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Question 1: Historical evolution of RPA
Robotic process automation is a technology that helps businesses automate their operations and reduce potential human errors. This technology allowed early automation of businesses to boost their productivity and effectiveness. It allowed companies to automate the supply chain which helped in forecasting and analysing business operations. In 2016, businesses started to adopt technologies to enhance their productivity and effectiveness to ensure the financial feasibility of their business. In that same year, a Dutch bank named KAS Bank proposed an idea to implement an automation process to ensure banking services. In addition, KAS Bank is committed to meeting the needs and expectations of customers which led them to invest more in R and D to develop innovative technologies. This is why to meet their organisational goals and objectives they first implemented a web application in 1961 which eventually led them to implement RPA.
This RPA implementation process of KAS Bank is divided into 3 developmental stages which include development, implementation and operational stage. In 2016, RPA was at its initial operational stages and was in a trial and error process which is why KAS Bank tries to identify opportunities for RPA implementation and reduce the operational costs of their company. According to Oshri; Plugge (2022), managerial employees and the IT department were responsible for the effective implementation of RPA in this company to ensure improvement in organisational performance. In its initial stage, this company planned to implement this RPA technology in its primary operations which include basic banking operations such as pensions, security and other institutional investments.
In 2016 and its early days BPO service providers were dealing with potential losses due to ineffective management and human errors. This is why there was a need for change to improve banking operations that demands technological innovation to enhance banking performance and to improve customer service. Early prediction of that time regarding automation of banking operations revealed that implementation of automation and AI technology in banking operations helps in improving project management capabilities and improving banking services. In addition to that, robotic process automation will allow businesses to resolve complex banking operations by digitalising banking operations. This technology will be equipped with self-learning technology which will be effective in identifying potential operational issues and eliminating such errors before their action. According to Zelenka; Vokoun (2021), this RPA is intelligent automation which allows banks and other organizations to access real-time data and data analysis of current operational statistics to forecast future market trends.
Prediction of the prevalence of RPA technology in improving productivity and effectiveness of organizational operations also revealed that it will make data analysis and cognitive computing more effective and accurate. On the other hand, there was a possibility of failure of this RPA technology prevalence prediction efficiency of this technology in solving banking issues in the first place, lack of technological knowledge and complexity in measuring its effectiveness. In addition to that, a need for a drastic change in business operations demotivates businesses to implement this technology.
Question 2: Effectiveness of bot programs in representing an executive board
The trial and error approach helped KAS Bank to decide whether this automation application is effective for business operations or not. This trial and error approach was concerned with conducting PoCs and RPA functionality to test the IT integration of such processes. According to Eikebrokk & Olsen (2019), this test of PoCs led KAS Bank to implement this RPA technology in a broader sense inside their organization. This phased and developmental approach to implementing RPA technology was effective for the initial implementation of this technology to meet organizational goals and objectives. This helped them to eliminate operational issues and challenges of this technology and eventually helped them to improve their customer satisfaction rate. Based on this trial and error approach results managerial employees concluded that it is effective in improving their banking services and this company need to look for reliable RPA suppliers.
KAS Bank aims to find reliable RPA suppliers which led them to assign business consultants to a supplier market study. In addition to that, KAS Bank is also concerned with implementation issues and challenges of this RPA technology and effective integration of this technology into their banking services. According toRehr and Munteanu (2021), this appointed consultant was responsible for providing technical advice to managerial employees and effective implementation along with managing RPA operations on day to day basis. This consultancy report revealed that Blue Prism was one of the most reliable RPA technology suppliers of that time. According to Oswal Joshi (2020), identification of reliable suppliers led to manual or human-controlled banking operations to automation transition. This transition process dealt with educating banking employees and explaining the potential benefits or opportunities of this automation process. This program was effective in generating employee awareness and helps in the effective integration of this technology with the banking operations of KAS Bank.
In short, it can be concluded from this case study that the implementation of this RPA technology was beneficial for KAS Bank as it helped them to identify potential operational issues in their banking services. In addition to that, it was effective in managing banking operations and helps in taking strategic decisions by doing market analysis. It also helps the managerial employees to make faster decisions through their cognitive computing abilities and helped in forecasting market trends through data analysis. According to Holmberg and Härning-Nilsson (2020), the implementation of this technology helped to enhance the speed of banking operations and helped to reduce human errors which help KAS Bank to manage its banking operations cost-effectively and time-effectively.
Implementation of RPA technology helped KAS Bank to identify reliable suppliers and investors which helped them to ensure the financial feasibility of banking operations. This technology is effective in conducting treasury operations, fast payment, data analysis and data management of customers. According to Ratia Myllärniemi and Helander (2018), this led to the elimination of human resources from various banking operations which helped in the reduction of operational costs and allowed managerial employees to ensure the financial feasibility of banking operations. This is why it can be concluded that the implementation of RPA technology was an effective strategy by KAS Bank to effectively manage its resources and ensure improvement in financial performance.
Question 3: Key challenges that KAS Bank faced throughout the RPA journey
Lack of employee knowledge regarding the ability of bots can identify as a great challenge. In the initial stages of RPA technology in KAS Bank employees were unaware of bots' ability and their capability to deliver in banking operations. Most of these organizational employees failed to understand what a bot can deliver which eventually decreases the effectiveness of bots in handling banking operations. In addition to that, this idea of implementing bots or this RPA technology concerned employees regarding losing their jobs or employment due to automation at the initial stages of planning of implementation of bots. This is why the development team realised that it may always not produce optimum or desired results and will be beneficial for the company in every case. According to Menon and Aslekar (2021), this is why development had to implement automation partially and leave operations which are rule-based and repetitive for human resources.
KAS Bank's development team was also concerned about the malfunction and delay of bots which may adversely impact the productivity of their bank. This development team also found that bots are ineffective in dealing with conditional situations and failed in dealing with operations such as 'if-then-else’ operations. This team also identify a communication barrier between bots and human resources which is why they suggest to trains both employees and bots to eliminate communication barriers to ensure performance improvement (Prakash et al. 2020). This is why human bot interaction is necessary for the effective integration of automation in banking operations.
There were challenges analysed in the implementation stage at the time of interaction with the human bot. The employees were aware that this human bot interaction may impact their business. As per the view of Chakraborti et al., (2020), the main challenge was analysed in the end-to-end business process. Earlier the work process was abducted through individuals and a tactics understanding was created. There was the main focus on problem-solving and data entry and other operations of the business were hidden in this process. Thus, as a result, the development team needed to struggle to analyse the full map of the business process. There were gaps analysed in segregated steps that this personal operation provided that involved various teams and departments. It was analysed that the employees who were fulfilling the tasks were only focused on their dedicated tasks and had less insight into the various process-related tasks.
The next challenge was analysed in an operational stage where the bot failed to complete the tasks. As per the research of Ribeiro et al., (2021), the bots were totally based on input data in generating meaningful results. The team of developers has assured its input data through external and internal sources that are aligned with the requirement of boots. There is a gap seen in the parts of data input and problematic operation with human bot interference. The bot was seen to be unable to accomplish the task that was flared according to expectations. The bot produced data that were inaccurate and incomplete with the main sources as per its expectation.
Question 4: Implementation of RPA at KAS Bank
There was the implication of bot exceptions in their operational process that analysed the necessity of operating personnel's engagement in the work they performed earlier. There can be examples provided that says that in the data field entry required with sources in analysis with data and information. As per the statement of Krueger et al., (2020), this bot generation has increased their company's expectations in the work performance that is basically based on two aspects: Firstly there is a need to analyse the main cause analysis and then redesign the collaborations among development teams in order to avoid recurrence of any kind of expectations. These processes and initiatives are considered for these professional developments in their personal operations for their company's development and welcoming new opportunities.
There were operational staffs that were looking for ways that can help in handling with the operations and discouraging expectations. In earlier times, these were those individuals that were that were held responsible for assessing of the quality of data and then allocating this to the data fields and providing a conclusion to this data entry. Recently, bots are instructing them to decode expectation nature and take necessary steps to fix these issues. In the context of MacAulay et al., (2022), earlier these data that were analysed by various entries and human efforts had lots of mistakes that were considered a loss for companies. Thus, there was a low visibility towards data provided and was looked to be fixed with solutions. However, there was unsettlement to this development that many individuals found different alternatives in their employment line.
The adoption of bots, in work areas, has many interferences and work challenges at the time of human bot interface operations. There was the availability of many opportunities for their personal development and improvement in services. There were huge challenges faced by KAS Bank that were analysed at the time of preserving the impacts of bots on individuals' work and capabilities.
The risks that were analysed with this RPA were on
- RPA strategic Risk: there are many other companies and their employees that do not analyse the potential and scope of these technologies and thus make wrong expectations with such devices. Ythsu, for this KAS bank, has made progress with RPA that aims to the reduction of costs in operations that are completely underutilised in these technologies that are meant in helping with much more facilities.
- RPA Sourcing Risks: the team of KAS bank is to analyse that a perfect RPA risk managing strategy that cannot be completed without consulting an external credible automation vendor. There are facilities provided that checks the individual experience get feedback from their clients and various robotic automation processes that this bot successfully delivered.
- Risk on stool selection: this robotic process automation is such strategy that evaluates the full functionalities of the RPA tool that are to be used. Tools such as UiPath and Blue Prism are such that help in digital transformation at any length and scale easily.
Question 5: Future of the RPA programme at KAS Bank
There was not just Kas bank that meets with issues with the pandemic situation, but many other firms were affected. There was an interruption in the manual work of this bank. There were activities affected with those that this bank was intended to shift in Caceis. These were based on customers' data, financial metrics, bank accounts, audit reports and compliance. Thugs, the CIO analysed alternatives in the translation of financial performance through KAS bank to Caceis. As per the understanding of Oshri et al., (2019), the CIO looked after all results and solutions and then made their decision on the implementation of RPA programs. This was so because this RPA had provided all exact and authentic data based on the report. This data and results that were earlier analysed by humans had major mistakes. These mistakes were one of the biggest losses for this company.
Thus, RPA was analysed as a tool for transferring financial operations. There were many challenges in its operation. Operating this tool needed expert knowledge. Thus, it can be recommended that staffs were to be provided with training and there can be the employment of new and expert skills to handle this tool. This can be beneficial for this bank as it can provide authentic data on various aspects. In a bank, there is a requirement for expert knowledge to handle with data and maintain a proper cash flow. According to the statement of Oshri et al., (2022), this issue can be reduced through RPA. There are many other advantages that this bank will receive based on Scalability that robots high scalable which provides manage high volume at the peak season by providing more robots in their services and respond to the situations, and improve efficiency in its operation.
This provides banks to focus on the innovative strategies that help in growing the business by reducing the workload of employees from doing of mundane tasks. This enables an easy and hassle-free transition in this bank. There will be improved customer service. This is a cost-effective process and also requires less human interaction to manage it. This also reduces the requirement of staff in banks to deal with transactions. The RPA provides details about the various risks and compliance and also provides an effective solution for it. The cost of the infrastructure is analysed to zero. The maintenance and hardware cost is further reduced as it is totally based on a cloud RPA system. The tools on RPA provide a facility of drag and drop facility that can automate the process in banking sectors. This is one of the easiest processes in implementation and maintaining an automation workflow that also does not require coding. This implementation of RPA in these banks and financial services is using legacy and also new bridges in gaps that are existing in the progress. Thai type of availability and initiation is necessary data in the systems that provide bank to create better report and analysis growth of the business. Thus, this is one of the most effective and efficient tools that can be implemented in many other banks and other services in order to provide efficiency in operational management.
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