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Aspects Of Human Physiology 2

 Question 1


A complex system of several glands is belonging to the “endocrine system”. Hormones secreted by the glens coordinate the metabolism, reproduction, growth, mood, response to injury and many more. This is a hormonal system, which can be seen among the birds, fish, mammals, and other animals. “Withdrawal response” plays a major role in the protection of the body from harmful stimuli. This is a “spinal reflex” (Bais et al. 2020). For instance, if a person wants to stand on the toe, the “withdrawal response” would help the person to transfer the body weight to the other leg.

All the spinal reflexes can be considered as “monosynaptic”. “Withdrawal response” is a “polysynaptic reflex”. This helps to stimulate the motor nerves; this is very helpful for quick responses. For example, if a person touches a hot thing, the person quickly moves the hand away from the hot object.

“Homeostasis” plays a very important role in resistance to the organisms if the external environment changes. This is helpful for the stability of the internal organs in spite of the changes in the external environment (Oki, et al. 2019). This is very crucial in terms of the survival of organisms. Some variables are controlled in order to maintain “Homeostasis”. Those variables are pH of blood, temperature, level of glucose in the blood, and level of calcium, sodium, and potassium ions. However, three mechanisms are helpful to regulate “Homeostasis”. Those are,

  • Receptor: this is helpful to monitor the external and internal changes and respond to the changes. Skin can act as a receptor.
  • Control Center: this is also known as the "integration center". The information collected by the receptors is processed by the integration center. The brain is the control center.
  • Effectors: this refers to the response of the control center. Sweet gallons are examples of effectors.

(Source: Mackay et al. 2019)

"Reflex arc" refers to the pathway that helps to control reflex action. However, in the case of vertebrates, the direct connection of "sensory neurons" with the brain cannot be seen. Spinal cords play a very important role in neural connection to the brain. This helps in a reflex action to act faster. However, according to Hamid, et al. (2018), two types of reflex arc can be seen, "autonomic reflex arc" and "somatic reflex arc". The former type of reflex arc is related to interbank organs of the body and on the other hand, the latter type is related to the muscle of the body. However, it can be said that the “spinal cord” can control the autonomic reflexes and on the other hand, the somatic reflexes can be controlled by the brain. Hence, it can be said that there are two pathways of the reflex arc. First, caring information from the receptors of the body to the spinal cord is seen (Lukoyanov et al. 2021). In addition, the second path is carrying information related to the responses that are generated by the spinal cord to the effectors.

Several gladiators belong to the endocrine system. These glands secrete hormones. Hormones are very helpful to control the entire body. In order words, hormones are very helpful to send signals to the different parts of the body. Hence, coordination of the body largely depends on hormonal activities (Sharma, 2021). Hormones are thronged with the help of the circulatory system of the body. The speed is equal to the speed of blood flow, which is 1.5 m per second. After reaching the targeted cell, hormones are able to modify the activities of the cell. However, sometimes the effect of hormones on the cells can be time taken, though; the impact of the hormonal activities can be long lasting.

The steps of the endocrine system for the coordination of the given example are as follows,

  • Detection of the toe
  • Secretion of hormone that instructs the muscle to construct to take the foot away
  • Travelling of the hormone with the help of blood flow at the speed of 1.5 m/s is the speed of blood flow.

The “endocrine system” is very helpful for controlling “withdrawal reflex”. However, if the entire body absorbed the hormone that instructs the body muscle to construct, all the muscles of the body would construct accordingly. This is the reason for the person to fall down. This can cause the herm of the person (Oki, et al. 2019). This is the main reason for the “endocrine system” for poor performance in the coordination of the body.

However, on the other hand, the “nervous system” suits perfectly in case of coordination of the body regarding “withdrawal response”. In the case of the “nervous system”, the chemicals in the blood flow do not set the message; electrical signals help to send the message. It is worth mentioning that electrical signals can travel faster than blood. Besides, these signals have the special ability to target a particular area of the body. Hence, this is a faster process than the “endocrine system” and this is helpful to minimize harm to the person who is standing on the toe.

  1. b) i.

AHD: it is very important to maintain the amount of water. This is very helpful in the absorption of the kidney to filter the waste from the blood. This is important to control blood pressure.

Insulin: This is very helpful to produce energy in the body. Hence, this plays a major role in the transformation of glucose into energy.

  1. Pancreas is a part of the endocrine system. Most of its cells help to digest the food. This organ helps to produce the insulin hormone. This hormone is very helpful to convert glucose into energy. Hence, this is also very important to maintain blood sugar. 51 types of amino acids help to compose insulin. However, as per Li, et al. (2021) it can be said that with a low level of insulin, high levels of blood sugar in the body may be seen. This is called diabetes.

Impact of insulin on the liver:

insulin helps to convert glucose into energy, this is very important to prevent “gluconeogenesis”. This also helps with glycogen synthesis.

iii. “Respiratory” and “circulatory” systems help each other to function properly. The digestive system helps to bake the food down into smaller parts that are very helpful for the digestion of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Insulin helps to digest glucose in the blood. Hence helps to produce the energy in the cells. Insulin helps to reduce the level of glucose in the cells and convert it into energy. Hence, different systems help each other to work together.

Regulation of blood pH: the pH of blood is very important for thicker pulmonary arteries. These are less able for stretching (Shetty et al. 2021). Hence, it can be said that pH is very helpful in the reduction of a stretch of pulmonary arteries. However, a reduction of the pH level of the blood results in an increased rate of cardiac output. This is the main cause of heart failure. Thus it may have an impact on the circulatory system. The "circulatory system and respiratory" system helps to maintain the pH level of the blood. When CO2 is removed by the Respiratory system, the pH level in the blood is decreased. This maintains the amount of "CO2" and "carbonic acid" (Jethwani and Krishnan, 2021).

Question 2

  1. There are forms of glucose, “amylose”, and “amylopectin”. Amylopectin has a branched-chain and “amylose” has a single chain. At the initial level of dissection, the scratch starch is digested with the help of "salivary amylase". This is secreted in the mouth. Hence, the digestion of starch is not started in the stomach (Pallares, et al. 2018). This is because the pH of the stomach is unstable; this situation creates a barrier to the activity of amylase. Amylose is digested by Amylase and turns into maltose. Maltose is a "disaccharide". Amylopectin is converted into dextrin’s, which have branched chains. In the lining of the intestine "maltase" is secreted. This is very helpful to digest "maltose" and "dextrin". This is the reason to form a monomer of glucose. Then the glucose is converted into ATP energy and it can be stored in the body as "polysaccharide glycogen" (Pallares, et al. 2019). Monomers of glucose can also be generated by the "lactose" and "sucrose" breakdown.

The pancreas plays an important role in the digestion of starch. The pancreas produces “amylase”. It is secreted by “exocrine glands.’’ Besides, “glucagon” and “insulin” are also secreted from the pancreas. This is secreted by “exocrine glands''. Insulin is very helpful to reduce the level of glucose (Zhang, et al. 2020). This is very helpful to increase the synthesis of “glycogen”. This is also stored in the “adipose” and “liver”. On the other hand, “Glucagon” helps to reduce the level of glucose in the blood.

Hence, the digestion of starch is started in the mouth. The food travels through the esophagus and finally reaches the stomach. However, the esophagus cannot produce any digestive juice. Hence, in the esophagus, no digestion of starch can be found. The environment of the stomach is acidic in nature. Hence, the activity of amylase is interrupted.

“Duodenum” is the next palace where the digestion of starch is done. In the stomach, juices from the liver and pancreas are mixed. However, digestive juice secreted by the pancreas has “amylase”. This helps to digest starch as well as glycogen and turn it into “maltose”. This is one kind of “disaccharide”. Maltese helps to break down the disaccharide into “monosaccharides”. This is secreted from the wall of the intestine (Fernandes, et al. 2020). “Monosaccharides are then absorbed by the body and some of these are stored in the body and some turned into energy. There is a metabolic pathway to harness energy from the glucose. “Monosaccharides” go to the bloodstream by the epithelium of the intestine. Then it is transported into the different cells.


Besides digestion, the small intestine is also helpful for the absorption of nutrients. The length of the small intestine helps to absorb the nutrients. Besides, "microvilli '' and "villi '' are also very helpful to increase the area of the intestine. The muscular elements of the intestine are important to mix the food and move the food. Bile juice plays an important role in breaking down food.

Long length: the length of the small intestine of an adult is 23 feet on average. However, the food needs 8 hours to travel through the small intestine (Sun and Miao, 2020). This is a long time; this long time helps to digest the food properly. More time is very important for proper digestion of the food.

“Villi and microvilli”: this is one of the most important elements of the digestive system. This is the main reason for increasing the surface area. This is very important for absorption. The folds of villi are approximately 40 and microvilli have 600 folds. This is very important for the absorption of nutrients from food.

“Muscular contractions' ': the movement of food in the small intestine is called “Peristalsis' '. Due to “Muscular contractions”, the food moves from the start to the end of the digestive system. This is also very important for the absorption of nutrients (Štrus, et al. 2019).

“Digestive Enzymes' ': bile and pancreas secrete some digestive juices that are important for the breakdown of the food. Hence, this is also very important for the digestion of the food as well as the absorption of nutrients of the food.

The majority of the nutrients is digested and gets absorbed in the small intestine. The carbohydrates are absorbed with the help of “sodium-dependent cotransport" or SGLT1. "Facilitated diffusion" is very important for absorption as well. If the person is having problems with the digestion of carbohydrates, the person may have some clinical phenomena called "osmotic diarrhoea" and "lactose intolerance" (Cheng and Wong, 2020).

The small intestine also absorbs Proteins. In this absorption, “sodium- and hydrogen-dependent co-transporters” play a major role. On the other hand, “luminal membranes” help to diffuse the lipids. Finally, the water is absorbed as solute.

Question 3

The alveolus or alveoli (plural form of alveolus) are mainly present in the part of the lungs where the blood exchanges the carbon dioxide and the oxygen in the process of breathing in and breathing out. Oxygen is breathed in that passes by the alveoli of the lungs, and then is circulated to the whole body system through the blood circulation process (Knudsen and Ochs, 2018). The alveoli form some cluster that is called the alveolar sacs, which mainly look like the brunches of grapes, and they are pocket-like structures that contain several individual alveoli. Each of the alveoli is made up of very thin walls and a cup-shaped structure, surrounded by blood-vessel networks (Amatngalim and Hiemstra, 2018). This blood network of blood vessels is known as the capillaries, which are also made up of a very thin layer. Therefore, the function of the capillaries and the alveoli are related to each other as the oxygen that is breathed in from the air, is diffused through the capillaries and the alveoli of the lungs into the blood and circulated to the body (Spahr, 2021).

(Source: Amatngalim and Hiemstra, 2018)

The structure of the alveolus mainly helps it in adopting its proper function. That is possible because of the moist wall of the alveolus and the extremely large surface area of the alveolus. The moist and thin wall of the alveoli creates a permeable structure that helps in the exchange of the gases making them dissolved in the moisture (Gillich et al. 2020). The structure also helps in ensuring that the oxygen reached blood is only being circulated in the body, as the moist and thin wall allows more oxygen to be dissolved in the blood. Therefore, in this case mainly the very thin epithelial layer helps in minimize the distance for the respiratory gases while exchanged in the blood and at the same time, it makes a very large surface area for4 its function (Seadler et al. 2022). The surrounded network of the capillary also increases the function of the alveolus by increasing the capacity of the gas exchange in the blood; in this case, the large surface of the respiratory capillary must be in contact with the capillary.

“Concentration gradient”: in the lungs, the concentration of O2 is higher than the concentration of CO2. Concentration gradient is very important for gaseous exchange in the lungs. “Partial pressure” refers to the measurement of an individual gas’ concentration from a mixture of several gasses.

  1. The respiratory system mainly is the function of a network of tissues and organs that together work in the breathing system. This system mainly includes the airways of the lungs, blood vessels, and the muscle of the lungs. The main purpose of the system is to help in circulating the oxygen to the whole body while removing the waste gases from the body (Benarroch, 2019). The circulatory system, which is the cardiovascular system, plays an important role along with the respiratory system to allow the oxygenated blood to be circulated throughout the body and this reach the cell of the body.

The circulatory system is the cardiovascular system that mainly functions to get oxygen by pumping the blood from the heart to the lungs. In this case, the oxygen is inhaled by the lungs, which are mainly carried to the cardiac system (Frownfelter et al. 2022). This oxygenated blood is first sent by the pulmonary veins to the left aorta of the heart and then it reaches the left ventricle of the heart. The arteries from the heart to the whole body then circulate this oxygenated blood. In this case, the veins of the circulatory system mainly carry the oxygen-poor or deoxygenated blood back to the right chamber of the heart again, then the deoxygenated blood which carries mainly the carbon dioxide pumped to the lungs where the carbon dioxide gets out of the body by the exhalation or by the breathing out process (Benarroch, 2019). In this case, the gas exchange process is very important. Although the veins picks up the waste metabolic product, of the body’s metabolic system to the kidney, where the other waste products are disposed of.

(Source: Frownfelter et al. 2022)

Therefore the respiratory and circulatory system mainly works together to provide oxygen to the lungs and oxygen reached blood to each and every cell of the body and remove the waste metabolic product of the body's metabolism system which mainly reach the kidney the blood and then is exposed of (Frownfelter et al. 2022). Thus, together the respiratory and circulatory system helps in the regulation of the normal pH of the blood in the body and regulates the process of the exchange of carbon-di-oxide and oxygen in the environment as well as in the human body system.


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