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Introduction - Organisational Behavior
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Organizational Behaviour is one of the key aspects to study the behaviour of human in a professional context. A human is a social animal and thus, he/ she must be able to interact with the organization and establish a communication interface (Huczynski, Buchanan and Huczynski, 2013). This report is going to aim at understanding the characteristics of organisational structures, culture climatic impact, learning development, and team work amongst the employees. It will also focus on understanding the leadership behavioural theories and also connect it with the culture theory. Such a connecting aspect is crucial for success and growth of a company. Lastly, it includes about knowing the organizational decision making and the motivational aspect for the employees for overall evaluation of the chosen company.
A1. DIFFERENT ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES
Organizational structure is the systematic pattern to be adopted for segregation of job roles and its related responsibilities. It is mainly of four categories and are as follows-
- Functional structure: It is referred as bureaucratic organizational structure and is the most common types. SMEs (small and medium scale enterprises) implement this structure for dividing their departments and human resources. There are multi layers or hierarchical system that is a complex system to establish a control.
- Divisional structure: It is also known as multidivisional structure and is mostly adopted by multinational companies or large firms (Ho, Laiand Lee, 2011). Here the division is based on total workforce, products and number of channels to operate under a leader.
- Flat structure: Its name clearly suggests an autonomous type of structure that has no complex or hierarchical pattern to follow. It involves faster execution, quick decision making and is adopted by newly formed enterprises or start-ups.
- Matrix structure: It is one of the most puzzling organizational structures and is least adopted amongst others. It aims at multitasking and ends up mixing two domains or tasks that leads to some delays or complication at workplace.
A2. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
The culture of an organisation has a direct impact on its overall effectiveness due to collaboration nature of working established. It refers as the combined system of having both beliefs and values to promote a normative behavioural approach at an organizational level. Having a positive work culture means productivity and dynamic environment whereas a negative or toxic work culture only reflects upon the unproductivity and destructive environment. In this, there are four dimensions of organizational culture and are including as follows- bureaucratic orientation, people orientation, outcome orientation and innovation (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2015). Depending on the type, the company can make the necessary conditions to develop healthy surroundings for their employees.
Additionally, there are mainly four types of organizational culture to be followed such as Hierarchy, Adhocracy, Market and Clan organizational cultures. The hierarchy is a formal structure in which the employees are given instructions to complete tasks. The adhocracy type of culture that is mostly entrepreneurial based with a minimum level of risk taking capacity. Next one is market type which reflects upon competition in the existing markets and objective is profitability. Lastly is the clan type that is like an extended family with positive surrounding and promoting cohesion.
A3. IMPACT OF LEARNING
The effectiveness of employees in doing any assigned work is mainly dependent on their skills set and availability of resources at the workplace. Sometimes a person must learn something while doing a job and must be well-adapted towards understanding the new concepts. Their receptivity must be encouraging for their colleagues to work successfully in completing a project. An employee’s attitude is mostly concerned with the ways of learning in both a direct and indirect ways (Ladegård, 2011). It is indeed crucial to know that learning leads to a permanent change in the way a person thinks, expresses and interacts with the other individuals.
With experience, it only gets better and shows some promising results in achieving the project’s deadline. Learning is a continuous process and takes the entire lifetime to acquire the best ways in dealing with stress, anxiety or pressuring situations at the office. Moreover, the two types of functional units of learning are described by (a) operant conditioning and (b) classical conditioning. These are useful in analysing the various situations at the workplace to make the working practices smoother as well as effective.
A4. TEAM WORKING
Team work is the collective efforts shown by each individual working in a project at any organizational scenario. During a challenging situation or complex condition, a united team can optimise the given resources and deliver with good performance. However, if the team is divided then it might delay the given work and also leaves a bad reputation in the market. E.g. when dealing with a client, the sales team must coordinate with operations team to handle the execution part effectively. It acts as a strengthening tool to build a better environment and association in completing the works on time.
Additionally, it also leads to improve the employees’ effectiveness that can support the company’s management to achieve the targeted objectives. There is a sense of responsibility to support each member by focusing on finishing the allotted task on time (Jackson, Sibson and Riebe, 2014). Such an attitude would encourage each employee to give their best efforts. Along with this, it helps in improving the problem solving skills as each member can contribute in solving an issue at hand. Next the communication skills also get improved and help the team members to interact without any confusion.
A5. LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR
It is crucial to apply the above discussed aspects effectively at an organizational level. This can only be achieved under the right guidance shown by a good leader. A leader is the representative of the company and guide, evaluate and bring any change with the support recovered by the remaining people working. A good behavioural attitude of a leader could help in making real time based marketing potential and building reputation in the markets (Çelik, Dedeo?lu and ?nanir, 2015). There are several types of leader behaviour such as participative, achievement-oriented, directive and supportive leadership. Each type is applicable in making the employees’ effective when doing a job.
Firstly, a participative leadership reflects upon the relevancy of the tasks, consulting with the members and taking the right decisions. Next is the achievement-oriented leadership that focus on giving freedom in executing the tasks by setting goals and using required skills. A directive leader gives instruction and makes conditions to recognise the rewards, by monitoring and setting the rules. Lastly the supportive leadership is based on sharing interpersonal relations while giving constant support and encouraging cohesiveness in a group.
A6. CHANGE PROCESS
Change is the only constant and there are many processes as well as outcomes that are achievable while finishing tasks. It is a fact that the change is the most impactful for the employees’ who are at the lowest level in the hierarchical system. Many employees have found it difficult to adjust and cope up with the stress when any change takes place. There are mainly two types of change such as unplanned and planned change that might affect the work-life balance (Cummings and Worley, 2014). It is also directly associated with the attitude of the employees’ that has shown higher level of dissatisfaction towards any change.
Moreover, the employees feel tremendous pressure due to the hidden agendas behind any change taken by the management. Sometimes it also proved positive and is helpful for them only. Many a times, the leaders do not oversee the vast impact on the employees due to any change, either internally or externally. It proves very ineffective for the employees to cope up. E.g. When Amazon wanted to expand its operations in Maghreb region, the focus was on commercial aspects but they did not take into account of the cultural aspects. It hurt the sentiments of local hired people as well as the customers’.
B1. DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR THEORIES AND ITS ANALYSIS
- Managerial Grid Model- Robert Blake and Jane mouton (1969)
It aims at recognising the concerns or considerations while evaluating the individual’s skills and tasks. This is considered as a bi-directional type of leadership and has five styles of leadership with its limitations and features. Here two dimensions of behaviour have been established. First dimension is ‘concern for people’ in which a leader is responsible for taking into considerations about the member’s interests and requirements in order to finish the allotted job. Second dimension is ‘concern for production’ in which the leader gives an outline about objectives, productivity and organizational efficiency to complete tasks.
- Ohio State Studies (late 1940s)
It assists in recognising the effective leaders’ behaviour for maintenance of success rate. There are specific nine behaviours that were acknowledged and calculated as well. In addition, as per the employees’ viewpoints, it has also laid the foundation for two dimensions in addressing the leadership behaviour (Khan, Bhat and Hussanie, 2017). The first dimension is initiating structure and consists of formation of formal communication and setting of responsibilities by the leader. In this, the leader is the one who decides outlines, evaluates and fix a deadline for a project. The next dimension is consideration that reflects upon the extent to which the company’s leader is helping the employees. It consists of equal treatment, approachability and support.
- University of Michigan’s Studies (1950s)
It focuses on knowing the types of styles for leadership and the principles that are involved for promoting job satisfaction. It has put focus on two types of leadership styles and it includes production oriented leader and employee oriented leader. The production oriented leader is based on task based activities and in similar to initiating structure of Ohio State Studies. Next is employee oriented leader whose focus is to maintain the human relations and is similar to consideration of Ohio State Studies. It has put a crucial impact on increasing the productivity levels by making the employees satisfied and happy.
B2. RELEVANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE THEORY
The relevance of organisational culture theory is pivotal in shaping the employees’ satisfaction levels, performance management and leadership. It is useful in developing organisational effectiveness by analysing the behavioural frameworks that allow the leaders to understand the needs, benefits, and perspectives of employees working. The relevance is very prominent because the behaviour theories are directly connected with this theory. An employee’s attitude, behaviour, characteristic traits and values are useful in fulfilling the company’s belief system (Schneider, Ehrhart and Macey, 2013). Ikea is the dominant furniture company that is family owned and is ruling the markets from many decades now. It has made possible because of developing a culture that promotes better and stronger ties between the management and workforce.
Enclosed in PowerPoint presentation
It can be concluded that the organizational behaviour is crucial in making the effectiveness well defined. The more understanding develops the more benefits it reaps. A leader is a prominent figure in creating the right atmosphere to work. The parameters such as different organizational structures, culture climate, team work, learning and other elements assist in maintaining the productivity and profitability for the companies. Moreover, the analyses of leadership behaviour theories are explained to assess the situations and challenging scenarios that put leader into a dilemma. The culture theory has also relevance in making it more substantial for growth on the whole for the company in the markets. Lastly, a PowerPoint presentation is included to learn about the decision-making, motivation and its impact on the employees
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