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Introduction: Journal Case Study And Essay
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For everyone, change is an unavoidable part of life, and it impacts everyone at some point. As adults, it is our primary responsibility to care for elderly parents, grandchildren, or other relatives. Even if they are still capable of self-care, they will eventually seek assistance from you (Cleland et al., 2021). Our parent’s well-being is the greatest of what we, as their children, may hope or work for as they grow older and live out their final years in comfort. Whether or not they are a family member, age care is the process of analysing an older adult’s social, intellectual, and physical well-being. The essay will discuss to highlight the aged care of their ageing population’s need for service to respond to the needs of older people. It will also discuss the model in the field of process and how it works. Lastly, it will outline the ethical challenges of the exit in the area and the application of CM.
The term “aged care” mentions helping to provide the direction of senior citizens, Assistance with daily duties, health care, lodging, and specialised equipment such as stepping platforms and ramps are options. All persons who matched the criteria were eligible for government-funded care. For example, talk about the ageing population, the increasing need for services to respond to the needs of older people in the home, etc. Aged care support provides for the older people in need at home. The consent can be helping with everyday living like housework, cooking, or social outing (Khadka et al., 2019). Equipment like the walking frames, home modification with handrails, or the ramps. Personal care for older individuals invites dressing, going to the toilet, bathing, and eating. Healthcare care such as physical or care with medical aspects and nursing care. And lastly, the support also involves that living at home is no longer the best option, an alternative need. “According to an ABS report, the Australian population is ageing”. “The percentage of the population aged 65 and up has steadily increased for both men and women throughout the preceding century”, and this trend is likely to continue (Khadka et al., 2019). Increases in both men’s and women’s life spans decreased death rates, more outstanding health care, and fertility rates below replacement levels contribute to this trend.
Fig: Proportion of older people
According to the 2”016 Census of Population and Housing, people aged 65” and more increased by “7% (14%) from 2011 to nearly 1 in 6 (16%) in 2016”. Moreover, this proportion has risen progressively over the last decade, from one in twenty-five people in 1911 to one in twenty-five people today (Briggs et al., 2018).
Fig: Number of older people by age group
Between 2011 to 2016, the number of individuals aged 65 years and over increased by 664,500. It has constantly accounted for the majority of older people, which was a rising number of individuals in the old bracket on 74 to 84 and 85 years and the over-aged group was about 13 per cent.
“The statistical evidence of older people for a male to female ratio in 1911 was about 111 men for every 100 women aged 65 years and over”. “Further, for the 65-to-74-year age group.” “Accordingly, there were 95 men for every 100 women in 2016”. As women get older, “the ratio drops to 85 men for every 100 women aged 75 to 84 and 59 men” (Agustini et al., 2020). Men’s average lifespan has lately surpassed women’s, and this disparity is expected to expand in the future.
Fig: Male to female ratio for elderly individuals
Statistical device for older adults also shows to come with the nation wherein 2013 Austria had one of the lower proportions of early invalid that is about fourteen per cent of all OECD member nations (Agustini et al., 2020). “Out of 31 countries, this one was the 21st oldest”. The quantity was the same in “New Zealand” Despite this, the number of elderly persons for “OECD countries varies greatly, from one in” every “four people in” “Japan (25%) to barely 6.5 per cent in Mexico”.
Fig: Older people promotion of overall population for selected nations
Moreover, other statistical information on states and territories in Australia shows that the highest proportion of older individuals in Tasmania was about nineteen per cent “in 2016, with one in every five” people “aged 65 years or more”. The Northern Region has the country’s lowest poverty rate (7.2 per cent). “Since 2006, Tasmania has surpassed South Australia as the ‘oldest state’ due to a state-wide shift of younger people from Tasmania to the mainland of Australia” (Detering et al., 2019). “In 2016, however, South Australia remained the state with the highest proportion of people aged 85 and up (2.7 per cent)”.
Fig: Proportion of older people in terms of States and territory
Discuss a case-management approach (CDC)
“Consumer Directed Care is a” term used in the elderly care business to describe a method of service delivery that allows customers to pick and choose which items they want and who should supply them.
It is “assessing, planning, executing, coordinating, monitoring, and evaluating the programs and services” needed to meet a client’s human service needs. So it is that Consumer Directed Care (CDC) is a way of organising and delivering health care that gives patients and caregivers more control over the planning and implementation. Further, their treatments and more flexibility in terms of what resources are available, when they are available, and where they were previously known (McCabe et al., 2022). Customer directing, also known as “consumer-directed care in the CHSP”, a a strategy of organising and delivering care that gives users and caregivers more control over the development and delivery of the services they receive, allowing them to exercise choice. Some of the CDC’s principles are as trails:
- Additional options and flexibility
- Increase information access so people can make well-informed health decisions
- The type of treatment the practitioner for the patient works together for reintegration and recovery (McCabe et al., 2022).
- Also, the user has their own choice of control
- The user has the right
- Users are respected, and a balanced mixture is being created
- participation is an important carrier
- It is that wellness and re enablement are needed the most
- Transparency is the key.
- Heightened responsiveness
Caregivers must do the following to deliver CDC in an elderly care setting quickly:
- Have a conversation about our customers’ wants and needs.
- Healthcare co-creation.
- It would also provide greater transparency about funding the packed
- It also allows the user to determine the steps of involvement in managing packed and also
- Involve in continuing intensive care towards reconsideration for confirming their needs are met (Bulamu et al., 2021).
The fundamental goal of Consumer Directed Care is to assist older people in maintaining or improving their quality of life (QOL) by helping them live in and enjoy their homes. On an unbiased gradient, the meanings that a user uses to judge current QOL and multiple notions of QOL in old age exist, with events and the atmosphere influencing the interpretations that a person uses to assess their QOL.
Significant model elements for Consumer direct care
Both “User Rights Principles of 2014” and the “Charter of Care Patient’s Roles and Obligations” (the provision), which recognise the rights and responsibilities of consumers and providers, explicitly acknowledge the critical components of CDC, emphasizing users’ ability to make choices about the care they receive.
Choices and independence
Consumers have the right under the provision to:
- Having a provider support them in setting goals, assessing the amount of growth they seek, and making management decisions while maintaining their freedom and autonomy;
- Choose the care and services that best match their objectives, interests, or assessed needs within the boundaries of available resources.
- Have a say in how personal care and activities are delivered in the home;
- Taking part in individual decision-making (Cornell, 2019).
- They have a representative take part in choices that affect their care.
Fig: CDC Specialisations
Offer a critique of how this works-neoliberal in approach,
CDC in residential areas, on the other hand, is motivated by the same motivations as home care. It attempts to give clients more control and choice based on their unique goals and needs. This authority overturns official decision-making, giving people more excellent decisions and control over their lives to boost independence and improve their quality of life. The environment becomes more residence when more people are directly involved in decision-making in everyday operations (Shimoni, 2018). Hence, respecting the right of users to have more influence over their lives, regardless of their decision-making ability (Henderson & Willis, 2020). Further, customer service and consumer-directed service excellence are two independent concepts. (It denotes the ability to determine when and how things happen, rather than the sort.)
The neoliberal approach firmly has a vital role in health care. It has been restored to deliver health care into the community that is purchased rather than a natural-born right. It prioritises the older population in Australia over the quality and checks to care. In context, the marketing approach of the CDC of the aged care population where market forces influence how senior adults are managed in Australia, as they do in a few other Western countries (Shimoni, 2018). The marketisation of aged care has been linked to higher service delivery by commercial (often non-profit) companies, open marketplaces, and increasing economic input by clients. These services are being portrayed as being used by the elderly. This proposal assumes that developing a market for aged care would assure high-quality care by allowing users to choose among competing services and more control over their activities (Van Pinxteren et al., 2019). Furthermore, the marketisation of senior care has also been associated with the mechanism that enables the consumer to buy the service they need from the private service provided by the Australian aged care establishment.
Has to pay fees
Current legislative changes have enabled a more significant user contribution to residential aged care. Consequently, the commission regarding the productivity had reported mainly suggesting that accommodation and everyday living expenses must be an individual’s responsibility, regardless of whether they live in their own home or residential facility with a safety net for those who are financially deprived.
Moreover, residential aged care reinstated housing expenses, now referred to as a ‘refundable accommodation deposit,’ requiring high care members to pay home prices. These improvements made it easier to establish a means-tested housing payment that could be made in one lump sum, monthly, or both, with optional amenities, paid for separately (Swerissen, Duckett & Moran, 2018). Institutions may also charge a fee for services not included in basic health insurance. For example, the “Extra Service Principles 2014” permitted suppliers to charge for extra assistance in rooms not designated as extra service beds, whereas the “Quality-of-Care Principles 2014 established care standards”.
The “Culturally and linguistically diverse CALD population” is the Australian population that includes several induvial who were born overseen, had parents taken to manage, or speak a variety of languages (Pham et al., 2021). Upon that, some aged care facilities offer CALD a specific service. For example, they might behave as individual staff to speak a foreign language, organise particular cultural activities, or meet spiritualism.
The role of the family for Consumer direct care for the aged individual is the most vital social group for which they trend by strong emotion of bond a mutual exchange of benefit (Ludlow et al., 2020). Further, the family member is generally expected to support the older adult if they are in an adverse life situation.
Fig: District-wide model of CDC pathway for service delivery
Outline ethical challenges that exist in this field and the application of CM to this sector
In the healthcare industry, ethical norms have received a lot of attention. It is because they provide a framework for the acts of professional carers.
The most frequent ethical challenge issues are
- Protecting the elderly patient’s rights and human digitality
- For elderly care, it needs to provide care with possible risks to their health
- The issue of respecting or not respecting the informed consent to the action (Steindal et al., 2020).
- Staffing patterns limit patient access to nursing care in Austrian healthcare institutions.
- Use and not use physical or check limits.
The most important ethical challenges that aged care users face are managing the risk and safety are the chances of security, fire., natural disaster risk when in residential or institutional support, non-compliance risks, financial risks and appropriately damager risks. Moreover, another raises the crucial ethical issue that aged care users face over a continuous period, improperly using the elder money or belongings for personal use (Steindal et al., 2020). The financial exploitation of aged care individuals comes at a higher cost. Generally, visit mainly costs about “$36.5” billion every year. Further, some of the financial abuse of aged care users are signing over the check, forging a signature, receiving the anytime for service that was never rendered and using aged care induvial personal credit cards or taking out loans in their name and also naming taking sign in the property deeds in induvial name without knowing the older induvial.
Regarding the aged care population in Australia, the issue is mainly subtly focused on as a challenge. However, it is meaningfully threatened when the patient (and their carer) is not food with sufficient evidence of the chance to fully understand their diagnosis and make the informed choice about their care. In this regard, older people are particularly disempowered in the healthcare establishment.
As an ethical issue, paternalism is one that we are choosing, and the course of action for the aged care patient is the best internet but without the senior care decadal consent. As it tends to serve as an integral value of the ethical decision-making framework, both need to balance off the other matters (Fernández-Ballesteros et al., 2019). The moral obligation would neither withhold any rule nor renounce the personal responsibilities to the aged care user. The primary barrier to serial expression analogue for the aged is lack of privacy, resident attitude, and communication about sexuality. A subtitle number of residents could not recognise or mention barriers to expression. Regarding the consent issue as ethical behaviour is not only agreeing to the care or intervention. Somebody must provide an informed way with simulation providing an alternative for the aged care population.
Hence, individuals cannot halt time to accomplish this, but we can learn to cope with difficulties as they emerge to keep our loved ones healthy. Memory problems, cognitive impairments, and Alzheimer’s disease are common health concerns among the elderly. To satisfy eldercare demands, families devise a variety of strategies. Identifying aged care alternatives must consider several factors, including techniques for evaluating elders’ needs, locating care facilities that can truly meet these needs, and dealing with financial and legal concerns about moving older adults into arrangements. It also sums up that consumer-directed care can empower more senior people and their carers by giving them more options and convenience and allowing them to participate in care decision-making.
On the other hand, somebody must customise these activities to the needs and interests of the aged. Once good care has been recognised, they should assist their elders and themselves deal with the unpleasant process of transitioning into maintenance. Later, different ethical issues riding autonomy, paternalism, sexual expression and cost are aged care and supportive care for their needs.
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