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Analyzing Glucose to Investigate Diabetes Assignment Sample

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Metabolic Biochemistry: Investigating Diabetes via Glucose Analysis in 2 Patients' Sera

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Diabetes is described as a metabolic disease that is accompanied by an increased level of glucose. This report introduces the analysis of glucose tests on patients suffering from diabetes. It highlights the importance of QC in this experiment and the assay sets required for conducting the glucose tests. Interpretation of the results before and after the required test is explained in this report which provides a clear determination of the test result. Diabetes when kept untreated can lead to a serious autoimmune disorder.

Background

Diabetes is a condition when there is an impaired amount of insulin in the body. A person who becomes inactive and suffers from obesity leads to the occurrence of diabetes. As opined by Holmes et al. (2021), an obese person is resistant to the secretion of insulin. A diabetic person shows the symptoms of feeling thirsty, excessive urination and anxiety. Diabetes is classified into two types that include type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes. Diabetes of type 1 occurs when the pancreas becomes inefficient for producing insulin. Type 2 diabetes is the reason for the incapability of the body to utilize the insulin that is been released by the pancreas. As stated by Montefusco et al. (2021), people who are above the age of 45 years are at high risk of developing the disease diabetes. This happens as a result of the lack of physical exercise among people of 45 years adults. The family history of the patients is often associated with the cause of diabetes.

Diabetes is the cause of posing a threatening burden on the cost of medical sectors. As stated by Montefusco et al. (2021), in Australia, the estimated medical cost for a diabetic person is around $4,025. The graph shows that in the year of 2018, around 13% of the population died as a result of diabetes (Statista, 2022). Apart from the cost related to healthcare, there is an association with the cost of caregivers. Diabetes leads to a decrease in the quality of life with an increased rate of mortality among patients in Australia. Diabetes is a recent concern in Australia as it is associated with an increased risk of diseases related to the heart. In the year 2020, around 4.8% of the males suffer from diabetes as compared to 3.8% of the females in Australia (Bojkova et al. 2021). A total of 1.3 million members are diagnosed with diabetes in the year 2020 (Montefusco et al. 2021). An early treatment, as well as detection of diabetes, is effective in slowing the progression of diabetes. In this context, before the required test for glucose, the patient’s early reports are observed and compared to the reports after the glucose test.

Quality control or QC refers to the precision as well as accuracy that is maintained while performing medical testing. As opined by Bettini et al. (2019), It results in the proficiency of medical testing and monitors the health performance of patients. QC plays an effective role in this experiment for maintaining the quality of glucose test is performed on the patients. It is effective in ensuring the accuracy of results that are taken as samples to be tested (Ballester et al. 2022). The quality of the sample is essential for getting the appropriate results which assist in the proper treatment of patients suffering from diabetes.

Problem statement

Diabetes is a prevalent disease that is responsible for the cause of cardiac problems. Investigation of glucose from the serum taken from two patients is investigated for the occurrence of diabetes. As per the suggestion of Holmes et al. (2021), health complications are seen to be associated with diabetic patients. Sufficient knowledge is required for mitigating the diabetes problem. As stated by Indyk et al. (2021), Atherosclerosis, as well as neuropathy, are linked with the problem of diabetes. The disease is prevalent and requires measuring the amount of glucose in the patients.

Aim

The aim of this experiment is to investigate the prevalence of diabetes by performing an analysis of glucose on the sera of two patients. It aims at determining whether findings meet the criteria of QC and support the diagnosis of diabetes.

Technique for diagnosis

The test called A1C assesses the amount of glucose present in the blood sample of the patient. The result is below a range of 5.7% is considered to be normal. As per the view of (Al-Thuwaini, 2021), a range of glucose higher than 6.5% confirms a person to be diabetic. A test result between the range of 5.7% and 6.4% reveals a state of prediabetic among patients (Nosaka et al. 2020). A test called glucose tolerance measures the quantity of glucose that is present in a person before as well as safer drinking liquids that contain glucose in it. In this type of glucose test, the normal range is considered to be around 140 mg/dL, and a range higher than 200 mg/dL indicates that the patient suffers from the disease of diabetes (Holmes et al. 2021). These two tests for investigating the amount of glucose in the patients reveal that a patient is diabetic.

Analysis of the technique

The test for glucose measures the range of glucose in a person in order to allow the patient to lead a quality life free from diabetes. As stated by Casale et al. (2022), the tests support diagnosing as well as monitoring the level of diabetes in patients. The tests are essential for providing proper treatment to be given to a diabetic person.

Materials AND Methords

The data for quality control is run by a technician in the lab whose name is Johnson Chien from Hive laboratory. The instruments used for testing are RX Monza. The verification of the QC results is done using the instruments

Assay materials

. The assay of glucose is done using the reagent -

  1. Serum samples of patients
  2. An incubator of the dry block is kept set at a temperature of 37°C
  3. Reagent R1#1 (containing enzymes of GOD/PAP, substrates and buffer
  4. Tips and pipettes
  5. Micro cuvettes
  6. Chemistry Premium Level 2#2 (QC samples)
  7. Chemistry premium Level 3#2 (QC samples)

Parameters and value of reagent package

The table shows the parameters of assay required for investigating the amount of glucose in the sera of the two patients.[refer to appendix 1]

Assay set up

A total of six micro cuvettes are used for testing the samples of sera of the two patients. The mixing is done properly to get the desired result for the development of colour. Parafilm is used for capping the cuvettes which are gently inverted for mixing the samples. QC manages the accuracy of the data that is found.[Referred to appendix 2]

Operation of the instrument

The assay of glucose is performed by following the steps-

  1. The glucose test is selected from the favorites option
  2. The run quality control is selected
  3. Water blank is inserted and the run button is pressed
  4. Control 2 is inserted and the run button is pressed
  5. Control 3 is inserted and the run button is pressed
  6. The control is inserted continuously in order to reach a target of 2SD.

Results

Result of the quantity of glucose

Table 3.1

Sample analysis

Result

Reference Range

Units

[Urea]

41

2.5-6.6

mmol/L

[Na2+]

142

132-144

mmol/L

[K+]

6.7

3.3-4.7

mmol/L

[Total CO2]

12.1

24-30

mmol/L

Glucose*

4.62

<11.1 normal; >11.1 diabetic

mmol/L

Urine volume

(24 hr)

210

800-2000

ml

The above table shows the test result of glucose on non-fasting. The patient NB has a glucose range of around 4.62.

Table 3.2

Sample analysis

Result

Reference Range

Units

[Urea]

7.6

2.5-6.6

mmol/L

[Na2+]

128

132-144

mmol/L

[K+]

6.8

3.3-4.7

mmol/L

[Total CO2]

8.1

24-30

mmol/L

Glucose*

11.115

<11.1 normal; >11.1 diabetic

mmol/L

Urine volume 

(24 hr)

2500

800-2000

ml

The sera testing for glucose in patient RM reveals a scale of 11.115 on non -fasting.

Table 3.3

Test

Replicates

mmol/L

Information

C2

n/a

6.28

5.5 microL

C3

n/a

16.8

5.5 microL

Patient NB

1

?4.96

500 microL

?

2

?4.28

2

?

Average*

?4.62

4.62

Patient RM

1

?10.66

500 microL

?

2

?11.57

2

?

Average**

?11.115

11.115

The table above shows the glucose result of the two patients. Investigation of the range of glucose is done by sera samples.

Discussion

Reviewing the aim of this experiment, the range of glucose is detected by meeting the criteria for QC. The patient has the symptoms of feeling thirsty as well as losing weight. The volumes of urine are low as seen over months. Results of tests show that he has a glucose range of 4.62. As stated by Altuhafi et al. (2021), the normal range of glucose is calculated as <11.1 normal. Patient NB is suffering from diabetes as his glucose range is below normal. A low range of glucose is the symptom of being diagnosed with diabetes of type 1. As opined by Huang et al. (2020), this condition is commonly known as hypoglycemia which needs A quick treatment; otherwise, it might prove fatal (Meoni et al. 2021). The pancreases becomes incapable of secreting insulin leading to the problem of hypoglycemia. The body parts often stop functioning making the condition serious (Rotter et al. 2021). It is recommended to take the advice of doctors for getting proper treatment for this problem.

The sera of patient RM shows a range of 11.115 which shows that he is a diabetic person.. He has the symptoms of drowsiness as well as an uncooperative state of mind. The loss in weight determines his condition of suffering from diabetes. His test result is near to margin which needs to be improved by following a proper diet. As stated by Cuyàs et al. (2019), a range of 11.1 is said for a prediabetic person and is considered to be a diabetes of type 2. A person remains unaware of the symptoms and leaves them untreated (Gu et al. 2020). This in turn makes the treatment to become more difficult. The investigated results of the blood serum of this patient show that a lack of exercise among patients is the major cause of type 2 diabetes where there is insufficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas. Diabetes of type 2 often arises due to the incapability of body cells to utilize the secreted by the pancreas.

The test results satisfy QC allowing for the quality of the sample to be satisfying, which enabled in getting the appropriate result of the type of diabetes that the patients are suffering from. The glucose range makes the patient start their treatment, as diabetes can be fatal at times (Zhang et al. 2020). The tools used for diagnosis support for diagnosis for diabetes type 1 and type 2. QC plays an effective role in this experiment in maintaining the quality of the samples of sera (Horvath et al. 2021). QC maintained the accuracy of samples, which has enabled in obtaining of valid results from the sera samples of the two patients. The data of quality control ensures that the value obtained during testing corresponds to the expected value in terms of analytics.

It can be concluded that during the test for glucose investigation, quality control plays an effective role in managing the quality of samples. The experiment shows that the tools for the assay are significant for measuring the amount of glucose in the sera samples of patients. The test has a future implication in explaining the effectiveness of QC and the instruments utilized for measuring the amount of glucose. It can be concluded that diabetes is regarded as a killer disease that needs to be diagnised and analysis of glucose seems to be a significant test. The concluding statement of this experiment reveals that the analysis of glucose can be carried out for the investigation of diabetes from the sera samples. Hence, experiment concludes that the analysis of glucose can be carried out for the investigation of diabetes from the sera samples.

Reference list

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