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Later Adolescence And Adulthood Stage Of Life And Typical And Atypical Development

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Introduction : Later Adolescence And Adulthood Stage Of Life And Typical And Atypical Development

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Development is a process, and an individual needs to go through a life stage for trying to make their own identity while focusing on the autonomy of parents as well as internal mortality. Childhood trauma exposure is associated with an elevated risk of virtually that commonly occurs in the form of psychopathology. In particular early life adversity by understanding, motor development is required. This study will focus on 2 life stages those are “late adolescence” and “later adulthood stage”. The further part will focus on proper discussion and evaluation of those stages in terms of typical or atypical development. 

Discussion on the 2 life stages and related key concepts

The brain continues to change and mature as the stages of life go ahead and it has been proven that development is not complete until a person completes the age of 20s. Patterns of emotional processing are common in a person at this age, which revealed trauma including “elevated emotional reactivity to threat-related stimuli, low emotional awareness, and difficulties with emotional learning and emotion regulation”. Although these rapid changes in social information and cellular ageing have been discovered, ageing reflects developmental adaptations (McLaughlin et al. 2020).

“Late adolescence” is the life stage where an individual generally has completed all the physical development of their mind and grown to their full height (, 2022). This life stage mostly begins at 18 to 24 years and struggles for individual identity as well as identity confusion that can be due to personal matters or over thinking about their future. They usually have more impulse command in their mind and are able to identify all the potential risks that might cause uncertainty in their life. This is the life stage where an individual does their best for making their identity that can make their future and makes them different from others. These identities mostly consist of career choices and gender identity from internal mortality and parental pressure (Brennan, 2021). Young people in this range usually have better decision-making power and impulse control as compared to middle adolescence. There is a stronger sense of power they have as well which is helpful for overcoming challenges. From the psychological perspective, it has been proven that these individual faces problem while achieving their goals that may be important for making their whole career. They also explore personal identity and autonomy, which makes them helpless (Erskine, 2019). In this stage, people either make their career or ruin their career and completely depends on the environment where they mostly stay. It is evaluated that this stage mostly consists of consuming drugs, making relationships, behaviour problems and performances as well as motivation and challenges faced in college life. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with these people in this stage, which commonly occurs due to having disruptive behaviour disorders in the strength of association across disorders. 

The second life stage that is selected is the later adulthood stage, which mainly starts at age 60 and ends at 75 years. It is a period of "optimum mental functioning", their demands and social capabilities are at their peak and when complete physical and intellectual maturity has been reached (Eatough, 2022). In this stage, an individual tries to include their ego in fulfilling all the tasks and that creates some problematic situations for them as well. They often feel satisfaction in their achievements and exemplify the knowledge to guide others.

On the other hand, a "lack of sense of accomplishment could lead to a fall into despair" where they start mourning their life choices. Moreover, it is a period of great potential when begin to think in a more sensible way and developed varied as well as sensible relationships with others (Riquelme et al., 2018). Thoughts related to this in this stage may be based on the desires, hopes and beliefs of people who are closely related to them. Factors such as age, culture and religion play an important role in all stages of human life, but there is a certain acceptance and confidence associated with this age group as well. In this life stage, young and old are pretty much similar to middle-aged adults and are often frail and in need of long-term care. However, many other factors are associated which can create serious health problems and critical challenges with daily life activities and the reason behind this are possible due to loneliness and daily life activities. Skills relating to "fluid intelligence" are the main problems for declining intellectual functioning and that often leads to crystallised intelligence that remains steady in this life stage. It is evaluated from “Erickson's theory” of psychological development that people advance through the stages of development that relies on the social crises throughout the whole life they have spent. As per this theory, it is important for this stage to react to the surroundings as well for considering what they have done in their whole life and the major things that are required to live remaining life in a better way. 

In this manner, it can be said that in the human life cycle stages “late adolescence” and late adulthood are two important stages that are very vital for people. It often provides a chance to reflect on them and focus on how they can fulfil all the objectives that are required to live their whole life in a comfortable way. 

Discussion and evaluation of the developmental tasks in terms of typical or atypical development related to life stages

These two chosen stages of the life cycle consist of development tasks that could be either typical or atypical development.

Typical development in “late adolescence” describes the generic progression a child has in compared to peers (Morgan et al., 2018). “Late adolescence” is a stage of life of a person when that individual discovers the identity of gender, choice of career path, autonomy and self-morale. All these factors are very important for the development of any individual which primarily develops the character building block of a person. Having a sense of independence, confidence and self-esteem provide typical development in an individual. If any person doesn't have a sense of self-respect, self-confidence or independency then that person is not showing typical development and going through an atypical development of life. The term autonomy is important when the development of any individual is at stake. Autonomy is not about rejecting or separating from parents but it is all about being self-dependent in a physiological way (Newman & Newman, 2017). Cerebral independence must be encouraged by parents and that will incline the development to a typical way. Being self-sufficient and showing self-advocacy are the two most important characteristics of typical development in an individual during the “late adolescence stage”. Atypical development can manifest life stages of a human life cycle in many ways and that is especially in children. This type of development in children can also cause social interaction but at the same time create learning challenges as well. In talking about the development tasks during the later adolescence stage gender identity, career choice and internal morality is autonomy for all the parents. It is important to be aware of the behaviours of a person that generally themselves in many forms. In order to convey their behaviour, it can be said that may be in a form of communication is an ability to express in a significant way. In talking about the autonomy of parents, a step towards independence is a multidimensional phase which, consists of psychological implications and that is important for the evaluation of the important life condition. Beyond their accurate effect and lower academic poor academic performances faced by the children’s, side (Morin et al. 2019). Risky behaviours such as sexual activity and substance utilised help these teens to consider decision-making ahead of time and that always reminds them are the major things that they actually need in their life.

In the “later adulthood stage”, the typical development involves the feeling of “perceived stress” which means the amount of stress any adult feels in a certain period of time or a certain time in life span. In this stage of life, any adult has to maintained emotional and physical health and this is considered typical development. Their mature decisions make them outlast and they tend to contribute positivity to social life. In the later adulthood stage carrying the own life and accepting it as it is the primary development is considered typical development (Gross, 2020). Life satisfaction is the main driver to ensure this development. An adult, who is in a “late adulthood stage” and satisfied with the gain and embraces ageing, then that adult is not facing challenges or any psychological crisis. The situation of challenges or crises that a person faces in his or her later adulthood stage is normally decided by the action done or decision taken during the middle or early stage of adulthood. Any person who is confident about the taken decision and took pride in it, then he or she will successfully accomplish the personal expectation fully (Sekowski,2020). If any individual has done wrong work or taken a wrong decision previously that individual will always feel a void in life and never be able to accomplish the expectation that the person has in this life during the stage of later adulthood. “Perceived stress” in the “later adulthood stage” has a negative impact and is considered as a reason for atypical development. The orientation of life that any individual follows, the fulfilment he faces in relationships, and the sense of care and belonging to someone in earlier stages of life decisions describe the development in the later adulthood stage (Newman & Newman, 2017). The lack of life goals, lack of focus in life growth, communal dissatisfaction, and absence of life orientation describe the atypical development in later adulthood stages. 

Talking about the development task during this stage, an individual often starts a sense of emotional closeness and the same preoccupation about their parents and regulating their actions in the correct path they recognise their own actions and make their whole life easier. Moreover, autonomy is not rejection from parents and is not necessarily separation but it is similar to independence regarding psychological conditions (Newman & Newman, 2017). Furthermore, late adolescents must also adopt a new physical sense as well concerning to typical development of tasks and puberty is required in this stage. In addition, the young person experiences "emergence and accentuation of those physical traits" that make them more mature and must adjust to new intellectual abilities in their life. In this life phase, the people who revolved near them face increased school demands as well where they begin to recognise their uniqueness as well as lack of knowledge. At the same time in this life stage, they also need support from parents as well to control on their emotions. 


The two most important life stage of a person is “late adolescence” and late adulthood. Development of character in the former stage creates the self-identity, morals and vision of life and the latter one shows the effect of experience that an individual faces in previous stages of life. In terms of development, both stages are important for an individual. In the details analysis of these two stages of development, the living reflection of an individual is described. Different typical and atypical development characteristics are also described for each of these life stages. Both stages contain various tasks and elements of development to act in favour and not in terms of coping with those adverse feelings. These elements of development can be used as an understanding of human development.



Goodway, J. D., Ozmun, J. C., & Gallahue, D. L. (2019). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults. Jones & Bartlett Learning.


Eatough, E. (2022). The 8 Stages of Life: What Can We LearnFrom Each One?

Erskine, R. G. (2019). Child Development in Integrative Psychotherapy: Erik Erikson’s First Three Stages. International Journal of Integrative Psychotherapy, 10(0), 11–34.

McLaughlin, K. A., Colich, N. L., Rodman, A. M., & Weissman, D. G. (2020). Mechanisms linking childhood trauma exposure and psychopathology: a transdiagnostic model of risk and resilience. BMC medicine18(1), 1-11.

Morin, J. F. G., Afzali, M. H., Bourque, J., Stewart, S. H., Séguin, J. R., O’Leary-Barrett, M., & Conrod, P. J. (2019). A population-based analysis of the relationship between substance use and adolescent cognitive development. American Journal of Psychiatry176(2), 98-106.

Riquelme, M., Garcia, O. F., & Serra, E. (2018). Desajuste psicosocial en la adolescencia: socialización parental, autoestima y uso de sustancias. Anales de Psicología, 34(3), 536–544.

Sumner, J. A., Colich, N. L., Uddin, M., Armstrong, D., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2019). Early experiences of threat, but not deprivation, are associated with accelerated biological aging in children and adolescents. Biological psychiatry85(3), 268-278.

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