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Analysis of two contemporary pieces of Literature
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According to Eddy, Converse & Wenderoth, (2015), active learning is way better than passive learning. The authors in their study have collected various pieces of evidence to prove this. In this study, the authors have used a classroom observation tool to assess the teaching practices for active learning in the classes of mathematics, technology, engineering, and large science. With the pieces of evidence collected by the authors, they have argued that active learning works better and has more positive impacts as compared to passive learning in young children. With the help of this research paper, the authors have offered a tool to help the lecturers for better implementation of active learning. The tools prescribed by the authors have suggested 21 elements that can be implemented to enhance the learning outcomes of students. The tool suggested by the authors to teachers through this study is named PORTAAL i.e., Practical observation rubric to assess active learning. In this study, to test the tool, the authors have used PORTAAL with 25 different lecturers of biology who are into active learning of students. The results have shown the alignment between classrooms and supported practices for active learning. PORTAAL suggests to the instructors the ways they can improve by providing specific guidance and feedback to them. The major positive side of this research done by authors is that they have very well explained the benefits of using PORTAAL for instructors to promote active learning for students in order to have an improvement in outcomes.
The authors have very well set the goals of PORTAAL development and tested the tool in large classrooms to fulfill the same. The tool has been tested from various dimensions including practice, logic development, accountability in active learning for students. The sample size taken by the authors for this study has been 25 biology instructors. The results of this study indicated the ways in which these biology instructors implement active learning in classrooms. The test with PORTAAL has demonstrated that if the teachers will implement this tool, it will help to enhance active learning among young children. The only negative aspect of this study is that the sample size is small.
Brenneman, (2011), has assessed pre-school science learning of students and their learning environment. The author has stated that the scientific literacy of citizens has been improved over the years. Through this research, the author has discussed various tools and approaches to evaluate the learning process of children in science along with the instructional support quality. In this study, the author has discussed knowledge and learning assessments comprised of science learning, and relevant skills and dispositions in this regard.
The author has also discussed classroom quality measures regarding science learning. In this study, the author has demonstrated the present state of pre-school science assessment. In this, the author has done routine assessments of preschool science classrooms and observed the interaction between teachers and students. Under this, the author has also assessed the way tutors measure children's learning progress in regards to their scientific knowledge. The author has suggested a standardized measure that can be used with large groups of learners to strengthen their scientific knowledge and learning. In the study, the author has also measured the quality of support given by instructors to make the students learn better in pre-classrooms of children. While assessing the science learning in everyday studies of children, the author has identified that teachers can serve the children better by providing more professional and intensive programs. The tool suggested by the authors to teachers for improving the learning of students is their attitude and behavior towards knowledge and learning of science.
The author, in this study, has also performed based assessments for instructions of teachers on an individual basis, their way of monitoring students' progress, and evaluation of curricular. To monitor the progress and to evaluate the curriculum o science better, the author has suggested an educational testing service called PATHWISE, and a similar approach to this. The author has stated that implementing these approaches will help to make the classroom more constructive and the science learning of students better. The author has also done a direct assessment of students' science learning, and the classroom quality measures. The positive part of the research is that the author has suggested various tools like PRISM and STERS to make the students’ science learning better. The negative aspect is that the author has not discussed active and passive learning of students in-depth.
Brenneman, K. (2011). Assessment for Preschool Science Learning and Learning Environments. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 13(1), n1.
Eddy, S. L., Converse, M., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2015). PORTAAL: A classroom observation tool assessing evidence-based teaching practices for active learning in large science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classes. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 14(2), ar23.