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Introduction - Fundamentals of Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality
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Travel and tourism industry is one of the most important industry that prevails in an economy, therefore it is very important that Government start focusing on this industry in a more focused manner so that positive outcome can be achieved. There has been where is my major trends that has evolved out of this industry in the 20th century, this industry has grown up in the recent past even more, because of the implementation of Digital technology within this sector (Brooks, 2012). Organisations around the world see profits in the industry, and therefore are looking to establish business in this industry.The current essay will have a discussion on the various characteristics of hospitality industry, the marketing techniques used by its players, and the wariest projects that are introduced within the industry in the modern era.
Title: Tourism trend in the latter half of 20th century.
20th century has seen various ups and downs and tourism industry is no exception, it has seen various changes in it. Not only does an impact on the destinations, but also there was considerable effect on the economy of countries. Countries around the world have came to know the importance of this industry and certainly has start focusing more in this sector (Patarchanova, 2012). The major contribution of this transformational change in the tourism industry is of the technological change that has taken place in the 20th century along with the means of transportation that has developed and evolve. People are now is really able to book their tickets and travel to their desired destination within no time and with ease. The traditional tourism industry was seen as it is made only for elite class and Middle-class people could not afford to go and travel to the desired destinations as it may turn out to be expensive. But with changes in the industry, the modern tourism industry is more oriented towards profits and therefore has even reached out to middle-class consumers as well as lower income groups. Distich this sector has been successful in bringing necessary investor capital within it. It has resulted in higher profits for not only travel operators but also to other companies who are operating in the sector.
The changes that have impacted the tourism sector can be described in the form of technological changes in social cultural changes (DAI and QUE, 2012). When it comes to technological changes, most of the impact on the tourism sector is because of the change in technology that has taken place, the most significant beneficiary of this technological change has been the transportation sector. In the past, people used to travel only in cases when they can afford a flight, or any other way to go from one country to another. But the transformation in the Rail road sector has change the shape of tourism industry. Before Railroad was quite developed in North America and some of the parts of Europe, that means most of the developed countries had a very good Railroad system, which allowed to their citizens to travel without any difficulties and issues.They mergence of rail road in most of the developing countries and the development of infrastructure has lead to higher growth as well as profitability in this sector.
What's more, by the mid-twentieth century, their flight industry had begun to develop quickly. Actually, amidst the twentieth century, the flying was blasting and air flights turned out to be exceptionally prominent and accessible to vast number of individuals. Now, it merits saying the way that it is because of the flight business tourism industry has been rising since the mid-twentieth century. In any case, it is just by the late twentieth century, tourism industry had achieved an unparalleled level of advancement and, today, despite everything it continues developing (Scott and Gössling, 2015).
Other vital innovative changes rose in the second 50% of the twentieth century and they were identified with the improvement of media transmission and data advancements. Indeed, new media transmission and data advances have changed tourism industry reliably. Because of these advances, tourism exceeded into mass industry, while in the past it was somewhat outlandish, even outrageous industry since voyaging was joined by the absence of data about goals, while vacationers had moderately low chances to speak with each other and their relatives or companions around the world. Besides, in the main portion of the twentieth century, they could remain in disconnection from their homeland, if vacationers from Europe, for example, set out to an African or some other creating nation. Rather, the improvement of current media communications, including cell phones and data advancements, including Internet, has dispensed with physical limits amongst nations and spots making them accessible to masses of voyagers. In such a way, sightseers couldn't be simply educated about potential goals, however they could go to wherever on the planet and keep up correspondence with their companions, relatives and others by methods for present day media transmission frameworks (Horowitz, 2018).
Where is the business organisations within the industry has came up with different types of products which carries certain schemes and discounts to attract consumers and tourists. This has led to evolution of new marketing channels to attract tourists was sitting around the world. These companies have initiated marketing campaigns, which asked people to travel in their life And some has gone even fund further and considered travel is life itself.
It is not only positive for the travel and tourism sector in the 20th century, there has been some traits which involved, some of the major ones are: terrorism, deflation, etc. Terrorist attacks at some of the famous destinations have created threat among tourists and people to visit those destinations and this has impacted the growth of tourism. Governments around the world are taking necessary initiative to raise the security level of this tourist spots so that the hospitality sector Will not get affected by this cowardly act.
There has been certain social cultural changes which impacted tourism sector in both positive as well as negative ways, these include the standard of living of people has Ray significantly in the 20th century, because of the fact most of the countries started following the path of capitalism and has allowed foreign capital to get into within the economy (Hay, 2013). This has boosted the growth of tourism and hospitality industries around the world. Also some of the changes in the cultural aspects have compiled individuals to bend more towards modernisation. Some of the major changes in the cultures of people and their way of living has also impacted the mindset of people towards their life. Now they have started thinking, do you deadline is much more to do then just work and travelling has become a fashion of most of the cheap ones around the world. Therefore this has led to a significant and exponential growth of this industry.
Various concepts has been involved within this industry, some of these include mass tourism and niche tourism. Mass tourism focuses more on tourist spot ready to travel with a lot of peoples around them and therefore companies will book packages of particular destinations for a lot of people in bulk and this will in turn raise their productivity as well as profitability (LOIS-GONZÁLEZ, 2014). Mass tourism has turned out to be more profitable for most of the companies as well as travel operators within the industry, therefore it has become first preference for most of the tour operators, and they will try to plan a tour which is based on masses and not on individual individual families. Niche tourism on the other hand is concerned with individuals and their demands and needs, two words plan for individuals on a personal basis. This kind of concept is most suited for couples and people want to travel around the world alone and not with people or masses.
Various marketing strategies are also followed by different organisations in order to attract more and more customers as well as tourist. Hence, it is conceivable to reason that mechanical and socio-social changes, including the improvement of transportation framework, broadcast communications and data innovations, becoming monetary and social participation between nations, the developing fame of western culture on the planet, added to the steady difference in tourism industry. Tourism industry stopped to be the business arranged on world class, rather it turned into the rising business situated on mass-clients. In the meantime, the previously mentioned changes impacted target goals since individuals could travel not just inside their nations and districts where they lived, be that as it may, today, individuals can travel anyplace they need since they have mechanical chances to movement worldwide and expenses of making a trip diminished considerably contrasted with the mid twentieth century. Thus, today, outlandish nations, including African, Eastern-Asian and other remote nations ended up real goals for vacationers from the US, Europe, Canada, Japan and other created nations, which contain the centre of visitors on the planet (Katic, Klarin and McDonald eds., 2014). No doubt, tourism industry will continue developing later on and vacationers from created nations will be more disposed to green tourism, while visitors from creating nations might be more intrigued by instructive tourism, which enables them to visit new nations and go to dialect schools, for example. At last, considering the current monetary globalisation, it is conceivable to gauge the improvement of business tourism later on.
This, it can be concluded the travel and tourism sector has seen various changes in the 20th century. This changes has been in terms of technology and social cultural changes. The major driver of the change has been the technological changes that has taken place. It has led to invention of various ways to travel around the world like development of Railroad, efficient infrastructure etc. governments around the world shall start taking this sector seriously, if they want to achieve higher growth within their economy and also to generate employment within the country.
Books and Journals
- Brooks, G., 2012. Heritage as a driver for development: Its contribution to sustainable tourism in contemporary society.
- Patarchanova, E., 2012. Socio-economic patterns and trends in rural development in EU. Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning. 3(2). p.151.
- DAI, X.Y. and QUE, W.M., 2012. Mining Heritages in the Perspective of World Heritage [J]. Scientia Geographica Sinica. 1. p.007.
- Scott, D. and Gössling, S., 2015. What could the next 40 years hold for global tourism?. Tourism Recreation Research. 40(3). pp.269-285.
- Horowitz, I.L., 2018. One Hundred Years of Ambiguity: US-Cuba Relations in the 20th Century. In Cuban Communism, 1959-2003 (pp. 25-33). Routledge.
- Hay, B., 2013. From Leisure to Pleasure: Societal Trends and Their Impact on Possible Future Scenarios for UK Rural Tourism in 2050.
- LOIS-GONZÁLEZ, R.C., 2014. CHAPTER NINE NEW TRENDS IN URBAN AND CULTURAL TOURISM: THE MODEL OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA. New tourism in the 21st century: Culture, the city, nature and spirituality. p.209.
- Katic, M., Klarin, T. and McDonald, M. eds., 2014. Pilgrimage and Sacred Places in Southeast Europe: History, Religious Tourism and Contemporary Trends (Vol. 14). LIT Verlag Münster.