginning condition. The phase machine's function is complete when it reaches its ultimate state. The starting and ending states are the basic pseudo-states; they may not contain any components of a typical state other than their names. The initial condition is depicted in transition probability charts by a full black circle. A completed black circular enclosed by some other blank black circle symbolizes the end state.

4. All Component interfaces are defined precisely so that other objects can use them

Systems that can accommodate component-oriented engineering are necessary, as are developers who follow the discipline's fundamental tenets. Determining separate a true concept from a mere aspect of the active approach being employed, however, is frequently difficult. Software development will undoubtedly broaden its comprehension of what defines component-oriented development and adopt new concepts as the meet specifications grow more potent, and the fundamental concepts will change over time.

4.1 All system and user interfaces defined

The used device for the online book store requires some hardware functions as well as some software functions to establish the online book store. As per the view of Cardinot and Fairfield, (2022), the components of a computing device enable user interaction with the device. Here the interface that is been established for both the users and the management is the GUI where the users can interact with the system. A general user interface, often known as human involvement, consists of all software as well as hardware elements. The communication among the user as well as the system is managed by it. Over time, several methods of interfacing with computer networks have emerged. WIMP is another name for “graphic user interfaces (GUI)”, which use “Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointers”. A marker on the display is controlled by operators using an input device (such as a “mouse, touchpad, or trackball”), which subsequently connects with some other on-screen objects. It enables user interaction with gadgets using visual symbols and visual images like secondary annotation.

5. All database tables and the data dictionary are identified

A basic data dictionary is a list including all data models at the most fundamental level. In other words, it is made up of the labels of data attributes as well as their meanings and properties. When necessary, it may be implemented at the software level rather than the operational level.

 Although compiling it isn't required, it can serve as a reference or a reference for new data identifiers. The organizational level enables the collection of data items to be utilized across the organization, assuring output reliability while promoting managing data. No matter the way it is developed, having some type of information dictionary is essential.


  • Alm, A. and Nkomo, L.M., 2022. Chatbot experiences of informal language learners: A sentiment analysis. In Research Anthology on Implementing Sentiment Analysis Across Multiple Disciplines (pp. 933-948). IGI Global.
  • Ansu-Kyeremeh, E.K. and Goosen, L., 2022. Exploring the Socioeconomic Facet of Online Inclusive Education in Ghana: The Effects of Technological Advancement in Academia. In Socioeconomic Inclusion During an Era of Online Education (pp. 47-66). IGI Global.
  • Cardinot, A. and Fairfield, J.A., 2022. Game-based learning to engage students with physics and astronomy using a board game. In Research Anthology on Developments in Gamification and Game-Based Learning (pp. 785-801). IGI Global.
  • He, M., Xu, H., Wang, R., Chen, J., Liu, S. and Li, T., 2021, June. Research on site selection of old campus bookstore based on the combination of space syntax and analytic hierarchy process——Take Huangjiahu Campus of Wuhan University of Science and Technology as an example. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 787, No. 1, p. 012071). IOP Publishing.
  • Ruipérez-Valiente, J.A., 2022. A Macro-Scale MOOC Analysis of the Socioeconomic Status of Learners and their Learning Outcomes. In Socioeconomic Inclusion During an Era of Online Education (pp. 1-22). IGI Global.
  • Wang, L. and Chen, Q., 2018, July. Research on Physical Bookstore Marketing Communication Under the Internet Challenge. In 3rd International Conference on Contemporary Education, Social Sciences and Humanities (ICCESSH 2018) (pp. 1614-1621). Atlantis Press.
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