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Global Project Management in Practice Individual Coursework 2 Assignment Sample

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Global Project Management in Practice Individual Coursework 2

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Introduction

The report is based on managing people and project teams; it mainly revolves around the human aspect of project management and addresses the problem related to human resources in different projects. The report highlights human aspects of managing the projects and it also gives information about the stakeholders of the project which are researched on the basis on qualitative data from secondary sources. The use of actions, techniques, capability, knowledge, and understanding to accomplish particular venture goals in harmony with a predetermined guiding principle is known as project management (Heagney, 2016). Any project's success is heavily dependent on its people resources. Two businesses may share the same material resources, but they cannot have the same human resources. The success of a project will be determined by the abilities, skills, and expertise of the team members. The assessment of the identified issues and their bearing on the project's success will be covered in the report. Project management must handle all of the difficulties raised to fulfill the project's goals because human resources are crucial for the project's success (Walker, 2015).

Project management is present long ago in ancient times and it can be seen in projects like the transcontinental Railways, the Parthenon, The Giza Pyramid, The Coliseum, The Taj Mahal, and the Gothic Cathedrals of Europe. Project management at the present is in its advanced state and it is a mixture of enormous efforts made in past, consist of resource allocation and the Gantt chart. It also developed a Work breakdown structure and CPM techniques to manage the project (Binder, 2016). At the present, modern software like primavera is introduced in the field of project management. In the evaluation of project management, recent developments are primavera project software and Microsoft software.

Problems associated with human resources in various projects

Human resources are a key factor in the success of any project, two companies may have the same material resources but they cannot have the same human resources. The skills, knowledge, and capabilities of team members will decide how successful a project will be. There are various problems associated with human resources in project management, three main problems are identified as follows:

Motivating human resources

This is one of the main challenges faced by the project manager related to human resources in project management. Motivation, repeatedly, refers to refreshing, directing, and supporting individual work. The extremely motivated people make harder and superior efforts, generally, they are more loyal and faithful to the project group with the achievement thorough acceptance of the work and its necessities. Highly aggravated team associates are found to be extra productive (Jennett et.al. 2016). Managers need to identify what motivated their team members and try to motivate them to perform effectively and efficiently. There are various theories available by which a leader can understand what motivates their team members, these theories are the Alderfer ERG theory, Maslow's need hierarchy, David McClelland's theory of needs, etc.

Managing conflict among employees

Conflicts arise where the interest of one person does not match or is different from the interest of another person. Generally, every team member works for two different leaders that are the project leader and the head of the functional department. Sometimes employees get confused about which task needs to be done first. Conflicts can be also being arisen among the team members and other persons in the organization. The project leaders have a responsibility to solve each conflict that arises in the process of project planning as well as execution.

Managing change

Management of Change in the performance level of a team member is another main issue in resource management. There can be various reasons for these changes, a leader needs to identify those reasons and try to manage them. Another aspect of these challenges is sometimes leaders implement changes in work culture, employees do not ready to adopt the changes or are not able to do the same. In this case, the manager has to do effective planning and provide proper feedback by answering all questions related to the change.

Diversity

Diversity leads to a huge number of problems related to human resources in the project. When a project human resource consists of people from different backgrounds, gender, culture, etc then the project manager needs to be extra cautious as there is a disparity in the perception and deeds of every project team associated in this case (Dass and Parker, 2017). The best way to stay away from human resource problems is for project manager should to remain close to their team members and pay attention to their troubles so that managers may solve any individual concern in a timely approach.

Stakeholder of project

Stakeholders are the community who are interested in the company's project result and business. In project management, Stakeholders are mainly dived into two types, internal stakeholders and external stakeholders (Aaltonen and Kujala, 2016). They are normally the associates of a project team, project executives, managers, project supporters, clients, and users. 

Internal stakeholders

Internal stakeholder belongs to the inside of an organization. They are part of internal organizational culture. These are openly related to the success of the project and their efforts are very important for the same. These are the people from within the organization, following are internal stakeholders of a project:

  • team members,
  • managers,
  • executives,
  • resource managers

External stakeholders

The external stakeholder is the people which are interested in the project outcome but belongs to the outside of the organization (Eskerod et.al. 2015). These stakeholders do not work for the project manager but are interested in the result of the project. This includes:

  • customers,
  • users,
  • suppliers,

Critical discussion

This part of the report will discuss the evaluation of the problems recognized above and their collision on the accomplishment of the project. Human resources are very important for the success of the project and all the issues which are discussed need to be addressed by the project manager for the achievement of the project objectives.

Importance of human resources in the success of the project

Human resources are very important in the achievement of project aims and objectives. A good project team will be the main reason for the accomplishment of all goals within the given timeframe (Shamim et.al. 2016). The quality of the project also depends on the knowledge and competence level of the project team and project manager. Competent human resources have the following significance in the successful achievement of the project.

Optimum utilization of other resources:

Project performance and productivity: performance of the human resources is very important for the accomplishment of the organization's goals (Snell and Morris, 2018). A good team will result in increased productivity for the organization and the realization of the individual as well as organizational goals effectively by ensuring a fully trained and de­veloped workforce

Smooth flow of information: the success of the project also depends on communication between the project team members. Fine communication alleviates misunderstandings, enhances employee commitment, forms the roots for improved client associations, and encourages modernization and creativity which facilitate positive organizational culture. Human resources are very crucial in the smooth flow of information and the team leader plays an vital role in the achievement of the project.

Team project manager project goals:

Human resources are straightforwardly responsible and accountable for carrying out the project's mission. For example, the project statement emphasizes the deadline for a particular task to be performed and the result deliver to the client in the specified time. No matter how much planning is done but real performance and execution is done by the human resource of the project.

Human resources can influence customers: last by not least reason why human resources are vital to a project's success because they can persuade customers. The view and opinions of the employees are very important; the consumer will value the employee's views over what the company is saying about itself (Jabbour et.al. 2015). Consequently, if a project has many dissatisfied workers, the consumers are probable to build up a negative vision of the project of the company.

Critical evaluation of the impact of human resource motivation on the success of the project

Motivation is one of the biggest challenges faced by a project manager. If the project team is motivated then the success of the project is possible, motivation has many positive as well negative impacts on human resources.

Puts team members to work

Every project needs physical, monetary, and human resources to achieve its goals. With the help of motivation effective use of human resources can be possible for the success of the project. This can be done by structuring enthusiasm in employees to perform assigned project work (Herzberg, 2017). This will assist the project management in securing the greatest possible consumption of resources.

Enhance the level of competence of the project team

The level of human resources does not only depend upon his training and capacity. For receiving the greatest of team members' work performance, the space between capacity and enthusiasm can be filled by motivating employees. It will improve the performance level of a team member (Gemünden et.al. 2018). The motivating team will give the following output and all these are necessary for the success of the project-

  • enhance productivity,
  • dropping the cost of actions, and
  • Increasing overall effectiveness.

Leads to the achievement of project goals

The goals of a project can be attained if project management considers below given points:

  • There is the most excellent possible consumption of resources,
  • Creation of a co-operative job environment,
  • The staff are directed toward goals and they behave in a purposive approach,

All these can be achieved by creating a work environment which involves co-ordination and co-operation. This kind of environment can be created by motivating employees.

Reduce human turnover:

The steadiness of the workforce is extremely important for the reputation and support of concern of the organization. The human resources can stay loyal to the project only at the time they feel of contribution to the administration. The expertise and efficiency of human resources will constantly be of benefit to the project as well as to the organization (Rigby and Ryan, 2018). This will guide to a high-quality community picture in the marketplace which will be a focus for competent and trained people into a worry.

Critical evaluation of the impact of conflict management on the success of the project

Conflict management means the method that the project manager handles disagreements between the project team. On any specified day, the manager may have to deal with a dispute between various members of the team; it might affect the result of the project that's why conflict management is very important. Conflict can arise from any reason including personal values, conflicting goals, communication style, perceptions, power, and politics in the organization. Mainly conflicts are related to two things that are work relationships and task conflict. There are some management techniques are available for the project manager to deal with the conflict in the organization.

Enhanced problem solving

Explicitly addressing disagreement and discussing contrasting views can present many profits given problem-solving. When everybody expresses their requirements, objections as well as concerns, it permits the project team to arrive at the best way out possible to with the issue while involving everyone in the team (Yazid et.al. 2018). Acceptance of the conflict can also result in quicker solutions, staying away from it just extends tension and holdups decisions and focused action. It supports creativity in the discovery of an answer to the project problems. Project manager faces problem in managing conflicts but effectively managing these conflict leads to many benefits.

Better work relations

When solved properly by the project manager, disagreement can make better the power of relationship, together personal and proficient. explicitly discussing diversity in beliefs allows the group to value and benefit from or after opposing thoughts. Conflict management also increases the flow of communication between the project team members, it will further help in reducing conflict in the future. Conflict needs to be expressed and solved because it will directly impact the performance of the individual member as well as the whole team (Bond-Barnard et.al. 2018). Conveying conflict also helps group members understand everyone better including their practice, points of view, ethics, and what is significant to them.

Reduce productivity

This is one of the disadvantages of conflict, it has a great impact on the productivity of every member who is involved in the conflict. It can drain the human resource of the project, it also decreases motivation level, and even set projects at an absolute deadlock situation until the conflict gets set. The anxiety and tension of unresolved troubles can affect an employee's ability to perform work. Disagreement can affect the organizational environment and work relationships between the team members who depend on each other for the successful completion of certain projects task.

Low morale

This is another disadvantage of the project problem discussed above, which is conflict among the team members. Poor conflict management leads to a decrease in the moral of the individual as well whole project team. It will have a drastic impact on the success of the project because it will escort to a congregation of harmful arguing, an impression that no one is listening to them, unresolved issues, resentments, and a lack of optimism about things getting better all have an impact on morale.

Laziness and neglect

Poorly managed conflict can lead to laziness and feelings of apathy. If a team member thinks that their problem cannot be solved they will give up on their work which will eventually impact the success of the project. Conflict is one of the main problems faced by the project manager in the management of the human resource in the project (Tabassi, et.al. 2017). A team member will not willing to invest their energy in the project task and does not even think about the conflict because they know it cannot be solved. People will not try to understand another point of view and the whole work will get affected, ultimately the project goal will not be accomplished by the team.

Critical evaluation of the impact of diversity in human resources on success of the project

Diversity in human resources is important but sometimes it creates challenges for the project manager. It's very important to recruit and manage diverse background people in the project team; it will have many positive impacts on the success of the project. It has some negative impacts well, its critical discussion is given below:

Decisions based on facts

Learning has found that dissimilar groups be likely to center on information when performing decision-making. They seem beyond traditional ways of philosophy and examine or re-examine information to remain on point, consequently making superior decisions for their project (Thomas, 2016). Non-homogeneous project teams are brighter than similar group members to classify their biases and effort to keep them at bay when making important business decisions.

Inventive and Innovative ideas

Project managers may observe the same-old methods for products, distribution, marketing, management, and sales if everyone behaves and thinks the same way. However, a project manager will find more original solutions if different people tackle issues and obstacles from several angles. According to research, diversity fosters creativity and accelerates market expansion.

Understanding Cross-Cultural

While homogenous groups may naturally get along better, in an increasingly diverse world, cross-cultural understanding creates a better working environment and a better world. Rather than relying on a crutch of old-world prejudices and misconceptions, diverse work groups improve internal climates and external results for businesses.

Difficulty in Transitioning

If the project manager is just commencing to recognize the possibility of diversification, there will likely be challenges to generating a more diverse job environment (Meena and Vanka, 2017). Old customs of ideas and entrenched discrimination may hold back project managers' efforts and create nervousness and conflict. In addition, as cultures collide, there may be a misunderstanding of implications for an xample, what’s amusing to one tradition may be considered bad-mannered to another? The administration needs to acquire and inform team members across the panel if workplace diversity is to have its first gauge of achievement.

Short-Term Cost Outlay

Regardless of how long the project leader has been in operation, they may already have a wealth of knowledge on lodgings in the workplace. Project managers may incur additional costs as their workforce diversifies because of slow of budget plans. Diversity will necessitate some flexibility, much as the Americans with Disabilities Act caused considerable modifications to some businesses at a cost. For instance, if a project manager has staff members who observe Islam, they must provide them with space and time for daily prayer. Employees who identify as transgender could need private restrooms (Stone and Deadrick, 2015).

Conclusion

The report is concluded that human resources are very important in the success of the project. A project manager faces many challenges related to human resources by most vital challenges are motivating the employees, solving conflict among them, and managing diversity in human resources. Any project's success is heavily dependent on its people resources. Two businesses may share the same material resources, but they cannot have the same human resources. The success of a project will be determined by the abilities, skills, and expertise of the team members. To motivate their team members to work successfully and efficiently, managers need to understand what drives each team member. It recommended, The Alderfer ERG theory, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, David McClelland's theory of wants, etc. are just a few of the theories that can help a leader understand what drives his or her team members. Conflict management refers to a project manager's approach to resolving disputes within the project team. Conflicts primarily curtail from either a work related issue or a task issue. Some management strategies exist. Acceptance of the conflict can also result in quicker solutions, staying away from it just extends tension and hold ups decisions and focused action. The project management supports creativity in the discovery for an answer to the project problems

References

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