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There are many emerging issues related to sustainable tourism development which tend to affect. Maintaining the social, cultural, and natural resources for a destination concerning security as well as safety are important issues based on the tourism industry. Many issues affect sustainable tourism impacting various approaches of management and stakeholders. Tourism provides an important impact on the environment as it promotes carbon release. For instance, the extreme use of water with increasing wastage of natural sites causes soil erosion, land and water pollution, rise air which can destroy the unique attraction for the tourists. The tourism and travel industry destinations have a large amount of CO2 energy consumption. Economic issues also have a huge impact on sustainable tourism development. It involves the conservation of the environment by using eco-friendly materials such as green cars, green fuels, and eco-friendly materials. Green technologies are not cheaply available, thus they create a major impact on sustainability. The (TALC) model is the tourism area life cycle model used to study the advancement of tourism destinations. This model has 6 stages i.e. involvement, exploration, consolidation, development, decline, and stagnation. The TALC model can be used to see tourist attraction changes over time. The aim of applying this model is to identify the growth and development of the tourist industry.
Critically evaluate the complex relationships between tourism, market forces, and governments
Tourism refers to the movement of persons from their usual environment to other destinations or countries for private or professional reasons. A personal trip for leisure is less than a year and a professional trip for work is less than 24 hours. Tourists can travel to one's the county or a foreign country. In other words, tourism is traveling to and hanging around different destinations. Some factors affect the tourism industry which are called market forces. Market forces refer to the changes in the price of goods and services due to the buying and selling activities without any government intervention. The change in supply and demand forces results in an increase or decrease in the price. The market forces which affect the tourism Industry include the weather of the destination, the economy of the nation, the historical value of the destination, etc. Sweden is among the nations in the world which are considered safest for tourists. The tourism industry forms a small but important part of the GDP of Sweden's economy, in 2018 tourism industry contributed 2.6% of the Swedish economy's GDP. The tourist sector sales were at $14.93 billion before the Covid pandemic, On average each tourist spent approx. $2006 in Sweden in the holidays. The tourism industry’s contribution to total employment is 3.4% in the year 2018 and grew much faster than other sectors. The tourism industry is divided into the domestic and international tourism industries. The domestic industry includes tourists from the same county, in Sweden, there were 35.7 million domestic tourists in the year 2018 and they spent SEK 193 billion on the vacation. In the case of international tourists, there were 17.3 million nights were booked, and spend 144 billion. The international tourist was mainly from Germany, Norway, Denmark, and the United States. The Swedish government has formed an agency namedtillvaxtverket, which works for the economic and regional development of the tourism industry at the national level. The agency is in charge of the tourism data and teamwork with other government agencies. Normally, The Swedish government follows the UN sustainable development objectives. The present Swedish government set some objectives for sustainable development under the tourism strategy. The first one is that by 2045 Sweden will be the leader in fossil-free nations. The second one is, that the government will introduce the sustainable destination development program to develop tourism in seven different destinations. The program aims to improve small tourism businesses and introduce innovation in the small tourism business. The tourism strategy of the Swedish government also includes a reduction in the regulatory burden faced by the tourism business. This step simplifies entrepreneurship in the tourism business. It will help in the smooth functioning of the tourism industry and leads to the growth of the economy. The Swedish government also provides a website named verksamt.se for extra support and assistance to the tourism business and provides the latest information.
Critically appraise the strategic impact of a contemporary niche of tourism on a specific global destination
Niche tourism is now standardized across the entire industry; many companies are looking forward to differentiating their brand from others. Niche tourism is constantly searching for appealing and unique experiences. In recent times, mainstream holiday providers have recognized niche tourism as a potential growth area in the tourism industry. This refers to how specific tourism services and products can be customized to meet the needs of a particular market segment. Locations with precise niche products can establish destinations. With fast-moving globalization, the background of the tourism industry has evolved to make it convenient and more specialized for travelers all across the world. The concept focuses on the experience of tourists that can be customized to meet the needs personalized for the different types of customers in the market.
Ghanim Kashwani, 2022concluded that analyzing the chances of sustainability is an essential element for companies. It is impossible for the travel industry to easily generate environmental social and economical significance by updating its strategy in the international market. There is high demand for sustainable development in the tourism industry; governments of different nations have found themselves to be obliged to align with green policies and strategies to make it easy to shift to a sustainable economy which is more resourceful for all the stakeholders.The government plays an important role to consist of setting sustainable policies to regulate the companies' mechanisms for the industries.
In this report Melina Li, 2022 concluded that sustainability development results in realizing attention to environmental problems. Resource scarcity is increasing rapidly, which creates a huge impact on people to survival. Sustainability development is a concept of exploring the development of the economy and environment.
Sharachchandra, 1991 concluded with an unfinished insight into the problems of environmental humiliation and confusion about the role of economic growth and the concept of sustainability development. These weaknesses can direct to inadequacies and disagreement in policy-making established in the context of global tourism, trade, and agriculture.
In this conference paper Mihai Talmaciu, 2015 discussed the role of tourism in development and proved to be the growth of the economy. The development of sustainability in the tourism and travel industry raises new challenges for practitioners, planners, and policymakers in the country. Tourism is the most volatile and dynamic economic sector and its contribution to development is significant increase in all countries, despite their stage of development. The significance of tourism for the well-being of mankind is replicated by the continuous increase of the tourism industry's share in GDP and employment. The tourism and travel industry is uncovered to negative influences applied by various occurrences of crisis including financial, and climate issues like extreme weather, global warming, feed crises, environmental crisis like degradation of ecosystems, pollution, and biodiversity, and political, and energetic issues. In these conditions, all individuals involved in the development of public and private entities should encourage sustainable business models, important to increase tourism's contribution to social welfare and the economy in the long term.
Faulkner and Tideswell (1997) state three basic rationales for achieving the objectives of sustainable development in tourism: the establishment of planning and management systems that emphasize benefits and avoid costs of tourism development, the establishment of systems for monitoring tourism impacts, and finally that these monitoring systems should be comparable over time and across destinations.
The harm to the tourism industry is caused by a crisis that has serious inference on the economy and also intimidates the livelihood of many destinations. Examining the crisis indicators could allow involvement to minimize the crisis and offer a chance of defending tourism for the benefit of stakeholders.Sausmarez, 2009). This paper evaluates the role of crisis indicators in sustainable tourism development. This is closely connected to issues in sustainable tourism. The writer challenges the predictable classification of crises and suggests to grouping in triggers is more useful in managing and predicting the potential crisis.
Crisis management helps to identify the threats to the stakeholder and organization. Even the best-managed company may hot by harm and crisis caused by internal and external factors. The effective strategies of anticipating crisis planning and the corporate level would help the organization to analyze risk and manage risk effectively.
Evaluate the importance of effective implementation of tourism policies and strategies at local and or regional, national, and international levels
The achievement of a tourist destination depends on the regular arrival of large numbers of visitors, and the result of their activities while they stay there. The destination is determined by several factors that include the relative expense of visit, destination accessibility, and how conscious potential visitors are of the amenities and attractions it offers. It has become more successful in changes resulting from the new industry opportunities which tourist spending creates the need for improved infrastructure and expansion. The impacts of visitors on the area are economy, culture, ecology, and environment.
Tourism and travel are one of the biggest industries worldwide. it is a very diverse, dynamic and changing, innovative, and versatile industry. It requires careful management of visitors to attract them with innovation and sustainability. Richard W. Butler has come up with the (TALC) tourism area life cycle model which is used to study the customer's or tourists' changes over time. The model has 5 stages i.e. involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, decline, and rejuvenation
Plog’s model of allocentric and psychomotricity demonstrate that destination fall and rise in attractiveness according to the types of tourists who find the destinations attractive. The model suggests the destination develops and grows from its attractiveness from the visitor's point of view.
Argue for and against the impact of recent technology on changing the present and future of international tourism
Tourism and hospitality is the fastest-growing industry in the world. This industry is answerable for substantial environmental impacts, including carbon consumption water consumption, waste generation, and wastage of natural resources. The development of sustainable tourist destinations is one of the most important aspects to be considered especially in the post-pandemic period. The harsh economic challenges, environmental crises, and climate changes are experienced globally. Technological advancement is already troublesome in markets and strategically agile processes. The introduction of AI technology has changed the engagement of employees and customers. Highly innovative products such as cell phones have become tour guides, maps, travel agents, and the best locator for tourists. Tourism should take into account its social, economic, and environmental impacts. The organization can use big data to process the data and use this data in future operations. The travel industry can use this big data as an opportunity for better segmentation of customers which will increase their efficiency and effectiveness.
This conference paper has discussed on sustainable development of tourism destinations. Tourism Destination development is the strategic planning and progression of defined areas to support the development of attractive destinations for travelers, by focusing on sustainability. The realistic aspects of the hospitality and tourism industry have been brought from the specialized initiate countries. The impact of stakeholders on the development of sustainable tourism has been evaluated critically, emphasizing the role of the government in sustainable tourism development. Maintaining social, cultural, economic, and natural resources for a destination along with sustaining the concerning security and safety are important issues based on the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism in niche markets focuses on the protection of the environment and ecosystem implications. It is a way of protecting the travel and tourism industry of the world.
Sustainable tourism should use environmentally friendly resources to develop the travel and tourism industry. The companies should avoid the landing and take-off as this creates carbon emissions, emitting heat. Tourism companies should try non-stop flights that use the least amount of fuel. The hotel room staff should turn off their heater, air conditioner, and gadgets and adopt different recycling programs such as reusable clothing bags, water bottles, and travel mugs. The policymakers should create awareness among all stakeholders regarding the impact on the environment and increase sustainability programs to reduce the wastage of natural resources in the countries. The tourist planner should support local businesses or restaurants to promote their business. The tourist should support their ventures by purchasing some souvenirs.