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Exploring the Functional Differences Between Rods and Cones, and the Role of Antidiuretic Hormone in Fluid Regulation

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The difference between the functions of rods and cones in the human eye

Rods are able for scotopic vision, or it has the ability in low light vision and it, has low spatial acuity and is unable to mediate colour. In addition, it is populated at the retina periphery and is rod-shaped. Additionally, the Rod cell facilitates vision at the time of night or in dim light and it is containing Rhodopsin pigment, which is rich in Vitamin A. Additionally, it is responsible for being visible at night; hence, it is making rod cells to be sensitive in light (Li et al. 2020). On the other hand, Cones are able to be photopic vision, or it has the capability of being visible in high light. Additionally, it has the responsibility of having high spatial acuity and colour vision. These cells are helping to distinguish different colours and it is cone shaped. Cone cells are comprised of three different cones such as long-wavelength sensitive cones or L-cones, middle-wavelength sensitive cones or M-cones and short-wavelength sensitive cones or S-cones. Cones are containing Iodopsin pigment, which is well known as Violet Pigment (Verra et al. 2022). In addition, it is populated in the region of the central fovea and is majorly observed in the retina. In addition, in rod cells, the membrane stacks are enclosed and disks are unable to attach in a direct manner whereas, in cones cells, the disks are attached to outer membrane.

Rods

Cones

High

Low

Provide low Visual Acuity

Provide high Visual Acuity

Leads to Monochromatic or Scotopic Vision (Uprety et al. 2022)

Leads to Colour or Photopic Vision (Uprety et al. 2022)

Table 1: Differences between Rods and Cones

(Source: self-developed)

The role of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) in fluid regulation when the patient is dehydrated

ADH or Antidiuretic Hormone is helping to regulate the water amount in every individual’s body and it works in terms of controlling the water content, which is absorbed by the kidney and filtering the waste through blood. Moreover, this hormone is well known as Arginine Vasopressin or AVP. As opined by Ryznychuk et al. (2021), dehydration under the heat is caused by increasing the level of ADH and it is directly associated with a significant reduction in urine output. In addition, it is increasing the plasma protein, serum osmolarity and blood hematocrit. In this regard, Antidiuretic Hormone is one somewhat chemical which is produced in brain, it causes to release a low amount of water from the kidney, and it is reducing the amount of urine output in an individual. As depicted by Faria, (2019), the Antidiuretic Hormone is giving a signal to the kidney in terms of recovering water from the urine and it is diluting with blood plasma in an effective manner. A high level of ADH responsible to produce low amount of urine and low level of ADH secretion causes high amount of urine production. ADH is arriving at the kidneys, it causes all nephrons in becoming more permeable, and it is allowing water re-absorption and preventing water loss from the human body. Henceforth, it has been evaluated that ADH is playing a crucial role in preventing excessive water loss from the human body and assisting every individual to avoid dehydration.

References

  • Faria, A.C.M., 2019. Release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in response to the administration of synthetic cathinones: the impact orf gender.
  • Li, B., Zhang, T., Liu, W., Wang, Y., Xu, R., Zeng, S., Zhang, R., Zhu, S., Gillies, M.C., Zhu, L. and Du, J., 2020. Metabolic features of mouse and human retinas: rods versus cones, macula versus periphery, retina versus RPE. Iscience, 23(11), p.101672.
  • Ryznychuk, M.O., Pishak, V.P., Bacyuk-Ponych, N.V. and Pishak, O.V., 2021. Hereditary tubulopathies accompanying polyuia. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 12(3), pp.445-451.
  • Uprety, S., Adhikari, P., Feigl, B. and Zele, A.J., 2022. Melanopsin photoreception differentially modulates rod-mediated and cone-mediated human temporal vision. Iscience, 25(7), p.104529.
  • Verra, D.M., Spinnhirny, P., Sandu, C., Grégoire, S., Acar, N., Berdeaux, O., Brétillon, L., Sparrow, J.R. and Hicks, D., 2022. Intrinsic differences in rod and cone membrane composition: implications for cone degeneration. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, pp.1-18.
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